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SPANISH MISSIONARIES IN FLORIDA.

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Dec. 28.

was more persevering; Louis Cancello, a missionary CHAP. of the Dominican order, gained, through Philip, then m heir apparent in Spain, permission to visit Florida, 1547. and attempt the peaceful conversion of the natives. Christianity was to conquer the land, against which so many expeditions had failed. The Spanish governors were directed to favor the design; all slaves, that had been taken from the northern shore of the gulf of Mexico, were to be manumitted and restored to their country. The ship was fitted out with much 1549. solemnity ; but the priests, who sought the first interview with the natives, were feared as enemies, and, being immediately attacked, Louis and two others fell martyrs to their zeal.

Florida was abandoned. It seemed as if death guarded the avenues to the country. While the Castilians were every where else victorious, Florida was wet with the blood of the invaders, who had still been unable to possess themselves of her soil. The coast of our republic on the gulf of Mexico was not, at this time, disputed by any other nation with Spain ; while that power claimed, under the name of Florida, the whole seacoast as far as Newfoundland, and even to the remotest north. In Spanish geography, Canada was a part of Florida. Yet within

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Ensayo Cronologico, p. 25, 26.; quæ in Florida Gallis acciderunt. Vega, l. vi. c. xxii. p. 267.; Goma- Thuani Hist. 1. xliv. ra, c. xlv.; Urbani Calvetonis de

2 Gom. c. xlv.; Vega, l. vi.c. xxii. Gallorum in Floridam expedi- 3 Herrera's Description of the tione Brevis Historia, c.i., annexed West Indies, c. viii. in Purchas, to Nov. Nov. Orbis Hist. p. 432, v. iv. p. 868. 433; Eden and Willes, fol. 229; 4 Bolvio á la Florida ChamDe Bry's introduction and parer- plain ; entrò en Quebec, &c Engon to his Brevis Narratio eorum sayo Cronologico, p. 179.

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1562.

CHAP. that whole extent, not a Spanish fort was erected, w not a harbor was occupied ; not one settlement was 1549. planned. The first permanent establishment of the

Spaniards in Florida was the result of jealous bigotry.

For France had begun to settle the region with a colony of protestants; and Calvinism, which, with

the special co-operation of Calvin himself, had, for a 1555. short season, occupied the coasts of Brazil and the

harbor of Rio Janeiro,' was now to be planted on the borders of Florida. Coligny had long desired to establish a refuge for the Huguenots and a protestant French empire in America. Disappointed in his first effort by the apostacy and faithlessness of his agent, Villegagnon, he still persevered; moved alike by

religious zeal and by a passion for the honor of 1562. France. The expedition which he now planned,

was entrusted to the command of John Ribault of Dieppe, a brave man of maritime experience and a firm protestant, and was attended by some of the best of the young French nobility, as well as by

veteran troops. The feeble Charles IX. conceded Feb. an ample commission, and the squadron set sail for

the shores of North-America. Desiring to establish their plantation in a genial clime, land was first made in the latitude of St. Augustine; the fine river,

which we call the St. Johns, was discovered and May. named the river of May. It is the St. Matheo of

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1 De Thou's Hist. l. xvi. Lery, True Declaration of the State of Hist. Nav. in Bras. An abridge- Virginia, 1610, p. 12, 13. ment of the description, but not of 2 Compare the criticism of the personal narrative, appears in Holmes' Annals, v. i. p. 567. Purchas, v.iv.p. 1325—1347. Les- Holmes surpasses Charlevoix in carbot, N. F. 1. ii. t. i. p. 143—214; accuracy. Southey's Brazil, part i. c. ix.; 3 Ensayo Cronologico, p. 43.

HUGUENOTS NEAR BEAUFORT, SOUTH-CAROLINA.

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the Spaniards. The forests of mulberries were CHAP. admired, and caterpillars readily mistaken for silk worms. The cape received a French name; as the 1562. ships sailed along the coast, the numerous streams were called after the rivers of France; and America, for a while, had its Seine, its Loire, and its Garonne. In searching for the Jordan or Combahee, they came upon Port Royal entrance,' which seemed the outlet of a magnificent river. The greatest ships of France and the argosies of Venice could ride securely in the deep water of the harbor. The site for a first settlement is apt to be injudiciously selected; the local advantages, which favor the growth of large cities, are discovered only by time. It was on Lemon Island, that a monumental stone, engraved with the arms of France, was proudly raised ; and as the company looked round upon the immense oaks, which were venerable from the growth of centuries, the profusion of wild fowls, the groves of pine, the flowers so fragrant, that the whole air was perfumed, they already regarded the country as a province of their native land. Ribault determined to leave a colony ; twenty-six composed the whole party, which was to keep possession of the continent. Fort Charles, the Carolina, so called in honor of Charles

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1 Laudonniere, in Hakluyt, v. iii. mers, p. 513. It is no reproach to p. 373. The description is suffi- Charlevoix, that his geography of ciently minute and accurate ; re- the coast of Florida is confused moving all doubt. Before the ge- and inaccurate. Compare Johnography of the country was well son's Life of Greene, v. i. p. 477. known, there was room for the 2 The stone is supposed to have error of Charlevoix, Nouv. Fr. v. been seen in 1832; though the sea i. p. 25, who places the settlement has gradually encroached upon at the mouth of the Edisto, an er- the island. ror, which is followed by Chal- 3 Munitionem Carolinam, de re

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1562.

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CHAP. IX. of France, first gave a name to the country, a w century before it was colonized by the English.

Ribault' and the ships arrived safely in France. July

But the fires of civil war had been kindled in all the provinces of the kingdom ; and the promised reinforcements for Carolina were never levied. The situation of the French became precarious. The natives were friendly; but the soldiers themselves were insubordinate; and dissensions prevailed. The commandant at Carolina repressed the turbulent spirit with arbitrary cruelty; and lost his life in a mutiny, which his ungovernable passion had provoked. The new commander succeeded in restoring order. But the love of his native land is a passion easily revived in the breast of a Frenchman; and the company

resolved to embark in such a brigantine, 1563. as they could themselves construct. Intoxicated

with joy at the thought of returning home, they neglected to provide sufficient stores ; and they were overtaken by famine at sea, with its attendant crimes. A small English bark at length boarded their vessel, and, setting the most feeble on shore upon the coast of France, carried the rest to the queen of England. Thus fell the first attempt of France in French Florida, near the southern confines of South-Carolina, The country was still a desert.?

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gis nomine dictum. De Thou, l. count of Laudonniere, who was xliv. p. 531, edition of 1626. likewise engaged in the voyage.

1 Ribault immediately made a Of Ribaults short tract, there is no report, which was translated and copy within my reach. It belongs printed in England, in 1563, re- to South-Carolina to reprint it. published by Hakluyt, in 1582, See Memoir of Sebastian Cabot, and omitted in the future editions p. 37, 38, 39. of Hakluyt, for the more full ac- 2 Laudonniere, in Hakluyt, v. iii. p. 371–384. Compare De p. 42—45; Lescarbot, Nouv. Fr. Thou, a contemporary, 1. xliv. p. Î. i. c. v.-vii

SECOND COLONY OF COLIGNY.

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After the treacherous peace between Charles IX. CHAP. and the Huguenots, Coligny renewed his solicitations for the colonization of Florida. The king gave con

1564. sent; three ships were conceded for the service; and Laudonniere, who, in the former voyage, had been upon the American coast, a man of great

intelligence, though a seaman rather than a soldier, was appointed to lead forth the colony. Emigrants readily appeared; for the climate of Florida was so celebrated, that, according to rumor, the duration of human life was doubled under its genial influences;' and men still dreamed of rich mines of gold in the interior. Coligny was desirous of obtaining accurate descriptions of the country; and James Le Moyne, called de Morgues, an ingenious painter, was commissioned to execute colored drawings of the objects, which might engage his curiosity. A voyage of sixty April days brought the fleet, by the way of the Canaries and the Antilles, to the shores of Florida. The harbor of Port Royal, rendered gloomy by recollections of misery, was avoided ; and after searching the coast and discovering places, which were so full of amenity, that melancholy itself could not but change its humor, as it gazed, the followers of Calvin planted themselves on the banks of the river May. They sung a psalm of thanksgiving, and gathered courage from acts of devotion.

The fort, now erected, was also named Carolina. The result of

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. t. i. p. 41–62. 530,531. Charlevoix, N. Fr. v. i. 1 De Thou. 1. xliv. p. 532.; Hakp. 24—35; Ensayo Cronologico, luyt, v. iv. p. 389.

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