ePub 版
[ocr errors]



Pyrene Mfg. Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, P. Q.

[graphic][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

MAY 14, 1919


won it.


and it will require not mere idealism but without being assured that if she cleared T is evident that Germany has made the most scrupulous knowledge of diplo- the Pacific, including Kiaochau, of the

elaborate preparation for argumenta- matic tactics on the part of the Allies to Germans she would be permanently retive resistance now that military resistance deal with him.”

lieved of the German menace ; and she is out of the question. The delegation Edward David, the second in authority naturally also wished to fall heir to any housed, secluded, and protected by France in the German delegation, is a Majority commercial advantage that the Germans in a dignified and proper manner at Ver- Socialist, has had much experience in had secured. So before entering the war sailles will in all probability have received foreign affairs, and is said to insist that she made a secret treaty with the Allies the terms proposed by the Allies before any treaty of peace should be submitted and also a treaty with China by which this is read. At this writing the date set to the German people for ratification by she was to have title to Kiaochau if she is Wednesday, May 7. The programme vote-evidently one of the many ways in outlined by the correspondents indicates which Germany hopes to create delay and She did win it; and she therefore that the German delegates will have a make possible a period of bargaining over claimed it before the Peace Conference. fortnight in which to consider the docu- the terms. Few people believe that Ger- When President Wilson announced that ment presented to them and to file their many will reject absolutely or finally the Fiume should not go to Italy because it protests and objections. The hope is ex- terms offered, but there is every likeli- was a Jugoslav port, and that the treaty pressed in Paris that by June 1 a definite hood that she will attempt to drag her giving Dalmatia to Italy ought not to be point will be reached in the negotiations. opponents into argument as to the con- observed because it was a secret treaty, it For reasons which do not seem quite clear, sistency of the terms with the principles was generally understood that Japan had the German National Assembly has been with which she alleges the Allies agreed very little chance of winning President transferred from Weimar to Berlin for to make those terms conform.

Wilson's assent to her claims. The same the purpose of discussing the peace terms;

arguments used by Mr. Wilson in Italy's probably it is considered that this course

case were applicable to the case of Japan. would be more impressive, and that any JAPAN GETS KIAOCHAU

There was a rumor that if the Japanese conclusion reached would bear greater Within a week after President Wil

claims were

not allowed Japan would weight if it came from the real center of son had issued his declaration denying follow the course of Italy and withdraw German political power.

Italy's claims it was officially announced from the Conference. On the last day of Characteristically, Germany has gone

that the Council of Three of the Peace April, however, the decision of the Counfrom her first extreme of offering to send Conference had granted Japan's claims cil of Three was published that all of the mere messengers to Paris to the other ex- in the Shantung Province of China. former German possessions were to go to treme of building upan extensiveand care- Japan's claims are based upon her Japan, but that Japanese troops were to fully planned body of recognized experts to military success in capturing the German be withdrawn as soon as possible. It was represent her at Paris. An analysis of the colony at Kiaochau and upon a treaty by reported that Japan had given assurances composition of the delegation, published which it is understood Great Britain and that she would turn the territory over to in the New York “ Times,” shows that France, as well as Italy and Russia, China. instead of six delegates, with a staff of granted her this territory which she con- Against this decision the Chinese have advisers and secretaries, Germany is rep- quered. Japan's claims are also in part made strong protest. They regard it as a resented by about forty men of standingalleged to be confirmed by an agreement high-handed procedure by which a group apart from the minor assistants. The list which she secured from China in 1915. . of nations hands Chinese territory over to includes diplomatic, financial, and indus- The territory in question is naturally another nation without any regard to trial authorities of all varieties. Thus, not of great commercial value, and it has Chinese rights. When it is said that the only are experts in iron and coal, in agri. been made more valuable by its develop decision is in accordance with the treaty culture, in trade, banking, and shipping ment under German control. For many which Japan made with Great Britain and to be found in the list; but there are also years Germany longed for a foothold in France, and that therefore Great Britain authorities in art, in literature, and even this part of China, and found her oppor

and France have no choice in the matter, in theology, for a bishop and a theological tunity when two German missionaries were the Chinese say in reply that that was a professor are among the number. Count killed by some Chinese. As reparation for secret treaty and ought not to be observed Brockdorff-Rantzau, who heads the dele- the death of these missionaries Germany any more than the treaty which handed gation, is classed politically as an anti- demanded in 1897 and secured from China Dalmatia over to Italy. When it is said Socialist, and is a diplomat of the old Kiaochau Bay and the port of T-.ngtao, that the Chinese themselves made an type who has always worked in sympathy with a considerable amount of back coun- agreement with Japan to turn with the German autocratic group, al- try. She also secured commercial rights. Kiaochau to Japan, the Chinese reply though he is called a Liberal Demo- In all this matter China was of course that that was an agreement secured by crat. He has denied that he depends on helpless. Consequently when the war duress and ought not to be sustained by inciting differences of opinion among the broke out in 1914 Germany had a flourish- a conference assembled to do justice. Allies; but he has certainly been one of ing colony at Kiaochau and commercially On the other hand, it is said in defense those Germans who have shut their eyes controlled the Shantung Peninsula and of the President's acquiescence in this to the knowledge of Germany's complete much of the commerce of that part of decision that, although his sympathies defeat. Dr. Maurice Egan, formerly our China. Of course this German possession were with China and that his Fourteen American Minister to Denmark, who was not only an imposition upon China, Points sustain China, he had to decide knows Count Brockdorff-Rantzau well, but a menace to Japan. Japan was not against China, for if he had decided the says: “Rantzau is intellect personified, willing to enter the war against Germany other way Japan would have withdrawn from the Conference; and with Italy out of Fiume the Italian claims are dis- LOYAL RUSSIA and Japan out, the League of Nations puted by a people who in part were Only those forces in Russia which would have become nothing more than hostile not only to Italy but to the whole make for law and order and against an alliance between England, France, cause of the Allies.


terrorism and class tyranny are loyal to and America, and would have faced the Yet of these two analogous cases, one the true Russia. Most powerful among possibility of an opposing League or alli- was decided in favor of Japan, while the these forces is the All-Russian Governance consisting of Germany, Russia, other was against Italy. Why? It is said

ment at Omsk, supported in the field by Italy, and Japan. Of course such an by a correspondent defending the course

the army of Kolchak, now cordially aided argument can come only from those who of President Wilson that “ circumstances

by Denikine. If the Allies and the have little faith in our allies and therefore sufficiently different make different treat- United States find it wise to recognize small basis for faith in a League of ment absolutely essential. Japan is in a

any government in Russia, it is that at Nations. It is pointed out, moreover, that strong enough position economically actu- Omsk, not that at Moscow, which dewhereas Italy was running a good deal of ally to carry out her threat to withdraw

serves consideration. If Russia is to be risk in withdrawing from the Conference from both the League of Nations and the fed by the Allies, it is wrong to waste alone, Japan would have run no such Peace Conference if she lost everything."

time in trying to induce Lenine to stop risk, for she was economically independent The implication is that Italy is not strong.

violence and stop war; the way to feed of the United States. So, it is said, prac. Why is Italy economically weak? Why Russia, as has been said, is “ from the tical considerations had to take precedence is she dependent upon the United States edges inward, not from Moscow outward.” over theoretical principles. for the food and raw material and finan

Recent news has recorded notable cial aid? She is dependent because she

successes of the anti-Bolshevist forces. has been exhausted by her long, continu- Kolchak has advanced to the Volga THE ANALOGY BETWEEN

ous war against the common enemy. The River and is to have headquarters at JAPAN AND ITALY result is that Japan, unweakened by war,

Ekaterinburg, where the Czar is believed There are many facts which make wins her case; while Italy, weakened by

to have been murdered. His forces now the cases of Italy and Japan in the fighting America's enemy, loses.

control territory from the Pacific to the Peace Conference analogous. Kiaochau There are certain conclusions that an

Urals containing, it is said, 70,000,000 was granted to Japan by a secret treaty; impartial observer might draw from these

people. The. Omsk Government, one so was Dalmatia granted to Italy. Kiao- facts: first, that a League of Nations

correspondent writes, is aided by reprechau was won by the sacrifice of Japan founded on the proposition that moral sentatives of the co-operative societies, in the war; so was Dalmatia won by the authority is a complete substitute for

the professional unions, the Constitusacrifice of Italy. The question of Kiao military force begins inauspiciously by tional Democratic party, Social Revoluchau was a matter of dispute between yielding to a display of material strength; tionists, Social Democrats, and Cossacks. two allies, Japan and China ; so were second, that hereafter Japan might be It is added: “Naturally there are many Dalmatia and Fiume a matter of dispute excused if she concluded that what really shades of political opinion in this body, between two allies, Italy and Jugoslavia. counts in international decisions is, after but its members have announced themKiaochau is a point of great importance all, not a just cause, but a strong military selves as definitely in accord on two to the military safety and commercial or economic position ; third, that China points—in their support of Kolchak and prosperity of Japan ; while Dalmatia might well understand that her allies

in the proclamation barring out the and Fiume are points of vital importance consider helplessness not an occasion for Bolsheviki.” In another direction the to the military safety and commercial offering aid, but as an offense to be pun

Bolsheviki are being hard pressed by the prosperity of Italy. In the question of ished; fourth, that Italy might well Finns, who have even been reported to Kiaochau it has been alleged that there understand the decision as a notification

be on the point of capturing Petrograd. is involved a sort of Monroe Doctrine for that she might have had a decision like In Northern Russia the Allies continue Japan in the East; but there is equal that granted in Japan's favor if she had

to repulse attacks. ground for saying that in the case of not weakened herself by fighting so An appeal to the Allies to recognize Fiume and Dalmatia there is involved a devotedly for the cause of the Allies ;

the Omsk Government has just been sort of Monroe Doctrine for Italy in the and, fifth, that the United States, revers

issued by an association of Russian army Adriatic. It can be said that whatever ing the policy of speaking softly and

and navy officers in this country. It urges differences there are in the analogy be carrying a big stick, had done much loud that with small exceptions the antitween the two cases are in favor of Italy. talking about principles but had yielded Bolshevist forces in Russia are working In the case of Kiaochau there is no bona- to the big stick in others' hands.

with or under Kolchak, and that he has fide Japanese community involved; while It is not likely, in the face of the de

succeeded “in suppressing the Bolshevist in the Adriatic there bona-fide cision in the Japanese case, that President

movement throughout Siberia, in estabItalian communities along the Dalma- Wilson's judgment against Italy will be lishing law and order in the regions contian coast and at Fiume. There has been finally adopted. Despatches state that

trolled by him, in regenerating the nano report of a demand on the part of the Italian Prime Minister is returning tional spirit among the soldiers of the the inhabitants of Tientsin to become to the Peace Conference, and that a com

young and brave Siberian army, and Japanese; while there has been issued promise has been reached. There are

finally in setting up a stable Government from Fiume and from Zara (another city reports that Fiume is to be temporarily with strong administrative branches all on the Adriatic) an announcement that internationalized till the Jugoslavs erect

through Siberia and in the Seven River the inhabitants desire to become Italian. terminal facilities at another port, and

region." Whatever need Japan has for the posses- then will become Italian. If this proves As to the political purposes of Kolchak, sion of Kiaochau for military defense is to be the final verdict, it seems as if it

who has been charged with personal remote; while the military value of might have been reached without all this ambition to become dictator, this appeal Dalmatia as a safeguard to Italy has trouble and animosity. Can it be possible declares: been proved in this war. Whereas the that somebody in authority had to experidispute in the case of Kiaochau is be- ence this crisis in order to learn that

Anarchy is a brutal force; anarchy

can be combated by force only ; under tween two nations whose loyalty to the there were other harbors besides that at

the prevailing conditions bayonets. must Allies' cause is equally clear, in the case Fiume available for the Jugoslavs ?

precede electional campaigns. Admiral


Kolchak has stated quite distinctly and membered or diminished in territory (and than one instance in this war resulted in on various occasions that he is going to

the misgovernment in that country cerlead the Russian people to the convoca

tragic, purposeless loss of life. tainly makes her deserve drastic terms), Whatever their racial descent or social tion of a National Assembly; he took an oath, and as a man of honor he will the decision should come, not through history-and every grade, high and low, uphold it, that he would merely con- little wars waged by newly formed coun- was represented—these men were Amerisider himself as a temporary ruler, and tries, but through a serious decision cans through and through. Their valor that he would lead the nation to the

reached by the Powers really responsible and their patriotism were of the highest. polls. . . . Anarchy must be crushed in order to give the people the opportunity for the peace of the future.

They will take back to their homes the to work out a national policy of their The incident illustrates, as does the spirit of common American effort and own and such a political status as would Allies' attitude toward the Russian situa- sacrifice for the common safety and honor. best fit their historical traditions and

tion, the fact that there have been lacking And this influence may go far to counternational aspirations.

at Paris the clear decision and vigor act pernicious theories preached by antiIt is for those who hate Bolshevism and

which should have been the controlling American Anarchists. all it implies to give their sympathy and element during this intermediate period. support to every sound effort to unite the Russian people in a campaign for self

MAY DAY VIOLENCE government rather than to deal with the THE GALLANT SEVENTY-SEVENTH

By a lamentable custom of agitators Moscow gang as if they represented in

New York City last week honored

and “ demonstrators,” May Day, once deany large or true sense the Russian people. and welcomed its Seventy-seventh Divis

voted to outdoor rejoicing, has become ion no less enthusiastically than it did the rallying-point of industrial warfare

before the equally famous Twenty-seventh and anarchistic violence and in some THE INVASION OF HUNGARY (which in its make-up was more a State

instances of anti-anarchistic but no less Pressure from without as well as and less a city division than the Seventy

lawless violence. dissension within has caused the downfall seventh) or its favorite “ Irish Sixty

Such rioting as took place on May 1 of the Communist Government in Hunninth," or than New England welcomed

in Cleveland, New York, Paris, and elsegary headed by Bela Kun. Indeed, in its gallant Twenty-sixth Division the

where was not on a large scale, although the first days in May it was reported other day. If the Twenty-seventh helped lives were lost and injuries were numerthat King Ferdinand of Rumania was

break the Hindenburg line, the Seventy- ous, but is deplorable because it indicates about to enter Budapest, Hungary's seventh cleared up the Argonne Forest ignorant lack of faith in legitimate methcapital. Bela Kun's rule has never been

and played its part bravely and victori- ods of presenting reasonable claims or firmly established, and the Red Army ously in the great Argonne offensive, political purposes. Charges of disloyalty raised by his followers has been far from the one big offensive carried on by an

and Bolshevism, on one side, and of bruformidable. The threat of the Russian

all-American army on a large scale; in tality by police or mobs of discharged Bolsheviki to send forces to the aid of it over 600,000 American soldiers were

soldiers, on the other, intensify bad feeling. the Reds in Hungary, which included an engaged and some of the many divisions

The remedy in the future is in stronger ultimatum to Rumania demanding the employed suffered the heaviest casualties and clearer laws defining or limiting the evacuation of Bessarabia, has proved to of the war.

rights of public speaking and “demonbe an absurd piece of boastfulness, and The Seventy-seventh, made up of se- strating,” and the rigid enforcement of the fall of the Communist Government

lective service men, was surely a melting- law against any overt attempt to incite in Hungary is the best reply to the pot division. One newspaper writer says

revolution or preach disloyalty. TerrorBolshevik braggadocio. of its men:

ism may be advocated in Moscow, but it However much one may approve of the

ought not to be conceivable in Paris or

Eighteen months ago they were a condownfall of the Reds in Hungary, the

New York. Socialism is not to be brought

glomerate mob of tailors, scions of the whole warlike episode is a reproach to colonial Dutch “square heads,” college

about by street fighting, nor is it to be weakness of purpose among the Great men, stevedores, subway diggers, million- defeated by beating up even offensive agiPowers. It was their duty, during the

aires, bankers, crap-shooters, stuss-play- tators. If there are centers of objectionperiod between the signing of the armi

ers, and gunmen. To-day, surviving
veterans of some of the fiercest battles

able agitation (as is alleged of the Rand stice and the completion of peace terms of the greatest war in history, they are

School in New York), there must be law with Germany and Austria, to see that returning conscious of a clean fighting to deal with the pests, not angry mobs. peace was kept in Central Europe. It is record that gives strength to their claims In line with this commonplace princi

of glory. not necessary to pass an opinion as to the

ple, Senator New proposes to reintroduce justice of the claims of Rumania and of Among the things for which the Seventy- his bill forbidding the publishing or sellthe Czechoslovaks. It was not for those seventh will always be remembered is the ing of books or papers which advise “ the countries to decide where the line of ter- glorious incident of Lieutenant-Colonel overthrow by force or violence or by ritorial demarkation between Hungary Whittlesey's “Lost Battalion." General

Whittiesey's “ Lost Battalion.” General physical injury to person or property or and neighboring countries should lie. Alexander, the division commander, has by general cessation of industry of the That was the duty of the Powers, and if declared that the battalion, although cut Government of the United States or of all military action was necessary as against off and surrounded by the Germans, government.” Equally stringently the bill Hungary, it should have been taken by was neither “lost

rescued,” but forbids the display of any flag or emblem the Powers themselves. At one time the that Lieutenant-Colonel Whittlesey, hav- intended “to symbolize a purpose to overCouncil of the Allies in Paris positively ing been ordered to take a certain objec

ing been ordered to take a certain objec- throw by force or violence or by physical forbade such action as the Rumanians and tive, took it, and advanced more rapidly injury to person or property, or by the Czechoslovaks have taken in attacking than troops on his flanks and troops general cessation of industry, the GovHungary, but their decree, for it was in behind him.

ernment of the United States.” This may that form, received little or no atten- This version adds rather than detracts or may not precisely meet the situation, tion. At all events, hostilities ceased only from the heroism of the achievement, for but that some measures should be taken when the Hungarians offered territorial it shows that there was no rash, reckless is proven by the perfectly senseless vioconcessions both to Rumania and the advance beyond orders or against orders lence of last May Day. Czechoslovaks. If Hungary is to be dis- -a serious military fault which in more The atrocious attempt to murder, by

[ocr errors]


« 上一頁繼續 »