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and houses ; and divided into different channels, according to the inequalities of the mountain. The largest stream seemed at least half a mile broad, and five miles long.
5. I walked before my companion so far up the mountain, along the side of the river of fire, that I was obliged to retire in great haste, the sulphurous stream having surprised me, and almost taken away my breath. During our return, which was about three o'clock in the morning, the roaring of the mountain was heard all the way, while we observed it throwing up huge spouts of fire and burning stones, which falling, resembled the stars from a rocket. Sometimes I observed two or three distinct columns of flame, and sometimes one only, which was large enough to fill the whole crater. These burning columns, and fiery stones, seemed to be shot a thousand feet perpendicularly above the summit of the volcano. In this manner the mountain continued raging for six or eight days after. On the eighteenth of the same month, the whole appearance ended, and Vesuvius remained perfectly quiet, without any visible smoke or flame.
Niagara River and Falls. 1. NIAGARA river connects the northern end of Lake Erie with the south end of Lake Ontario, and is about thirty miles in length. It forms a part of the western boundary between the state of New-York and Upper-Canada. The falls of this river, which are abont seven or eight miles south of Lake Ontario, form the greatest curiosity that this, or perhaps any other country affords. In order to have a tolerable idea of this stupendous cataract, it will be requisite to conceive, that Lake Erie, and that part of the country in which it is situated, is elevated about three hundred feet above that which contains Lake Ontario.
2. The slope which separates the upper and lower country, is generally very steep, and in many places almost perpendicular. Some have conjectured that from the great length of time, the quantity of water, and the distance through which it falls, the rocks have been worn away for about seven miles from Lake Ontario
the river towards Lake Erie ; by which such an astonishing chasm is formed, as strikes the beholder with terrour. Down this chasm the water rushes with an astonishing velocity, after it makes the first great pitch, which is a fall of nearly one hundred feet perpendicular.
3. It is not easy to bring the imagination to correspond to the greatness of the scene. A river extremely deep and rapid, and chat serves to drain a great part of the waters of North Ameri
ca into the Atlantic Ocean, is here poured precipitately down a ledge of rocks, that rises, like a wall, across the whole bed of its stream. The river, a little above, is nearly three quarters of a mile broad ; and the rocks over which the water falls, are four hundred yards over. The direction of these rocks is not straight across the stream, but hollowing inwards like a horseshoe ; so that the cataract, which bends to the shape of the obstacle, rounding inwards, presents a kind of theatre, the most tremendous in nature. Just in the middle of this circular wall of waters, a little island, that has braved the fury of the current, presents one of its points, and divides the stream at the top into two parts, but they unite again long before they reach the bottom.
4. The perpendicular pitch of this vast body of water, produces a sound that is frequently heard at a distance of many miles. A perceptible tremulous motion in the earth, is felt at the distance of several rods around the fall. The dashing of the water produces a mist that rises to the very clouds ; in which rainbows
seen when the sun shines. This fog or spray, in the winter season, falls upon the neighbouring trees, to which it congeals, and exhibits a beautiful crystaline appearance. Just below the great pitch, the water and foam may be seen puicu up in large spherical figures, which burst at the top, and project a column of the spray to a prodigious height, and then subside, and are succeeded by others, which burst in like manner.
5. This appearance is most remarkable about half way between the island that divides the falls, and the west side of the strait, where the largest column of water descends. T'he descent into the chasm of this stupendous cataract, is very difficult, on account of the great height of the banks ; but when once a person has descended, he may go up to the foot of the falls, and take shelter behind the descending column of water. between that and the precipice, where there is a space sufficient to contain several persons in perfect safety ; and where conversation may be held without interruption by the noise of the water, which is less here than at a considerable distance.
The Bay of Naples and Mount Vesuvius. 1. The Bay of Naples, surrounded by the most beautiful scenery, exhibits an object beyond description. It is of a circular figure ; in most places upwards of twenty miles in diameter; so that including all its breaks and inequalities,
the circumference is more than sixty miles. The whole of this spacó is so wonderfully divided, by all the riches both of art and na
dure, that there is scarce an object wanting to render it completely sublime. It is difficult to determine whether the view is more pleasing from the singularity of many of these objects, or from the incredible variety of the whole. You see an amazing mixture of the ancient and modern ; some rising to fame, and some sinking to ruin. Palaces reared over the tops of other places; and ancient magnificence trampled under foot by modern folly. Mountains and islands, that were celebrated for their fertility, changed into barren wastes, and barren wastes into fertile fields and rich vineyards.
2. You see mountains sunk into plains, and plains swollen into mountains. Lakes drank up by volcanoes, and extinguished volcanoes turned into lakes.
The earth still smoaking in many places, and in others throwing out flames. In short, nature seems to have formed this coast in her most capricious mood; for every object appears a sport of nature. She never seems to have gone seriously to work; but to have devoted this spot to the most unlimited indulgence of caprice and frolic. The bay is shut out from the Mediterranean by several famous islands and celebrated promontories, all lying a little west, exhibiting the finest scenery that can be imagined ; the great and opulent city of Naples, with three castles, its harbour full of ships from every nation, its palaces, churches, and convents innumerable. The rich country thence to Portici, is covered with noble houses and gardens, and appearing only a continuation of the city. The palace of the king, with many others surrounding it, all built over the roofs of those of Herculaneum, buried near a hundred feet by eruptions of Vesuvius.
3. You see Vesuvius itself in the back ground of the scene discharging volumes of fire and smoke, and forming a broad tract in the air over our heads, extending without being broken or dissipated, to the utmost verge of the horizon ; a variety of beautiful towns and villages round the base of the mountain, thoughtless of the impending ruin that daily threatens them. Next follows the extensive and romantic coast of Castello Sea and Sorrentum, diversified with every picturesque object in nature. It is strange that nature should make use of the same agent to create as to destroy; and that what has only been looked upon as the consumer of countries, is in fact the very power that produces them. Indeed this part of our earth seems to have already undergone the sentence pronounced upon the whole of it; but like the Phoenix, has risen again from its own ashes, in much greater beauty and splendour than before it was con sumed. The traces of these dreadful conflagrations, are stil!
conspicuous in every corner; they have been violent in their operations, but in the end have proved salutary in their effects. The fire in many places is not yet extinguished, but Vesuvius is now the only spot where it rages with any degree of activity.
Filial Piety. 1. From the creatures of God, let man learn wisdom, and apply to himself the instruction they give. Go to the desert, my son ; observe the young stork of the wilderness, let him speak to thy heart. He bears on his wings his aged sire ; he lodges him in safety, and supplies him with food.
2. The piety of a child is sweeter than the incense of Persia offered to the sun; yea, more delicious than odours wasted from a field of Arabian spices, by the western gales.
3. Be grateful to thy father, for he gave thee life ; and to thy mother, for she sustained thee. Hear the words of their mouths,for they are spoken for thy good ; give ear to their admonitions for it proceeds from love.
4. Thy father has watched for thy welfare, he has toiled for thy ease ; do honour, therefore to his age, and let not his gray hairs be treated with irreverence. Forget not thy helpless infancy, nor the frowardness of thy youth ; and bear with the infirmities of thy aged parents ; assist and support them in the decline of life. So shall their hoary heads go down to the grave in peace; and thy own children, in reverence to thy example, shall repay thy piety with filial love.
Benevolence. 1. When thou considerest thy wants, when thou beholdest thy imperfections, acknowledge his goodness, O son of humanity! who honoured thee with reason ; endued thee with speech; and placed thee in society, to receive and confer reciprocal helps and mutual obligations. Thy food, thy clothing, thy convenience of habitation ; thy protection from the injuries, thy enjoyment of the comforts and the pleasures of life: all these thou owest to the assistance of others, and couldst not enjoy, but in the bands of society. " It is thy duty, therefore, to be a friend to mankind, as it is thy interest that man should be friendly to thee.
2. Rejoice in the happiness and prosperity of thy neighbour. Open not thine ear to slander ; the faults and failings of men give pain to a benevolent heart.
Desire to do good, and search
out occasions for it ; in removing the oppression of another, the virtuous mind relieves itself.
3. Shut not thine ear against the cries of the poor; nor harden thy heart against the calamities of the innocent. When the fatherless call upon thee, when the widow's heart is sunk, and she implores thy assistance with tears of sorrow ; pity their affliction, and extend thy hand to those who have none to help them. When thou seest the naked wanderer of the street, shivering with cold, and destitute of habitation, let bounty open thy heart: let the wings of charity shelter him from death, that thine own soul may live. Whilst the poor man groans on the bed of sickness; whilst the unfortunate languish in the horrours of a dungeon; or the hoary head of age lifts up a feeble eye to thee for pity; how canst thou riot in superfluou enjoyments, regardless of their wants, unfeeling of their woes?
Speculation and Practice. 1. A CERTAIN astronomer was contemplating the moon through his telescope, and tracing the extent of her seas, the height of her mountains, and the number of habitable territories which she contains. · Let him spy what he pleases,' said a clown to his companion ; · he is not nearer to the moon than we are.' 2. Shall the same observation be made of
Do you surpass others in learning, and yet in goodness remain upon a level with the uninstructed vulgar? Have you so long gazed at the temple of virtue, without advancing one step towards it? Are you smitten with moral beauty, yet regardless of its attainment? Are you a philosopher in theory, but a novice in practice? The partiality of a father inclines me to hope, that the reverse is true. I Aatter myself, that by having learned to think, you will be qualified to act ; and that the rectitude of your conduct will be adequate to your improvements in knowledge. May that wisdom which is justified in her works, be your guide through life! And may you enjoy all the felicity which flows from a cultivated understanding, pious and well-regulated affections, and extensive benevolence! In these consists that sovereign good which ancient sages so much extol; which reason recommends, religion authorizes, and God approves.
Ingratitude, highly culpable. 1. ARTABANES was distinguished with peculiar favour by a wise, powerful, and good prince. A magnificent palace, sur