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deadly bombs sent through the mail, men the organization and reorganization of as that system in which the hand-worker who have been prominently identified street railway companies, in which he or employee shall have a voice in the with trying Anarchists who assumed endeavors briefly to outline a plan of management of the business and a parto be anti-radical or capitalistic in their municipal regulation of street railways. ticipation in the profits. It is our convicsympathies, also suggests the need of new From that communication we quote the tion that only in this way can an efficient legislation ; for it is stated that bomb following passage:

partnership between so-called labor and manufacture is more prevalent in Amer

If the street railway is to be looked

so-called capital be established. For laica than elsewhere simply because our laws upon as a servant of the people, and borers and capitalists are not enemies nor are lax as to the manufacture and sale of that is what it must be, then in order to are their interests conflicting. They are explosives. Only the quick intelligence

be an efficient servant it must be operated
and run by trained men who must look

really partners. of a post-office employee prevented a

to the excellence of their work for a

There have recently come to our attenseries of horrible murders, and while continuance of their jobs, and the road tion three or four interesting instances in clues seemed at first to be abundant, the must earn enough to pay interest on which there has been an earnest attempt scoundrel who planned the crime remains,

what it is worth as going concern, pay

made by corporations to give their workits wages, and maintain its property. we write, undetected. Whether the This means a business, not a political,

ers a share in the profits and a reprecriminal was an anarchistic agitator or organization.

sentation in the management. This is not, he certainly was moved by hatred Hostility between the street railway due, we think, to the changes produced by against the exponents of law and order. and the city served must cease in the the war in the economic theories of the

interest of both. The theory of the Reds that the crime

This can be brought about by valuing

world. We have asked Mr. Theodore H. was a “frame-up” by their enemies is

the roads of to-day as going concerns

Price, a valued contributor to The Outlook baseless and silly.

the city and the road in question each to on economic and industrial problems, to name one firm of engineers, and these

give us an article on this subject. In two to select a third, the city to pass

such STREET RAILWAY FARES

ordinances as will permit seven per cent

preparing it he desires the co-operation of to be earned

our readers and asks us to print the fol

upon the agreed upon valuVarious cities throughout the coun- ation and on the new property added lowing letter, which we gladly do: try have been struggling with the question from time to time, through the imposition of such fares as will raise the neces

May 1, 1919. of street railway fares. The companies

To the Readers of The Outlook : sary revenue; and in consideration of operating such railways have claimed that such action on the city's part to protect

At the suggestion of the editors of The the standard fare of five cents is not

the property at its just value, any excess

Outlook, I am planning to write an artisufficient to pay the wages and other earnings to be divided between the cor

“ Profit Sharing and Democratic costs of operation and maintenance, and poration and the city, the city at its

Factory Management." In this article I

annual election to elect two directors, bonded interest, to say nothing of divi

shall endeavor to include a comparative dends. In more than one instance the fares

one an engineer and the other a certified

digest of the various profit-sharing plans

that have been introduced in the conduct

accountant, to represent it on the Rail. have been increased fifty per cent with the

many

American industrial and comWith the city then in partnership with

mercial establishments. consent of municipal or other officials. In The Outlook of April 30 Mr. the street railway, its records and ac

That this digest may be inclusive and counts open at all times to the city Theodore H. Price published an article

intelligent, I am taking this method of

through its accredited representative on requesting that all those to whose eye with a chart entitled “The Index Number

the Board, the many fruitful grounds for

this letter may come should send me in Wage,” which showed at a glance how the

detail or in outline a description of any

misunderstanding will be abolished. The price of foodstuffs and other necessary

election of men for this specific purpose

profit-sharing plan of which they may commodities has risen during the last

will prevent a shifting of responsibility

have knowledge as in actual operation. from one city father to another, and men

I shall also appreciate any suggestions twenty years. At that time we said : " It is

so elected can be held to a strict ac

drawn from the experience or observaperfectly clear that the wages of employ- countability. Both the railway officials

tion of my correspondents that will be ees must go up with the cost of living. It and the city's officials will be only too

helpful. anxious to stand well with the public,

My address is 15 Wall Street, New is equally a mathematical deduction that

and the Public Service Commission will

York, N. Y. railway rates must go up also to meet this still exist as an umpire.

THEODORE H. PRICE. necessary rise in wages or else the railways will be bankrupt.” This mathematical

This kind of partnership between the

city authorities and street railway experts deduction is just as applicable to the street

AMERICAN SOLDIERS AND is well worth consideration, and we comrailways as it is to the steam railways.

FRENCH UNIVERSITIES mend it to those who are struggling with Either the street railways must be taken these problems.

It has long been a dream of the over by the various municipalities in which

writer of this paragraph-probably never they run and must be operated as public

to be realized, alas !-that it would be utilities, the taxpayer bearing the deficits ; DEMOCRATIC

delightful to spend a winter in the old or, if private management is desired, the FACTORY MANAGEMENT

French university town of Montpellier. private owners must receive sufficient Many years ago The Outlook pub- Montpellier lies practically on the Med- . return to warrant them in maintaining lished a series of articles under the gen- iterranean near Marseilles, and is the

eral title of "Industrial Democracy.” It seat of one of the oldest and perhaps it There are a good many reasons for is our impression that the term “indus- may also be said one of the most oldthinking that the public sentiment in this trial democracy was framed and first fashioned universities in France. It has country favors private operation under used in these columns. At all events, we a special place in academic history besome kind of fair governmental regulation employed it to express our belief that in cause one of the great classical scholars of its steam railways. The same, we think, the slow but steady process of social rev- of the Renaissance period, Isaac Casaubon, is true in most communities at present of olution in which man first struggled for lectured there. street railways. The question is, What is and established religious democracy, then What could be more pleasant for an fair regulation ?

political democracy, then educational American who hates the cold and who We have received a communication democracy, he is now seeking perfectly loves the sunshine of the Mediterranean from a reader of The Outlook who for logically to obtain democracy in industry. than to spend a winter at Montpellier, some years has had active experience in We have defined industrial democracy straightening out and polislung up his

proper service.

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66

French by taking a course of lectures, by certain extracts from the speech of sented interdenominational organizations, extra curriculum, on, let us say, the life the Chairman of the gathering, Dr. S. and others were editors and clergymen. and work of Casaubon himself, provided Earl Taylor. It was in that speech that It was decided to make surveys to some member of the faculty could be per- he used the words which we quote as the show what is being done and what is not suaded to give such a course of lectures. characterization of the movement. He being done in home and foreign missions,

All these reflections are prompted by cited the remarks of General Byng, the education, religious training, and social some facts which have just been furnished famous commander of the Canadians at service. When the surveys are ready, then to us through the courtesy of Mr. Marcel Vimy and of the British Third Army at a co-operative community and world pro Knechts of the Official Bureau of French Cambrai, when he said to Bishop Mc- gramme will be outlined and put into Information in New York City, regarding Connell: “I trust that you will go back operation. The purpose is to have in all the registration of American soldiers of to your own country and go to your own communities joint drives ” like those the A. E. F. in French universities. Mr. people, and in every way that you can for the Liberty Loans or the Red Cross, André Tardieu, formerly French High urge upon them that in the days, the ter- but in this case for the common use of Commissioner to the United States, de- rible days ahead of us, the days after the the Protestant churches. The first purvised a plan last autumn by which these war, the Church shall fail not.” And Dr. pose is to increase the constituency of the soldiers, most of them college men whom Taylor asked, " What has made democ- churches—to double it. It is somewhat the war seized from their studies, have racy safe in America ?" And he answered, staggering, certainly it is a bold concepbeen distributed among the French uni- “ The Christian home, the open Bible, the tion, but its boldness has won to the versities. The purpose of the plan is to free church. In a word, the foundations movement many of the strongest leaders. give American soldiers an opportunity to of intelligence and morality laid deep by There was a frank facing of the fact spend time that is not needed for military our Pilgrim and Puritan forefathers." that in all this the Churches would have duties in taking special courses in con- And he went on to show by words and to place themselves in accord with the tinuation of their academic careers. The by pictures on the screen that invariably spirit of democracy, and especially in conamazing number of 5,800 soldiers have at the bottom of every peril that is threat- tact with industrial questions and with been availing themselves of this oppor- ening the world to-day is the lack of that the life of people who work with their tunity. Fourteen universities in various foundation of morality, and to show also hands. A keen edge to the discussion of towns throughout the French Republic are that the places of stability, of content- this aspect of the problem before the participating in the plan. Seventeen hun- ment, of peace, and of strength are places Churches was given by the fact that on dred American soldiers are registered, for where moral principle and education, and, Thursday, in front of the hotel occupied example, at the Sorbonne in Paris, and underneath all, religious faith, prevail. by the Convention, there was a Socialist eleven hundred are registered, or were on And he put before his audience facts demonstration and rioting. It is true that the last of March, at the University of showing that investments in schools and the participants in the riot were overToulouse in southern France. The next churches are really investments in secu- whelmingly foreign-born; but the red largest number, five hundred and fifty, rity.“ Beyond all question the Church

Beyond all question the Church flags and the disorder and the injuries were at Montpellier. The balance of these of Christ is incomparably the most pow- constituted a picture of what the Church American students were distributed at erful organization that we know anything has to face in the world to-day. the Universities of Rennes, Caen, Nancy, about in the world. And yet a fair study The official leaders of the Interchurch Poitiers, Dijon, Besançon, Grenoble, Aix- of its latent resources and unused power Movement, chosen by the general comMarseille, Bordeaux, Clermont-Ferrand, would probably compel us to conclude mittee at this session, are : Chairman, and Lyon. American professors who are that of all the great organizations in the F. W. Ayer, of New York, leader of the doing special war service in France have world the Church is developed to the Baptist Layman's Movement; vice-chairbeen taken into the work and are acting smallest percentage of its capacity.” He man, Fred B. Smith, of New York, widely in the capacity of what might perhaps be declared that interest charges on the cost known as a Y. M. C. A. leader, and procalled university liaison officers. There of the World War at four per cent for moter of the Men and Religion Movecould be no better scheme devised to one hour exceeded the total gifts from ment; recording secretary, W.B. Millar, develop and maintain the relations of America for foreign missions for the year New York, secretary Layman's Missionunderstanding and friendship between 1918.

ary Movement; executive secretary, S. the two Republics.

The Interchurch World Movement is Earl Taylor, New York, secretary MethoEngland is also opening her universities an attempt to bring the Protestant dist Episcopal Board of Foreign Missions ; to American soldier students. An early Churches, that is, the twenty-five million treasurer, George M. Fowles, New York ; issue of The Outlook will contain an people who make up the Protestant and John R. Mott, of New York, chairarticle by Dr. Shipley, of Christ's College, Churches of America, into action some- man of the executive committee. These Cambridge, giving some impressions of what more in proportion than at present officials, with the co

officials, with the co-operation of “key the American Army men now studying

to their
power
and resources.

” in the various interested denominaat this ancient and beautiful British seat effort to enable America, the only Western tions, will develop the plans to be perof learning.

Nation that has not sacrificed virtually a fected at a great gathering which is to be

whole generation of its youth in war, to held next fall. THE INTERCHURCH WORLD

see that the democracy which the war MOVEMENT

has saved is itself saved from becoming “ America has moved out of its old merely materialistic or destructive or

THE RED CROSS OF THE isolation into the realm of world affairs. anarchic by being made a moral, a relig

FUTURE The programme of the Church must ious, a Christian democracy.

The large extension of the field of match the policy of the Nation if the To this end, the Conference at Cleve- Red Cross activities, already proposed Church is to continue as a world force.” land assembled nearly five hundred dele- and to some extent put in operation in

This, in substance, is what the Inter- gates, representing twenty-eight denom- this country by the American Red Cross, church World Movement, which was inations. Most of these delegates were is to be taken up on a world-wide scale the subject of a great Conference held in officers or members of various missionary and purpose by a Red Cross Congress to Cleveland on April 30 to May 2, stands for. boards, a number of them were college convene at Geneva thirty days after peace

Perhaps its spirit can best be described presidents and professors, others repre- has been declared. This International

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Congress at Geneva will be the most FOR WORKING GIRLS

Secretary, Mrs. William Herbert (United momentous meeting in the history of the Twenty-eight years ago The Outlook Charities Building, New York), for the Red Cross movement. Already a prelim- first called the attention of its readers extremely interesting thirty-third annual inary meeting of experts on such subjects to the value and quality of the help

to the value and quality of the help report of the Working Girls' Vacation as child welfare, tuberculosis, hygiene, rendered sick and tired girls by the Society or to send contributions directly and all the large aspects of public health, Working Girls' Vacation Society of to the same address. has been in session at Cannes, with a view New York. Our readers responded then to prepare for the Geneva conference an with liberality. From time to time since extended programme of desirable new similar appeals have shown that the A SOUTHERN PHILANTHROPIST Red Cross activities in the interests of

was remembered. Now a special

ON THE RACE QUESTION humanity.

condition encourages the hope that the We have received a pamphlet read The resolution adopted by these dis- pleasant co-operation of the past may be at a meeting last March in Boston by tinguished physicians and scientists of renewed.

Mr. Bolton Smith, of Memphis, TennesEngland, France, Japan, Italy, and the In common with other philanthropies, see, which we wish might have a wide United States defines the purpose of the the Working Girls' Vacation Society has circulation. Coming from a man born movement to be “ to spread the light of felt seriously the financial conditions in the North but long resident in the science and the warmth of human sym- caused by the war. It is now facing a South, who is in sympathy with the pathy into every corner of the world.” serious problem.

intelligent Southern view of the race Heretofore the field of the Red Cross In addition to its regular vacation question, it presents by the principles it has been to alleviate the suffering caused work at their houses in New York, Con- inculcates and the spirit it manifests a by war or by some terrible calamity. But pecticut, and New Jersey, the Society basis for a real agreement in both thought the efficiency of the association and the has for twenty-five years conducted two and feeling between the North and the liberality with which the people answer houses at Santa Clara, in the Adiron- South. The Northern and Southern posiits calls for support have made it evident dacks, for the care of working girls who tions are not antagonistic; they are not that it has a wider mission than this. have tuberculosis in the incipient and necessarily divergent. There is no inconHereafter, as the resolution adopted at curable state. These houses are neces- gruity between the Northern demand for the Cannes meeting declared, “while sarily run at special expense, as the girls justice to the Negro and the Southern every measure should be taken to repair must have the most nourishing food and deniand for the preservation of the purity the ravages of war and to prevent all live under the best conditions in order of the white race. We agree with Mr. wars, it is no less important that the that they may be sufficiently benefited Smith in his statement : I believe these world should address itself to the preven- to return to their work at the end of the are the two sides of one and the same tion and amelioration of those ever-pres- period of rest and recreation. As the shield—the blood of the race must be kept ent tragedies of unnecessary sickness and nearest physician lives, ten miles from the pure, but so must its ideals-the former death which. occur in the homes of all little hamlet of Santa Clara, it is neces- without the latter is like the body without peoples.”

sary to have a resident doctor in case of the soul." There can be no doubt that this move- a sudden illness. The house is not called He urges that the children of the ment will have the support of the peoples a hospital or a sanitarium, but is simply Negro and the white races be educated of the world in creating a vast organiza- a Vacation House where girls are suffi- in separate schools, but he also urges tion, thoroughly equipped, to promote ciently renewed in health to be able to that the schools be as good for the one human betterment in a systematic and continue work on their return to the city. race as for the other. He cites as an co-ordinated manner. The particular pur- In many instances the girls must re- illustration the public schools in Cincinposes laid down by the experts at the turn to Santa Clara for a number of nati. There is no separate school law in Cannes conference are the development summers before the tendency to consump. Ohio, and Negro children have the right of sound measures for public health and

tion is entirely conquered. It often hap- to attend the public schools attended by sanitation, the welfare of children and

pens that the girls who go to the exam- white children. “ There is, however, a mothers, the education and training of ining physician in New York have no school in a densely colored portion of nurses, the control of tuberculosis, vene- idea that they are threatened with tuber. Cincinnati which I am informed is atreal diseases, malaria, and other infec- culosis. They are languid and ill, and tended by Negro children only. It is tious and preventable diseases.

when they are told the nature of their stated that the average marks of these The call issued by the International trouble they are naturally frightened at colored children for scholarship are Committee of the Red Cross Societies of first, but later are very grateful that the higher than those earned by the colored the world rightly declares that the new disease has been taken in time.

children attending the schools also atprogramme is exactly in keeping with the The two houses in the Adirondacks tended by white children. Besides, it is high ideals which led to the formation of -Uplands and Hillcrest-were given to found that a larger proportion remain in the Red Cross half a century ago. It is the Society by Mr. George E. Dodge. school through the higher classes than is certainly true, to quote the words of the They are very perfectly equipped for the the case with the other colored children.” Committee, that “if it was possible half work and accommodate fifty-seven girls The secret of this fact may, however, a century ago to bring nations to an at a time. Now, because of the increased well be that “the school to which I refer understanding, not to abolish war, but to cost of everything-food, transportation, in Cincinnati has just as much money alleviate in some measure the suffering wages—as well as a decrease in income

spent on it as the other schools of the which follows in its wake, surely such an because of the demands made by the city.” understanding would be more beneficent, war, the Society will be obliged to close He denies that the education of the even more glorious, when it leads the one of these two houses this coming sum- Negro race will have any tendency to nations to work in concert under the im- mer unless it can raise the $4,000 neces- develop in that race a desire for social pulse of mutual confidence and common sary for its support.

equality with the whites. The fact that a charity to remedy certain ills which are. We ask those to whom this intensive white man who should discover that he visited upon the human society, or to effort to make working girls well and had Negro blood would wish to keep the bring aid to one of the nations stricken

strong and give them a healthful and secret and continue to associate with by sudden catastrophe.”

happy vacation appeals to write to the white people does not prove that a Negro who has never thought of himself as any- three hours and ten minutes, after having CHINA AND JAPAN AT thing else would be otherwise than un- crossed the Atlas Mountains at an alti

THE PEACE TABLE comfortable if he were called on to asso- tude of about thirteen thousand feet. The ciate intimately with white people. Mr.

F all the complex Smith gives this illustration :

sixty miles

away

and arrived at the same When told of the valor of the British

time. The station where the wounded are as delicate or important as those and the French, Americans do not feel general lay was far too primitive for a which concern the east coast of Asia. All the poorer. Rather do we feel the richer serious operation, being isolated in the the world knows of the complaints of that we live in a world in which there is

desert, without any instruments or ap- China against Japan and her demands so much courage. These stories of the valor of our allies do not dim in the

paratus. The general's condition being that Tsingtao be returned to her. All the least the luster of the deeds of our own very grave, he was brought back by world knows also of Japan's claims to the boys.

bombing airplane to a hospital station, disputed territory and her protest against In the same way I feel the fame of

a distance of about forty miles, escorted any impairment of formal treaty rights. my race to be safe and that I am the richer whenever I learn of some worthy

by the two surgeons. Although the pa- The sympathy of Americans, in so far accomplishment of a Negro. It is as if

tient was in a very grave condition, an as it finds expression through the press, the Power that brought me here had operation was performed, and all the seems to be preponderantly with China. said : “ If this wonderful thing of life immediate symptoms were successfully The deep-seated suspicion of Japan which which you share can

strike
a spark from
relieved.

has developed in the past twelve or thireven this humble breast, how much more

This is not the only instance of the air- teen years has prejudiced many Amerimay you not attain to !"

plane being used for the transportation cans against her, and has led them to The author is equally insistent or jus- of wounded. It was found, so Dr. Tuffier believe that Japan is never to be trusted, tice to the Negro and in his hostility to reports, that men suffering from the grav- least of all when she is dealing with China. lynching. Lynching does not stop crime, est lesions, such as fractures of the thigh, Americans in China are overwhelmingly and " what we want is to prevent crime could be easily transported forty miles in and bitterly anti-Japanese. Business men rather than to have to punish it." As one

three-quarters of an hour, flying over there see in Nipponese activities the closing means of preventing it he would estab

the enemy lines. In September, 1918, of the open door and the stifling of legitilish colonies for the feeble-minded; and fifteen wounded men were brought back mate competition; missionaries there have as another he would make provision for from the front in Morocco by ordinary been antagonized by the Japanese exploitayoung Negro children so that they could airplane, covering a distance of sixty tion of the great inchvate republic, notably be cared for during the day and taught miles in less than seventy minutes. Be- in such unfortunate ways as the illicit morsimple work and play and trained as fore the war came to an end the French phine and opium traffic. Only occasionuseful members of society. “It would be had mapped out in southern Algeria and ally is a voice raised publicly in defense even cheaper in the long run than spend- in Tunis actual airplane routes for the of the island Empire. Americans have, ing so much on criminal court and peni- evacuation of the wounded and the trans- too, a traditional sympathy with the under tentiary.” Above all, he would secure portation of surgeons. One of these routes dog which at times approaches the quixjustice under the law for the Negro. reaches a point over three hundred miles otic, and China's helplessness and almost

Every lynching makes even the good from any railway. To transport wounded pathetic trust in the good intentions of Negro feel less safe in his person and over this route by camel or mule the United States have been both touchproperty.”

would require twenty-six days. French ing and flattering.
pilots have made this trip in airplanes Suspicions of Japanese activities in

comfortably in one day. The advantages China are, moreover, not without some AIRPLANE AMBULANCES

of airplane evacuation of the wounded, foundation. Japan holds Manchuria more We have received, through the cour- says Dr. Tuffier, are not only the rapidity tightly in her grip than in 1914. And tesy of Dr. C. L. Gibson, of New York

but the possibility of penetrating to sta- now, since expelling the Germans, Japan City, an account of the successful em- tions which are for the most part sur

has hastened to establish herself as firmly ployment of an airplane as a war ambu- rounded by the enemy.

as possible in Tsingtao. If the Japanese lance in the desert of Morocco. The He prophesies that special airplane succeed in retaining their present bold, account comes from Dr. Tuffier, a friend ambulances will be built with proper the province and peninsula of Shantung, of Dr. Gibson's, who not only holds a accommodations and entrances for the to which the port of Tsingtao, together place of eminence in French surgery, but wounded, especially for grave' cases of with Kiaochau, is the key, may be as has been Chief Consultant to the French injury to the head, chest, and abdomen. firmly gripped as Manchuria. With these armies. Dr. Tuffier's account is especially We suppose that the great extent of level two sections in their hands the Japanese interesting because it is not a prophecy area in the desert would make landing,

area in the desert would make landing, would have North China at their mercy ; of what aviators dream of doing in the forced or voluntary, more simple than in and in view of their claims in Fukien and future, but a scientific narrative of what an ordinary hilly and mountainous coun- their expanding influence in the Yangtze they have already actually accomplished. try. Dr. Tuffier points out one obstacle Valley, the Japanese would seem to be

Dr. Tuffier was called from France to to aviation in the Sahara Desert-that is moving toward dominance in the south. Morocco to see a general who had been the temperature, with the resulting atmos- To peoples who have been passing through badly wounded by a shell fragment which pheric disturbances, which make it neces- an inferno of struggle in resisting German had entered the left side of the chest and sary for the pilot to keep five or six aggression it is natural that Japanese had become lodged behind the heart. thousand feet in the air in the summer. policies in China should seem dangerous This officer had been wounded at a place The greatest drawback is the sirocco, that to the peace of the world and contrary to one hundred and seventy miles from any dry, hot wind of the desert which raises ideas of justice and liberty. The fact that railway. He had been carried to the rear clouds of dust and makes landing so dan- the Chinese have borrowed recklessly of from the line of fighting, fifteen miles, on gerous that flying is impossible about one Japan during the past year or two, and a litter. Two army surgeons were detailed day out of every four in the hot periods. have pledged as security important taxes to go to him by airplane. One started Notwithstanding these drawbacks this and mining, railway, and timber rights, from Fez, one hundred and eighty miles airplane ambulance service is an accom- and thus have to some extent placed away, and reached the wounded officer in plished fact.

themselves under Japanese control, does

men

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