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the Indians and rested their frame of government on CHAP. a common compact. Thus the vehement intolerance of England kindled the lights of religion and liberty in the remote wilderness; the pleasant villages which grew up on the Connecticut, and spread along the Sound, and on the opposite shore of Long-Island, were happy in the enjoyment of tranquillity, the exercise of frugal industry, the practice of temperance and of courage.






Nov. 24.

The English government was not indifferent to the progress of the colonies of New-England. The fate of the first emigrants had been watched by all parties with benevolent curiosity; nor was there any inducement to oppress the few sufferers, whom the hardships of their condition were so fast wasting

away. The adventurers were encouraged by a pro1630. clamation,' which, with a view to their safety, pro

hibited the sale of fire-arms to the savages.

The stern discipline, exercised by the government at Salem, produced an early harvest of enemies; resentment long rankled in the minds of some, whom Endicott had perhaps too passionately punished, and when they returned to England, Mason and Gorges, the rivals of the Massachusetts company, willingly echoed their vindictive complaints. A petition even reached King Charles, complaining of distraction and disorder in the plantations, but the issue was unexpected. Massachusetts was ably defended by Sal

1 Hazard, v. i. p. 311, 312.




1633. Jan.



tonstall, Humphrey and Cradock, its friends in Eng- CHAP. land; and the committee of the privy council reported in favor of the adventurers; who were ordered to continue their undertakings cheerfully, for the king did not design to impose on the people of Massachusetts the ceremonies, which they had emigrated to avoid. The country, it was believed, would in time be very beneficial to England.

Revenge did not slumber, because it had been 1634. once defeated; and the triumphant success of the puritans in America disposed the leaders of the highchurch party to listen to the clamors of the malig

Proof was produced of marriages celebrated by civil magistrates; and of the system of colonial church discipline; proceedings which were wholly at variance with the laws of England. 66 The departure of so many of the best,” such 6 numbers of faithful and free-born Englishmen and good Christians,” a

a more ill-boding sign to the nation, than the portentous blaze of comets and the impressions in the air, at which astrologers are dismayed, began to be regarded by the archbishops as 1634. an affair of state ; and ships bound with passengers for New-England, were detained in the Thames by an order of the council. But greater apprehensions were raised by a requisition, which commanded the letters patent of the company to be produced in

Feb. 21.

1 Winthrop and Savage, v. i. p. 2 Winthrop, v. ii. p. 190, 191. 54–57, and 101–103. Prince, p. or Hazard, v. i. p. 242, 243. Hub430, 431. Hutch. Coll. p. 52–54. bard, p. 428–430. Hubbard, p. 150–154. Chalmers, 3 Milton pleads for the purip. 154, 155. Hazard, v. i. p. 234, tans. 235.

CHAP. England;' a requisition, to which the emigrants re* turned no reply. 1634. April

Still more menacing was the appointment of an 10. arbitrary special commission for the colonies. The

archbishop of Canterbury and those who were associated with him, received full power over the American plantations, to establish the government and dictate the laws; to regulate the church; to inflict even the heaviest punishments; and to revoke any charter which had been surreptitiously obtained, or which conceded liberties, prejudicial to the royal

prerogative.? Sept. The news of this commission soon reached Bos18.

ton; and it was at the same time rumored, that a general governor was on his way. The intelligence awakened the most lively interest in the whole colony,

and led to the boldest measures. Poor as the new settlements were, six hundred pounds were raised towards fortifications; “the assistants and the deputies discovered their minds to one another,"

and the fortifications were hastened. All the minis1635. ters assembled at Boston; it marks the age, that

their opinions were consulted ; it marks the age still more, that they unanimously declared against the reception of a general governor. “We ought,” said the fathers in Israel, “ to defend our lawful possessions, if we are able; if not, to avoid and pro

Jan. 19.


1 Winthrop, v. i. p. 135. 137. inson, v. i. App. No. iv. WinHubbard, p. 153. Hazard, v. i. throp, v. i.


143. Chalmers p. 341, 312

mistakes a year. 2 Hazard, v. i. p.

344-347. 3 Winthrop, v. i. p. 154. Hubbard, p. 264--268. Hutch






It is not strange that Laud and his associates CHAP. should have esteemed the inhabitants of Massachusetts to be men of refractory humors; complaints resounded of sects and schisms; of parties, consenting in nothing but hostility to the church of England; of designs to shake off the royal jurisdiction. Restraints were, therefore, placed upon emigration; no 1634. one above the rank of a serving man, might remove to the colony without the special leave of the commissioners; and persons of inferior order were required to take the oaths of supremacy and allegiance.

Willingly as these acts were performed by religious bigotry, they were prompted by another cause. The members of the Grand Council of Plymouth, 1635. long reduced to a state of inactivity, prevented by the spirit of the English merchants from oppressing the people, and having already made grants of all the lands from the Penobscot to Long-Island, determined to resign their charter, which was no longer possessed of any value. Several of the company desired as individuals to become the proprietaries of extensive territories, even at the dishonor of invalidating all their grants as a corporation. The hope of acquiring principalities subverted the sense of justice. A meeting of the lords was duly convened, and the whole coast from Acadia to beyond the Hudson, being divided into shares, was distributed, in part at least, by lots. Whole provinces gained

i Gorges, c. xxvi. VOL. I.

2 Hazard, v. i. p. 247-348. 56

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