« 上一頁繼續 »
hereditary and irresponsible one would avoid the appearance even of a departure from republicanism. But, although the subject was so viewed in the Convention, and the votes on it were more than once equally divided, it was finally and justly abandoned, as, apart from other objections, it was not practicable among so many States, increasing in number, and enacting, each of them, so many laws. Instead of the proposed negative, the objects of it were left as finally provided for in the Constitution.
On the arrival of the Virginia deputies at Philadelphia, it occurred to them, that from the early and prominent part taken by that State in bringing about the Convention, some initiative step might be expected from them. The resolutions introduced by Governor Randolph were the result of a consultation on the subject, with an understanding that they left all the deputies entirely open to the lights of discussion, and free to concur in any alterations or modifications which their reflections and judgments might approve. The resolutions, as the journals show, became the basis on which the proceedings of the Convention commenced, and to the developments, variations, and modifications of which, the plan of government proposed by the Convention may be traced.
APPOINTMENT OF DELEGATES BY STATES.
New Hampshire.—By Act of June 27, 1787, John Langdon, John Pickering, Nicholas Gilman, and Benjamin West, or any two of them, were "appointed and authorized to act as deputies from this State to meet at Philadelphia, delegates from the other States of this Confederacy, to devise ways to avert the dangers which threaten our existence as a free people."
Massachusetts.—Francis Dana, Elbridge Gerry, Nathaniel Gorham, Bufns King, and Caleb Strong were chosen by the General Court, April 9,1787, and any three of them authorized to act.
Connecticut.—William S. Johnson, Roger Sherman, and Oliver Ellsworth, appointed by Act of the General Assembly of the second Thursday of May, 1787.
New York.—Robert Yates, John Lansing, Jr., and Alexander Hamilton, appointed by Act of Assembly, March 6, 1787.
New Jersey David Brearly, Win. C. Houston, William Patterson, and John Neilson, appointed by the Council and Assembly, November 23, 1786. On the 18th May, 1787, William Livingston and Abraham Clark,—and on the 5th June following, Jonathan Dayton, were added to those first appointed, and any three of them empowered to act.
Pennsylvania.—December 30, 1786, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George Clymer, Jared Ingersoll, Thomas Fitzsimmons, James Wilson, and Gouverneur Morris were appointed by an Act of the General Assembly; and by Act of 28th March, 1787, Benjamin Franklin was added to the list.
Delaware.—George Read, Gunning Bedford, John Dickinson, Richard Basset, and Jacob Broom, or any three of them, were appointed by Act of Assembly of February 3, 1787.
Maryland.—James McHenry, Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, Daniel Carroll, John Francis Mercer, and Luther Martin were appointed by the House of Delegates and Senate, May 26, 1787.
Virginia.—On the 4th December, 1786, by the House of Delegates, with the concurrence of the Senate, George Washington, Patrick Henry, Edmund Randolph, John Blair, James Madison, George Mason, and George Wythe, were appointed. Mr. Henry declined, and James McClnrg was appointed by Governor Randolph, in his place on the 2d May, 1787.
North Carolina.—By Act of the Senate and House of Commons, in January, 1787, Richard Caswell, Alexander Martin, William Richardson Davie, Richard Dobbs Spaight, and Willie Jones were appointed. Mr. Caswell resigned, and on the twenty-third of April William Blount was appointed in his stead; Willie Jones declining the appointment, Hugh Williamson was appointed by the Governor in his place.
South Carolina.—By Act of March 8, 1787, Charles Pinckney, John Rutledge, Charles C. Pinckney, and Pierce Butler were commissioned.
Georgia.—By an ordinance of 10th February, 1787, William Few, Abraham Baldwin, William Pierce, George Walton, William Houston, and Nathaniel Pendleton appointed deputies from this State.
ABSTRACT OF THE JOURNAL AND DEBATES IN THE FEDERAL CONVENTION.
On Monday the 14th of May, A. D., 1787, and in the% eleventh year of the Independence of the United States of America, at the State House in the city of Philadelphia, in virtue of appointments from their respective States, sundry deputies to the Federal Convention appeared; but a majority of States not being represented, the members present adjourned from day to day until Friday the 25th of the said month, when, in virtue of the said appointments, appeared from the State of
Massachusetts.—The Hon. Rufus King, Esq.
New York.—The Hon. Robert Yates, and Alexander Hamilton, Esqs.
New Jersey.—The Hon. David Brearly.William Churchhill Houston, and William Patterson, Esqs.
Pennsylvania.—The Hon. Robert Morris, Thomas Fitzsimmons, James Wilson, and Gouvernenr Morris, Esqs.
Delaware.—The Hon. George Read, Richard Bassett, and Jacob Broom, Esqs.
Virginia.—His Excellency George Washington, Esq., His Excellency E. Randolph, Esq., The Hon. John Blair, James Madison, George Mason, George Wythe, and James McClurg, Esqs.
North Carolina.—The Hon. Alexander Martin, William Richardson Davie, Richard Dobbs Spaight, and Hugh Williamson, Esqs.
South Carolina.—The Hon. John Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Pierce Butler, and Charles Pinckney, Esqs.
Georgia.—The Hon. William Few, Esq.
Hon. Robert Morris of Pennsylvania moved that a President be elected by ballot, and nominated George WashIngton. A ballot was taken and he was declared unanimously elected, and was conducted to the Chair by Mr. Morris and Mr. Rutledge. William Jackson was elected Secretary, Nicholas Weaver, Messenger, and Joseph Frye, Door-Keeper.
Mr. Wythe, Mr. Hamilton, and Mr. C. Pinckney were appointed a Committee on Rules, and the Convention adjourned till Monday at 10 o'clock.
Monday, May 28, 1787.—The Convention met; Nathaniel Gorham and Caleb Strong, deputies from Massachusetts, Oliver Ellsworth from the State of Connecticut, Gupning Bedford from Delaware, James McHeury from Maryland; Benjamin Franklin, George Clymer, Thomas Mifflin, and Jared Ingersoll, of Pennsylvania, took their seats. Rules for the government of the Convention were reported and adopted.
Mr. Randolph then opened the business of the Convention by offering the following resolutions:
Resolutions offered by Edward Randolph to the Convention, May 29, 1787.
"1. Resolved, That the Articles of the Confederation ought to be so corrected and enlarged as to accomplish the objects proposed by their institution; namely, common defense, security of liberty, and general welfare.
"2. Resolved, Therefore, that the right of suffrage, in the national legislature ought to be proportioned to the quotas of contribution, or to the number of free inhabitants, as the oue or the other may seem best, in different cases.
"3. Resolved, That the national legislature ought to consist of two branches.
"4. Resolved, That the members of the first branch of the national legislature ought to be elected by the people of the several States every for the term of
to be of the age of years, at least;
to receive liberal stipends, by which they may be compensated for the devotion of their time to the public service; to be ineligible to any office established by a particular State ; or under the authority of the United States, (except those peculiarly belonging to the functions of the first branch,) during the term of service and for the space of after its expiration; to be incapable of reelection for the space of after the expiration of their term of service; and to be subject to recall.
"5. Resolved, that the members of the second branch of the national legislature ought to be elected by those of the first, out of a proper number of persons nominated by the individual legislatures; to be of the age of years, at least; to hold their offices for a term sufficient to insure their independency; to receive liberal stipends, by which they may be compensated for the devotion of their time to the public service; and to be ineligible to any office established by a particular State, or under the autho