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MAY 7, 1919

THE TROUBLED

Austria-Hungary are now associated with adoption of such legislation, and there is PEACE CONFERENCE

the Allies. It is the business of the Peace no proposal, as we understand it, to make LEW periods during the whole session Conference to protect these newcomers conditions of labor a subject for inter

T of the Peace Conference have been as well as the more powerful states and national action. Any such proposal would so critical and difficult as that comprising to make peace according to the “ clearly be impracticable. the last eight days of April.

defined principles ” which he had enunci- It would seem perhaps at first sight that In those eight days occurred the issu- ated when America entered the war. the plan of the Commission for Internationance of President Wilson's ultimatum to According to these principles Fiume can. al Labor Legislation provided for nothing Italy concerning Fiume and Dalmatia; not be assigned to Italy, and according that was not available now; buta little more the consequent threat of the disruption of to these principles also there is no further careful consideration will show that the the Peace Conference by the retirement strategic reason for assigning Dalmatian, plan has great possibilities of usefulness. of Italy; renewed presentation of the diffi- territory to Italy. The President con- At present there is no means by culties involved in the relations of Japan cluded his statement with an appeal to which standards for conditions of labor to the Peace Conference with reference to Italy to be magnanimous and to assume that are universally regarded as desiraChina; the arrival of the vanguard of a leadership in the new order of Europe. ble can be formulated in a way to make the German peace delegation at Ver. The Prime Minister of Italy, Vittorioa world-wide impression; and certainly sailles; the presentation of the report on Orlando, head of the Italian Peace no arrangement exists by which measures international labor legislation ; the public Delegation, at once declared that it that have the approval of the working cation of the arraignment of the Kaiser; was impossible to continue participat people of the world can be brought and the adoption by the plenary Confer. ing in the Peace Conference because authoritatively before the various national ence of the revised Covenant of the the President's statement was an appeal parliaments. Now, by this plan, condiLeague of Nations.

to the Italian people over his head, and tions of hardship affecting large numbers That the controversy over the question that he could not continue negotiations of people will be studied, and remedies of Fiume and Dalmatia broke out in until he had gone to Italy and ascertained proposed ; and the recommendations public at the very time when the advance whether this appeal against the Italian made will have the support of a public guard of the German delegation was com- Government was or was not to be indorsed opinion of international extent. ing to Versailles is due probably to the by the Italian people. He and his assofact that it was no longer possible to con- ciate, Signor Sonnino, thereupon went to tinue the discussion of this question be. Italy and were received by an ovation in

THE KAISER TO BE TRIED hind closed doors with the date for the which all elements of the population

Largely counterbalancing the rather conclusion of the drafting of the peace united. Accompanied with this ovation

d. Accompanied with this ovation discouraging reports concerning some treaty approaching so near.

were expressions adverse to President other matters in the Peace Conference

Wilson but not to the American people. comes the announcement of the proposed THE FIUME-DALMATIAN DISPUTE Apparently the effect of the President's articles for the arraignment of the Kaiser.

There has been in the Peace ConferElsewhere in this issue we give an

appeal has been to strengthen the Orlando
Government very greatly.

ence a difference of opinion concerning account of the parties to the Fiume Dal

the action that ought to be taken against matian dispute and the questions involved

those responsible for the war or for the in it, and on another page discuss the INTERNATIONAL LABOR

offenses against humanity perpetrated bearing of this dispute, and particularly PROPOSALS

during the war. According to one view the President's ultimatum, upon the proj. While these disputatious matters there was no law or authority under which ect for a League of Nations.

were under discussion at the Conference, the German High Command could be Exactly what happened to bring about there was published one of the most im- held accountable. Those holding this view a crisis over this question is a subject of portant of the reports that have been argued that the very purpose of the disagreement. Just at the time when it prepared during the Peace Conference. arraignment of the Kaiser would be to was reported that the Italian delegates This is the report of the Commission on uphold law, and if action were taken withwere prepared to make some compromise International Labor Legislation. The out authority of law, it would be a violaon their claims in the Adriatic, there was subject with which it deals is of concern tion of the alleged object of the action. published here, as well as in Paris, a to a vast proportion of the population of Therefore, it was argued, any criminal statement by President Wilson in which the world and bears directly upon the action should be taken by individual he declared himself and America as op- chief problems following the war. It is nations in whose territory plain and clear posed to the assigning of Fiume to Italy possible here to consider only one point violations of law occurred. and also opposed to the arrangement for in that report.

According to the other view, there is a the assignment of territory to Italy on It is proposed that labor legislation sug public law of nations, partly embodied in the Dalmatian coast.

gested by the Annual Labor Conference treaties and in written agreements, but The President's statement was in brief of the League of Nations shall be sub- also equally validly embodied in custom as follows: Italy's arrangement with Eng. mitted to each nation separately, and that and practice. Those who hold this view land and France upon entering the war is such measures as are recommended be sub- regard it as important that if this public no longer valid because the circumstances mitted within a year to the national legis- law of nations is to remain valid, interhave changed. New Powers have entered lature or other competent authority of national action should be taken avowedly the war. Austria-Hungary has ceased to every member of the League. There is of under that international common law. exist, and some of the constituent parts of course no power that can compel the It is evident that in the Commission

the astio opposed ting of Fill

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charged with investigating responsibility to come within the sphere of the League's for the war and in the Council of Four

decisions or control.

4. No nation is to be made a trustee the second view has prevailed, for the

or “mandatory” for colonial adminisvery first of the articles submitted to the tration without its consent. plenary Conference by the Council of 5. New nations in addition to the Four arraigns William II of Hohenzol original members may be admitted to lern, “not for an offense against criminal

the League by a two-thirds vote of the

Assembly (formerly called the House of law, but for a supreme offense against

Delegates), provided such new nations international morality and the sanctity give effective guarantees of their intenof treaties.”

tion and capacity to conform to the prin It is therefore proposed that Holland

ciples and regulations of the League.

6. In order that decisions of the be asked to surrender the former Em

League may be made effective (except in peror, and that the German Government cases of procedure, administration, and be required to hand over to the Allied the admission of new members) they and associated Powers persons accused of must be adopted by unanimous vote. having committed acts in violation of the In addition to these specific amendlaws and customs of war, and to under ments the new covenant names Geneva, take to furnish all documents and infor- Switzerland, as the capital of the League, mation of every kind necessary to insure and states that the following nations are knowledge of the incriminating acts, the original or charter members of the discovery of the offenders, and “the just League: appreciation of the responsibility.”

United States of America, Belgium, There is nothing which the Peace Con Bolivia, Brazil, British Empire, Canada, ference has to do more important than Australia, South Africa, New South to carry out the provisions of these

Wales, India, China, Cuba, Czechoslo

vakia, Ecuador, France, Greece, Guatearticles.

mala, Haiti, Hedjaz, Honduras, Italy,
Japan, Liberia, Nicaragua, Panama,

Peru, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Ser-
THE NEW COVENANT OF

bia, Siam, Uruguay ; THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS

and adds that these States have been inLike a wise statesman, President

vited to become members, namely: Wilson has changed his mind regarding

Argentine Republic, Chile, Colombia, the proposed plan of a League of Nations.

Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, Para-
On March 4 at the Metropolitan Opera guay, Persia, Salvador, Spain, Sweden,
House in New York City, in advocating Switzerland, Venezuela.
the adoption of the first draft, he said :

A significant thing about these lists is I must say that I have been puzzled that Mexico is neither an original nor by some of the criticisms—not by the

invited member of the League. Whether criticisms themselves—I can understand

this is because the charter members do them perfectly even when there was no foundation for them—but by the fact

not regard Mexico as having at present a of the criticism. I cannot imagine how sufficiently stable government, or whether these gentlemen can live and not live it is because the Carranza Administration in the atmosphere of the world. ...I

has recently and publicly denounced the have heard no counsel of generosity in their criticism. I have heard no con

Monroe Doctrine, we do not know. What structive suggestion.

ever the reason, Mexico is at the present

moment in an unenviable position. The From thesame platform and on thesame

omission of her name from this worldoccasion Mr. Taft said that he welcomed the criticisms, that some of them were

wide organization is a conclusive answer

to those who have felt that criticisms of constructive, and that debate and discus

the Carranza Government are prejudiced sion would undoubtedly improve the Covenant of the League. Mr. Wilson has

and unjustifiable. now come to Mr. Taft's view, and the result is that the Covenant has been amended AMERICAN OPINION ON THE and some of the suggestions which on LEAGUE March 4 the President felt were not con

The general amendments to the Covestructive have now with his approval

n his approval nant will, we think, be approved in the been incorporated into the revised version.

ersion. United States. They embody the impor

United States Th In the amended version of the Covenant

tant constructive suggestions made by issued last week by the Paris Conference

such men as Mr. Taft, Mr. Hughes, and there has been some rearrangement of

Mr. Root, already fully reported in these language and some clarification of expres

columns. They will doubtless meet the sion. The vital and important additions

sincere objections of those Senators who or modifications are as follows:

felt that the original form of the Cove1. The Monroe Doctrine is specifi nant did not sufficiently guarantee the cally recognized.

National initiative and National authority 2. The right of member nations to withdraw from the League on two

of the United States. The amendments years' notice is stated.

do not, however, mollify the antagonism 3. Purely domestic questions are not of such irreconcilables as Senator Borah,

Senator Reed, and the New York “Tribune.” The “ Tribune,” in a very pessimistic editorial, thinks the whole thing is hopeless. It calls Article X (which guarantees member nations against territorial aggression or conquest) “iniquitous,” and Senator Borah says it is a “ breeder of war.” The New York “Tribune" says that the Monroe Doctrine amendment “ is plainly a fraud,” and Senator Borah calls it “ inadequate and inappropriate.” Senator Reed says of the modified Covenant that, “ on the whole, the document is worse than originally drawn.”

We do not think these pessimistic views, however, are representative either of the Senate or of the country at large. Our own judgment is that, after an appropriate amount of discussion, the Senate will probably ratify the amended Covenant.

But intelligent men and women at home and abroad will not imagine that even a ratification by the United States Senate and the opening of the League's offices in Geneva are immediately going to bring about a millennium. The proposed League is a hopeful experiment, and we believe one worth trying. Its success or failure at the outset depends, if not wholly, at least in a very important respect, upon the character and ability of the appointees made to the two administrative bodies—the Assembly and the Council.

The first Secretary-General has already been named. He is Sir Eric Drummond, of Great Britain, well known in English official life, although not a man of international reputation. He has since 1900 held various responsible positions in the British Foreign Office and is at present private secretary to Mr. Balfour, Minister of Foreign Affairs. He is therefore thoroughly familiar with diplomatic procedure and administration.

THE BOLSHEVIKI ON THE
DEFENSIVE

Those who believe in the ultimate unity and freedom of Russia have been greatly encouraged by the reports last week of military successes on the part of the troops of the Omsk and co-operating Governments. Admiral Kolchak's Government, which has its seat at Omsk and controls Siberia, has evidently succeeded in organizing an army of considerable military efficiency. Its troops have been moving westward, and incidentally the Bolsheviki in the Archangel section are threatened with being cut off. That will simplify the situation in Archangel, where our troops have been all winter and from which they are now being withdrawn. It is said that the Czechoslovak and Allied forces have had no part in the western advance against the Bolsheviki. This

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means that the Omsk Government has In this connection it is a little interesting is endeavoring to raise a fund of a million become strong enough to carry on its to note that his fellow Cabinet member, dollars, not merely for the purchase of operations unaided. Undoubtedly this fact Secretary Wilson, of the Department of the property, but to provide an endowwill greatly strengthen the movement for Labor, has issued a proclamation publiclyment by means of which the two buildings formal recognition of the Omsk Govern- urging American merchants and manu- composing Roosevelt House may be made, ment by the Allied Powers.

facturers to advertise, and saying that to use their own words,
advertising is a public service.

a center of citizenship activities, a liv

It may be said in reply that the ma ing thing, a place where the boys and POSTMASTER-GENERAL BURLESON jority of newspaper and periodical pub

the girls of America—and the men and The dissatisfaction throughout the lishers in this country do not oppose an

women as well, foreign born and native

alike—will come together in citizenship country with the policies and methods of increase of second-class rates if that is

activities, in order that their understandthe Postmaster-General has become some necessary to meet proper expenses. What ing of America may become deeper and thing more than a tempest in a teapot. they object to is the zone system of post keener, and in order that the great ideal Although fighting has ceased, the war is age, which promotes sectionalism.

of practical service to our country, of not technically over, and Mr. Burleson is

indefatigable activity in its behalf, shall The chief dissatisfaction with the pres

stir and move with vivid power all therefore managing the telegraph and ent administration of the Post Office De

Americans that frequent or visit“ Roosetelephone systems of the country, as well partment has reached such a pitch that velt House.” as the transportation of mail, under war some influential members of Mr. Burle

The Association deserves success, and legislation which is still in effect. For the son's own political party have asked for as it is composed of some of the most first time in the history of the telephone, his resignation. In contending that he

active and influential women of the city, we believe, a State-wide strike was de has been a failure as a public official it

who are going about their work in a clared in Massachusetts. It was so serious is not necessary to prove that his admin

practical and efficient way, it doubtless and got so far beyond the control of Mr. istration of the mails, the telegraph, or will succeed. Its purposes have the apBurleson that the State officials of Mas the telephone has been either unjust or

proval of members of the Roosevelt famsachusetts asked if the management of inefficient. His principles and theories ily. Those interested are invited to write the telephone in that State could not be may be as philosophically right as a to the Woman's Roosevelt Memorial delegated to them. It has now been set mathematical demonstration, but the fact Association, care of the New York Trust tled by granting all the demands of the still remains that he has got the country Company. 1 East Fifty-seventh Street, employees. Why the demands were not by the ears and has created everywhere a New York City. Full information about granted in the first place by Mr. Burleson

sense of extreme irritation. One of the the project will be sent in reply. without going through all the turmoil of important functions of a Cabinet officer a strike has not yet been explained. is to manage the country as well as man

There has been very general com- age his own Department. No matter how THIRTY-SEVEN NEIGHBORHOOD plaint that the efficiency of the Post upright the general manager of a corpo

HOUSES UNITE Office has deteriorated. The last straw ration may be, if he irritates his workmen Thirty-seven neighborhood houses in appears to have been laid upon the back so that they strike, his office employees New York City, including the College, of a suffering public by the suppression so that they cannot do their best work, Henry Street, Union, and University of some news telegrams offered for trans- and his customers so that they dislike to Settlements, Greenwich House, Madison mission by the New York“ World.” deal with the company, the President and House, and the Hudson Guild, have These telegrams contained criticisms of Board of Directors are pretty likely to formed a union to act for all of them and Postmaster-General Burleson, and the ask for his resignation.

to increase their influence. The office of Western Union Telegraph Company

the new organization, known as the would not accept them. The Postmaster

United Neighborhood Houses of New General now says that the suppression AN APPROPRIATE

York, is at 289 Madison Avenue, and was done without his knowledge or ap ROOSEVELT MEMORIAL

this is to be made the center of informaproval, under a regulation which existed A committee of women of the city of tion about the work of settlements and in the days of private management. It New York, whose work, beginning mod community houses throughout New York. appears that there was a regulation estly, has now attained the dignity of a Its plans include an appeal to city, against libelous matter; but criticism of National movement, proposes to buy the State, and National authorities in cases public officials has not, until the present birthplace of Theodore Roosevelt at 28 where action is necessary to safeguard war period, been considered even by the East Twentieth Street, New York, and the public health, effort to promote imtelegraph companies as libel.

the adjoining property, 26 East Twentieth provement in public education, and work Mr. Burleson has issued a tu quoque Street, for the purpose of establishing a along lines which will make for the comstatement saying that the general criticism permanent Roosevelt memorial in the city fort, convenience, and good order of the of his course is due to a conspiracy of the of his birth. The house No. 28 will be re- community. A labor arbitration service newspaper and periodical publishers, who stored so as to appear as nearly as possible is contemplated, and legislation is to be object to the higher second-class rates as it did in Colonel Roosevelt's boyhood. asked for and pressed. The constitution and the zone system of postage, which he He describes the house and his life in it of the new organization provides that it has advocated and introduced. He even in a very readable chapter of his auto may take steps to create a favorable pubgoes further and attempts to shift the biography. It is proposed to make this lic sentiment upon any matter falling responsibility for the present unsatisfac particular building a sort of Roosevelt within the sphere of activity of commutory second-class regulations to the shoul- Museum, with memorabilia and objects of nity houses. ders of ex-Justice Ilughes, who, he says, various kinds closely associated with the The officers of the United Neighboras chairman of a special commission, life of this great citizen of the State of hood Houses are: President, Mrs. Mary advocated an increase of second-class New York. But it will be much more Kingsbury Simkhovitch; Vice-Presirates. He implies that advertising has than a museum, for, with the adjoining dents, Judge Thomas C. T. Crain, Mrs. become such a feature of American news- house, it is proposed to make it a center Cyrus Sulzberger, and Mrs. Max Morpapers and periodicals as to be a detri- of Americanization and citizenship. The genthau, Jr. Among the members on the ment instead of a benefit to the public. Woman's Roosevelt Memorial Association Service Committee, which will be con

be efficieery gehiained.

to have thorated. Thef, the pom

of a su

avison, Adolph

amusement of some feet while her simila

cerned with the administration of this apparently enjoyed the concert as much “ Times” from the Association Opposed organization, are Professor Stephen P. as their interested friends. One little to National Prohibition, which describes

an alleged crime wave in the District Duncan, Mrs. Henry P. Davison, Adolph girl about ten years old, much to the

of Columbia after it went “bone dry”] Lewisohn, and Mrs. Henry Morgenthau. amusement of some of the audience, kept

is so manifestly unfair that it almost The Council will consist of five repre- time with her little feet while her hands requires no answer, but the pro-German sen tatives from each settlement, including were engaged with her violin—a similar

brewers and the distillers (German, He

brew, and American) are making a desdirectors of the institution, workers, and desire to do so being felt by some of

perate effort to save a business which spokesmen for the people of the neigh her elders, which good form forbade

through their grasping greed has brought borhood.

them to indulge. The programme was the pleasures of alcohol down to the The war-time period demonstrated the concluded by the singing of “ America” lowest possible point of degradation. admirable work which the settlement by the audience and the pupils.

When the social glass might have been

served to us under proper regulations houses are fitted to do. Owing to their The Music School Settlement is doing

and restraint, they have dashed it from close contact with the people in their a unique and commendable work. A thou our lips. respective neighborhoods, they were ap- sand children of various races pass in and I sell “ booze;" it is part of the hotel pealed to for help by the Red Cross, the out of this settlement school, and the

business. I make a good profit and take

a certain pleasure out of it, but I do not Fuel Administration, the Food Board, teachers, a hundred in number, through

believe that the intelligence of Amerithe United War Work Campaign, and their patience and self-sacrifice thus call cans should be insulted by any such various other organizations interested in forth from these young people the songs, false impression as the anti-prohibition Americanization. This brought forcibly so to speak, of many lands, which are crowd desires to leave. Yes, crime is on to the attention of the settlements their enriching what we may call America's

the increase everywhere, but I have no

doubt that it is less in Washington, D. C., vast responsibility and opportunity, and music. A love of music is the basis of the

than it is in cities of similar size where determined them to form such an organi- school, but its work is by no means con booze is sold and the saloon runs ramzation as would enable them to broaden fined to musical technique. Its influence

pant. the scope of their work and put it upon is cultural, social, and ethical in the

In conclusion, I am not a prohibitiona sounder basis. broadest sense.

ist, I am an Anti-Saloon Leaguer. I

believe firmly that nature and nature's With an enlarged neighborhood pro Like all growing philanthropic under

God has given the world all through the gramme it has been proposed that a pub takings, the need of funds increases with centuries alcohol in some form for the lic health service be installed, whereby the growth. Those connected with the good of the world, but the American the city may be divided and health cen- Music School Settlement would like to

saloon cannot exist longer. It is a menace

to health, public safety, and good citizenters established to help in carrying out enlist the patronage of interested music

ship, and I believe some time in the health propaganda and education. A lovers financially well equipped. A little future we will return to our cups, but club service; an arbitration board, whose circular issued by them states that one not under the present system. object should be to assist in the impartial thousand dollars will endow a scholarship,

HOTEL-KEEPER. arbitration of labor disputes ; the exten- fifty dollars will give a child a scholarship We know our correspondent and his sion of the co-operative movement to a for one year, and for one hundred dollars hotel and believe he speaks as a compescheme covering the industrial neighbor the giver will become an “ Annual Pa- tent and sincere witness of the folly of hoods of the city—these and many other tron.” Checks may be sent to Frank H. the liquor-saloon supporters who are now instrumentalities, such as household econ Simmons, Music School Settlement, 55 posing as defenders of beer and light omics service, Americanization, hospital East Third Street, New York. All praise wines. social service, 'etc., are being considered. and help are due the men and women in

this work of placing in the possession
of these young people the golden key of

A GOOD EXAMPLE:

A THE MUSIC SCHOOL music which will open to them the doors

As a former Governor-General of SETTLEMENT

of the other fine things of the soul. Canada, and through his recent visit with The audience that came to Aeolian

Lady Aberdeen to the United States on Hall, New York City, recently, to enjoy

a semi-official war mission, the Marquis some good music were not disappointed WHAT A HOTEL-KEEPER

of Aberdeen is well known to the Amerin their anticipation. The occasion of THINKS OF “BOOZE”

ican people. An article by him on his the gathering was the twenty-fifth annual One of the most interesting letters grandfather is to be found in this issue. Spring Festival Concert of the Music of the many we have received on the pro- . The Aberdeen “Free Press” gives an School Settlement of 55 East Third hibition question is the following from interesting account of Lord Aberdeen's Street. The success of the concert was the proprietor of an excellent hotel in one action in parting with a considerable proevident from the enthusiastic applause of the largest cities of New York State: portion of his great estate in the north of which the players of the various numbers

The other day I had luncheon with

Scotland. About thirteen thousand acres received.

one of the greatest tobacco merchants of the lands within which Haddo House The Music School Settlement has of this country of ours. It was the day stands will be retained. The rest of it, four orchestras—the Elementary, the

after the “ booze” election in Michigan.

about thirty-seven thousand acres—are to Junior, Senior, and Community Orches

If you recollect, a hotel-keeper was

be sold, with the approval of his heirs and

quoted as saying that the “ Drys” had tras. Two of these took part in the festi

carried the election by fraud and the

with the sanction of the Court, whose val, the Elementary Orchestra, conducted returns were false; my friend the tobacco sanction, as we understand it, is necesby Miss Fannie Levine, and the Senior merchant quoted this hotel man. I sent sary. Orchestra, conducted by Mr. Melzar

for the copy of your esteemed periodical

What is especially interesting in this

containing “ Keeping Detroit on the Chaffee. The accomplishment and play

Water Wagon ” [The Outlook for April

incident is the fact that the new proprietor ing of these orchestras was a pleasant 27 and read him what the Governor of “intends to give an opportunity for all surprise to some who attended one of Michigan, the Mayor of Detroit, and the the tenants” on the lands which have these Music School concerts for the first Chief of Police of Detroit had to say on

been sold “to become owners of their time. The music selected by Bach, Bee

the subject. When I had finished, he
said, “ Ï am sold,” indicating that I had

holdings.” If, as we judge to be the case, thoven, Grieg, and others—was well

made my point. The inclosed clipping this purpose of the new proprietor has adapted to the ability of the pupils, who [embodying a statement in the New York been one of the inducements which has

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