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and specify the materials for building a colonial house; to write one hundred words on occupations by which they might have earned their living; to talk for two minutes on "Twenty-four Hours in a Colonial Log House in January”; to make a list of the present educational advantages which Washington and Franklin did not enjoy.

We do something more than teach history whenever we give Activities (sometimes called by the more formidable name of "problems" or "projects") that develop imagination, sympathetic understanding, and appreciation, such, for instance, as: “Imagine yourself a Quaker in early Massachusetts and write fifty words to describe the Puritans; then imagine yourself a Puritan and write fifty words to describe the Quakers” (p. 95). "If a Rip Van Winkle accustomed to blowing out the lamp had gone to sleep in 1865 and awakened in 1900, explain some things that you would need to teach him about the conveniences of a modern home” (p. 473).

Imagination will enable the teacher to call for other Activities along the line of those suggested.

History is perhaps the most difficult of all grade subjects, and the teacher has the right to expect all the assistance possible from the text. In order to make the subject more vivid, the author has not spared time in searching for the most varied illustrations. Facsimiles from the early newspapers, contemporary pictures, and the work of modern artists have been lavishly used to interpret the historical narrative and add to its interest. The "References for Teachers” at the ends of the chapters are specially planned to enable the teacher to stimulate the interest of the class by a fuller and more varied presentation of the subject matter.

The time has come for our youth to be taught the importance of woman's work in founding this great commonwealth. The single greatest fact in American history is the influence of the home, in the making of which the mother has played as great a part as the father.

The author is indebted to his wife, to Miss Harriet E. Anderson, and to other welfare workers with whom he has been associated, for their constant emphasis on the new ideals in government and service. Without their suggestions the book would have been less modern. In the sections dealing with the West in the Revolution, the author received valuable assistance from Mr. Temple Bodley, an authority on this period. Miss Juliette Frantz prepared most of the References for Teachers and Pupils, helped plan the Activities, aided in selecting the illustrations, gave valuable critical advice about the text, and read the proof.

HISTORY OF OUR COUNTRY

CHAPTER I

BEFORE COLUMBUS

America owes a debt to the past.-In the last century, America was often called a "self-made” nation. The modern study of history shows that America owes a large debt to older countries. She inherited from the Old World the results of thousands of years of experience and study. The first white settlers in America crossed the Atlantic from Europe in ships that required much experience to build and navigate. These settlers brought over books and printing presses, which the Old World had taught them how to use. It took the world a long time to learn the wonderful arts of reading, writing, and ciphering, which the English settlers brought to America. Let us glance at some of the nations and races to which America is especially in debt.

What some of the older nations gave.--America received the Old Testament (by way of Europe) from the Hebrews, who lived in Palestine, near the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. Our government rests largely on the ideas of right and wrong laid down in the Ten Commandments. The first English settlers in the United States were Christians. The Author of the Christian religion came from the Hebrew race. His birthday, Christmas, is the greatest of all our holidays.

The Phænicians (fe-nîsh'anz), who lived north of Palestine, were great sailors and traders. During their trading voyages they taught Europeans the use of the alphabet. The Egyptians, who dwelt in the valley of the river Nile, in the northeastern part of Africa, showed the traders who visited them how paper could be prepared from the papyrus (på-pī'rus) plant and used for writing.

Influence of the Greeks.—The Greeks, whose home was in a little European peninsula southeast of Italy, showed the world what a democracy, or government by the people, is. Their greatest city; Atñeņs, was governed by an assembly of its free citizens.. We should know that there were experiments in democrátic.government before the existence of the United States.

[graphic]

GREEK ARCHITECTURE IN AN AMERICAN BUILDING The Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York. The pillars are of the Greek style called Ionic; another Greek style, the Doric (p. 407), is simpler than this, and still another is more elaborate.

The Greeks will always be famous for teaching other nations to love beautiful things. The English poet, John Keats, in his Ode on a Grecian Urn, shows how Grecian work impressed him. His poetic version of the Greek story of Endym'ion begins with this line, which is often quoted:

"A thing of beauty is a joy forever.” Many of the most beautiful public buildings in America are in part copied from the work of the Greeks. No other race has

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