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CHAP. civilization; they could not be perpetuated in the

lands of their origin; far less could they renew their 1632. youth in America. Sooner might the oldest oaks in

Windsor forest be transplanted across the Atlantic, than the social forms, which Europe itself was beginning to reject as antiquated and rotten. But the seeds of popular liberty, contained in the charter, would find, in the New World, the very soil, best suited to quicken them into life and fruitfulness.

Calvert deserves to be ranked among the most wise and benevolent law-givers of all ages. He was the first in the history of the Christian world to seek for religious security and peace by the practice of justice, and not by the exercise of power; to plan the establishment of popular institutions with the enjoyment of liberty of conscience; to advance the career of civilization by recognizing the rightful equality of all Christian sects. The asylum of papists was the spot, where, in a remote corner of the world, on the banks of rivers, which, as yet, had hardly been explored, the mild forbearance of a proprietary adopted religious freedom as the basis of

the state. April Before the patent could be finally adjusted and pass the great seal, Sir George Calvert died ;' leaving

" a name, against which the breath of calumny has hardly whispered a reproach. The petulance of his adversaries could only taunt him with being “an Hispaniolized papist.”2 His son, Cecil Calvert, succeeded to his honors and fortunes. For him, the


1 Chalmers, p. 201.

2 Wilson, in Kennett, v. jii. p. 705.




June 20.

heir of his father's intentions, not less than of his CHAP. father's fortunes, the charter of Maryland was published and confirmed; and he obtained the high 1632. distinction of successfully performing, what the colonial companies had hardly been able to achieve. At a vast expense, he planted a colony, which for several generations descended as a patrimony to his heirs.

Virginia regarded the severing of her territory 1633. with apprehension, and before any colonists had embarked under the charter of Baltimore, her commissioners had in England remonstrated against the grant as an invasion of her commercial rights, an infringement on her domains, and a discouragement to her planters. In Strafford, Lord Baltimore found a friend; for Strafford had been the friend of the father, and the remonstrance was in vain; the privy council sustained the proprietary charter, and, ad- July vising the parties to an amicable adjustment of all disputes, commanded a free commerce and a good correspondence between the respective colonies.3

Nor was it long before gentlemen of birth and quality resolved to adventure their lives and a good part of their fortunes in the enterprize of planting a colony under so favorable a charter. Lord Baltimore, who, for some unknown reason, abandoned his purpose of conducting the emigrants in person, appointed his brother to act as his lieutenant; and, on Friday, the twenty-second of November, Nov. with a small but favoring gale, Leonard Calvert and



1 The charter asserts it. 2 Chalmers, p. 209.

3 Hazard, v. i. p. 337; Bozman, p. 381 and 265; Chalmers, p. 231.



CHAP. about two hundred people, most of them Roman

Catholic gentlemen and their servants, in the Ark and the Dove, a ship of large burden, and a pinnace, set sail for the northern bank of the Potomac.

Having staid by the way in Barbadoes and St. 1634. Christopher, it was not till February of the follow24. ing year, that they arrived at Point Comfort, in Vir

ginia ; where, in obedience to the express letters of King Charles, they were welcomed by Harvey with courtesy and humanity. Clayborne also appeared, but it was as a prophet of ill omen, to attempt to terrify the company by sounding an alarm of the

fixed hostility of the natives. Mar. Leaving Point Comfort, Calvert sailed into the

Potomac; and with the pinnace ascended the stream. A cross was planted on an island, and the country claimed for Christ and for England. At about fortyseven leagues above the mouth of the river, he found the village of Piscataqua; an Indian settlement nearly opposite Mount Vernon. The chieftain of the tribe would neither bid him go nor stay; "he might use his own discretion.” It did not seem safe for the English to plant the first settlement so high up the river; Calvert descended the stream, examining, in his barge, the creeks and estuaries nearer the Chesapeake; he entered the river, which is now called St. Mary's, and which he named St. George's; and, about four leagues from its junction with the Potomac, he anchored at the Indian town of Yoaco

The native inhabitants, having already suffered from the superior power of the Susquehannahs,







who occupied the district between the bays, had CHAP. already resolved to remove into places of more security in the interior; and many of them had begun to migrate before the English arrived. To Calvert, the spot seemed convenient for a plantation ; it was easy,

, by presents of cloth and axes, of hoes and knives, to gain the good will of the natives, and to purchase their rights to the soil, which they were preparing to abandon. They readily gave consent, that the Eng. lish should immediately occupy one half of their town, and, after the harvest, should become the exclusive tenants of the whole. Mutual promises of friendship and peace were made ; so that, upon Mar. the twenty-seventh day of March, the catholics took quiet possession of the little place; and religious liberty obtained a home, its only home in the wide world, at the humble village, which bore the name of St. Mary's.

Three days after the landing of Calvert, the Ark and the Dove anchored in the harbor. Sir John Harvey soon arrived on a visit; the native chiefs, also, came to welcome or to watch the emigrants; and were so well received, that they resolved to give perpetuity to their league of amity with the English. The Indian women taught the wives of the new comers to make bread of maize; the warriors of the tribe instructed the huntsmen how rich were the forests of America in game, and joined them in the chase. And, as the season of the year invited to the pursuits of agriculture, and the English had come into possession of ground already subdued, they were




CHAP. able, at once, to possess cornfields and gardens, and

prepare the wealth of successful husbandry. Virginia, from its surplus produce, could furnish a temporary supply of food; and all kinds of domestic cattle. No sufferings were endured; no fears of want

l were excited; the foundation of the colony of Maryland was peacefully and happily laid. Within six months, it had advanced more than Virginia had done in as many years. The proprietary continued with great liberality to provide every thing, that was necessary for the comfort and protection of the colony, and spared no costs to promote its interests. In the two first years, he expended upwards of forty thousand pounds sterling. But far more memorable was the character of the Maryland institutions. Every other country in the world had persecuting laws; “I will not,” such was the oath for the governor of Maryland, “I will not by myself or any other, directly or indirectly, trouble, molest, or discountenance, any person professing to believe in Jesus Christ, for or in respect of religion.”2 Under the mild institutions and munificence of Baltimore, the dreary wilderness soon bloomed with the swarming life and activity of prosperous settlements; the Roman Catholics, who were oppressed by the laws of England, were sure to find a peaceful asylum in the quiet harbors of the Chesapeake; and there too protestants were sheltered against protestant intolerance.

Such were the beautiful auspices under which the


1 Chalmers, p. 205–208; McMahon, p. 196 198.

2 Chalmers' Political Annals, p. 235.

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