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LIERE is the story of how “Every Tarvia road and street in Del
aware County has given uniform satisfacana, got good roads, as told by
tion. No repairs have been necessary. the County Surveyor. Every “Our so-called 'hárd roads, built of one interested in good roads
brick or concrete are often claimed as should read it.
permanent construction, but we have in
this county brick roads and streets built “Our first Tarvia road was built in
less than a decade ago that are almost 1914. Between 1914 and 1918 we.
impassable and must soon be rebuilt. constructed sixteen streets and roads,
New material will be required because with a total area of about 2,880,000
the old brick cannot be used again. square feet.
“On the other hand, when a Tarvia
road wears, a little stone is added, "Some of these are main streets in Tarvia is applied, and the road is as the city of Muncie, others are main good as, or better than, new. roads subject to heavy traffic, while
“With proper maintenance, our others replaced low-lying gravel roads that used to wash-out at every overflow
Tarvia roads will last ten to twenty years. of the river.
The cost of maintenance will belsmall and the entire road can be rebuilt at less than half the cost of a brick pavement.
“Considering the various types of road from a purely financial standpoint, one does not need to be skilled in higher mathematics to arrive at the correct answer.” (Signed) S. Horace Weber,
County Surveyor Tarvia is a coal-tar preparation for use in constructing new macadam roads or repairing old ones. It reinforces the road surface and makes it not only mudless and dustless, but also water-proof, frost-proof and automobile-proof. A few Tarvia Roads in any community will add to property values and reduce taxes.
Illustrated Tarvia Booklet free on request.
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THE THRIFT MOVEMENT
I note with interest your article on “ Thrift Insurance” in the March 5 issue of The Outlook. I believe thrift is as necessary in peace times as in war. The war has shown some things we can do along savings lines—some things we never dreamed possible. Various agencies organized to improve citizenship standards will doubtless keep the thrift message before the people after the Government loan campaigns are over.
This subject of perpetuating the thrift impulse is the very problem which a group of New York bankers and business men, known as the Thrift Committee of the Industrial Department, International Young Men's Christian Association, is organized to assist to a solution. The programme, as designed, is calculated to help men in industry to think straight about their money matters in the realm of earning, spending, saving, investing, giving. The machinery which it uses to accomplish this purpose has proved very successful.
The Y. M. Č. A. has found it practical (1) to promote savings clubs in the big industrial concerns; (2) to teach men the necessity of making family budgets, keeping records of expenditures, and proportional division of the income, by thrift exhibits, advertising campaigns, educational classes, shop talks, and stereopticon lectures ; (3) to conduct home buying and beautifying campaigns; (4) to celebrate thrift week; (5) to co-operate with banks and insurance firms in getting men to open savings accounts and take out insurance; (6) to cash pay checks, open accounts for men, deposit money, assist in making investments; (7) to give vocational advice and assistance.
Savings clubs have proved a very valuable machine in promoting saving and investing. These clubs have also been useful as a nucleus to promote thrift educational work by exhibits, debates, discussions, etc., work out family budgets, study narketing and purchasing value, and interest other industrial centers in a like programme.
Results have proved both the hypothesis and the practicality of the programme. The Y. M. C. A., in order that its slogan “ to meet the needs of men” might be really true, has made the economic programme the fifth part of its fivefold programme. Many other big institutions have felt compelled to include this factor in their programmes. And the indorsement of big business men like Mr. E. C. Delafield, of the Franklin Trust Company; Irving T. Bush, of the Bush Terminal Company, of Brooklyn, New York; Colgate Hoyt, of Colgate Hoyt & Co. ; J. S. Alexander, of the National Bank of Commerce, and many others, bears eloquent and complete testimony to the good and the efficiency accomplished by the Thrift Department's efforts.
It is neither the object nor the desire of the Y. M. C. A.'s Thrift Department to assist men to the acquisition of fortunes. To teach a man to live safely, sanely, and happily within his income and at the same time paddle the canoe of his abilities and earning capacity up the stream of success is the sole purpose. The resulting betterment in the fiber of our citizenship will not only help the Nation and the individual in a time of special need, but constitute both the glory and the satisfaction of the Industrial Department of the International Young Men's Christian Association.
ADOLPH LEWISOHN. New York City.
Department AMERICAN RADIATOR COMPANY s. more Ave. Retom
BY EDNA DAVIS ROMIG N May 31 a hundred years will have But Whitman, the critic of himself, is elapsed since the birth of Walt Whit- not so high-flown, so devotional, in his
man. He is to-day quite as important attitude. a figure in American literature as he was
A rude child of the people !-no imitationwhen he died, in 1892. His recognition is
no foreignerno dilettante democrat ... likes not based, therefore, on personal or literary to be called by his given name, and nobody at all eccentricity, but on solid worth.
need mister him-can laugh with laughersPresident Lincoln, standing one day dur is not prejudiced one mite against the Irishing the war before a window in the White
talks readily with niggers-does not make a House, saw Whitman slowly saunter by.
stand on being a gentleman, nor on learning
nor manners--would leave a select soirée of He followed him with his eyes, relates Mr.
elegant people any time to go with tumultuous Burroughs, and, turning, said to those
men, roughs, receive their caresses and welabout him :
come, listen to their noise, oaths, smut, fluency, “ Well, he looks like a man.”
laughter, repartee. The effects he produces In any study of the personality of Whit in his poems are no effects of artists. You may man the student is met at the outset by a feel the unconscious teachings of a fine brute, most amazing type of criticism-and just
but will never feel the artificial teaching of a as puzzling a volume of expression by the
fine writer or speaker. poet himself. A pathologist has seen in From his devotees we may expect a certain him the full case of insanity, substantiating amount of enthusiasm, even of fanaticism. the theory by the fact that his youngest Dr. Bucke, Mr. Traubel, Mr. Harned, the brother was an imbecile and his eldest O'Conners, all make Whitman the seer brother died insane, the disease in Whit and prophet of inspired vision. There is Mrs. man taking only another form, and that in Gilchrist, a woman of brilliant mentality full evidence in his “ Leaves of Grass." and culture and refinement, who became How prevalent was this idea is shown in the a most intimate friend and saw in Whitfact that Dr. Bucke, a well-known alienist man much of power. And there is John and for nineteen years superintendent of Burroughs, whose forcible studies lead one an insane institution, for fifteen years the to interpret this man sympathetically. private physician of Whitman, whose later John Burroughs was much with White years were enfeebled through the results man, and pronounced as the most vital of gangrene contracted in his “Wound thing about him his large and loving perDresser” days in Civil War hospitals, has
sonality. Thoreau, Emerson, Ingersoll, written a detailed study of madness, from Trowbridge, Andrew Carnegie, all these this basis making an intensive study to dis- men were strangely drawn to him by prove the fact. Devotees have even seen in the magnetic influence.of Whitman's perWhitman a nineteenth-century divinity. sonality. Others have seen in him only a colloquial One of the most satisfying proofs of this caricature of the lower classes, one who emanating quality of beneficence, the outreveled in uncouthness and dissipation. going virtue of his personal self, is the Still others see in him the inspired poet, a influence he exerted in the hospital wards Shakespeare of democracy.
during the “Wound Dresser" days. An The fact is, Walt Whitman positively atmosphere of calming and soothing went refuses to be pigeon-holed or card-indexed. with Walt Whitman down those halls of "I charge you forever reject those who would pain. His mere presence, many say, was a
expound me, for I cannot expound myself. ... .potent anæsthetic, and the suffering boys Do I contradict myself?
learned to call for Walt. This period of Very well, then I contradict myself ;
service, too, was the one which gave to (I am large-I contain multitudes.)
him the most satisfaction. As to the matter of personal appearance.
Of temperamental traits perhaps the
Of. temperame there is apparently a unanimity of opinion. magnificent optimism that glows through Walt must have undeniably presented a most of his poetry is one of the most fundamagnificent physique. The daguerreotype
mental. It is the one that gives rise to his of 1854 gives the impression of an unusual
faith in his fellow-man, that stimulates his vitality. Of a later period Mr. Burroughs benevolence, the touchstone of his love and writes vividly and sympathetically : “In
sympathy. It is doubtless this essence, person Whitman was large and tali, above together with a certain wistful yearning, six feet, with a breezy, open-air look. ... that reacted upon William Dean Howells The full beauty of his face and head did when he wrote: . . not appear till he was past sixty. After He was often at Pfaff's. . . . He had a fine that I have little doubt it was the finest head with a cloud of Jovian hair ... and head this age or country has seen. . . . It gentle eyes that looked most kindly into mine seemed to me his face steadily refined and and seemed to wish the liking, which I instrengthened with age.”
stantly gave him. ...Our acquaintance was Horace Traubel, the Boswell of Whit
summed up in that glance and the grasp of his man, declares that he always felt a tonic
mighty fist upon my hand. . . . Some years
later I saw him for the last time. ... Then, emanation from the man. Of this quality,
as always, he gave me the sense of a sweet and termed by one disciple “the sunshine of
true soul, and I felt in him a spiritual dignity that dynamic personality,” there seems to which I will not try to reconcile with the be ample corroboration. Restrained and printing of ... Emerson's letter. The aposcalm critics refer to it and analyze the tle of the rough, the uncouth, was the gentlest quality in terms of personal magnetism, person ; his barbaric yawp translated into although it takes Mr. Binns to record of terms of social encounter was an address of their first meeting that he was “almost
singular quiet. ... He was a liberating force,
a very imperial anarch in literature. . . . I like amazed by the beauty and majesty of his
his prose ; there is a genial and comforting person and the gracious air of purity that
quality, very rich and cordial, such as I felt surrounded and permeated him. • . . A
him to be when I met him in person. ... sort of spiritual intoxication set in.”
It is still something neighborly, brotherly,
Walt Whitman (Continued) fatherly, and so I felt him to be when the benign old man looked on me and helpfully spoke to me.
Closely related to this sanguine attribute of optimism is that other all-prevailing characteristic of Whitman, referred to by Mr. Howells, discerned by all who have known the man-his tenderness, his vast compassion, his extreme fellow-feeling.
Sympathy in Whitman is both general and specific, both abstract and concrete. There is a sweeping sense of brotherhood which becomes for him a generalized, universal emotion, expressed for every nation, every race, every degree. It goes out alike to the stranger, the unknown comrade, a fugitive slave, a common prostitute, one shortly to die, a Seminole prisoner. His sympathy becomes nobly productive and splendidly concrete in the hospital days at Washington where he served unceasingly. “ Specimen Days” and “ November Boughs” bear the imprint of the emotions of this time. The broader phase of sympathy is one of his own literary ideals :
I also sent out “Leaves of Grass” to arouse and set flowing in men's and women's hearts, young and old, endless streams of living, pulseing love and friendship, directly from them to myself, now and forever. To this terrible, irrepressible yearning (surely more or less down underneath in most human souls)—this never satisfied appetite for sympathy and this boundless offering of sympathy, this universal demo
cratic comradeship. And from this springs the scope and inclusiveness of his sympathy, tuning himself with the universe, feeling with all things animate, and, in his mystical moods, with things inanimate. He identifies himself with all personalities, reads into his experience the experiences of humanity or into humanity the experiences of his own being : “I am the mate and companion of people, all
just as immortal and fathomless as myself; (They do not know how immortal, but I
know.)... In all people I see myself-none more, and not
one a barley-corn less; And the good or bad I say of myself, I say of
them. ... I am he attesting sympathy. ...I encompass worlds, and volumes of
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And this brings us to another riddle of Whitman's personality, namely, his egotism. He who goes deeply into a study of Whitman will not remain long ignorant of the fact that he was eccentric, erratic in many respects, and that he did many things conspicuously ill-advised. But the egotism that troubles the one approaching Whitman for the first time is the stupendous claim he makes for himself.
First of all, one should not forget that again and again egotism in “ Leaves of Grass " is used almost synonymously with personality : "I will effuse egotism, and show it underlying
all-and I will be the bard of personality.” Often, however, the I of Walt Whitman, his own peculiar identity, is mixed up with this universal ego until there is obscurity, if not direct contradiction. In “ A Song of Myself” there is a predominant autobiographical ego, which, however, is so paralleled with the identities of humanity in general that the reader becomes hopelessly confused or loses patience with what appears to be Whitman's colossal egotism. Burroughs declares that it is not Walt Whitman the private individual who speaks, but Walt Whitman as the spokesman of Amer
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