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fought was for the sacredness of treaties. would rather have Fiume in Italian than in divided in religion, in tradition, and even To denounce the London Pact because it Croatian hands. Moreover, it is impor- in the alphabets they use. Furthermore, was secret is absurd. During war time tant that this outlet to the Adriatic should many of the people of Dalmatia who are no belligerent would make public such a not be in the hands of any people who commonly counted Slavs are really of treaty for the benefit of the enemy. can be controlled by Germany. It is Latin origin. These are the so-called
Nevertheless Italy's general purposes obvious that a small and comparatively Morlacchi who, according to Czechoslovak were known; one of those purposes was weak people, numbering only eight mill- authority, are “the Romanic shepherds
ion, cannot easily stand up against the of the mountains of Dalmatia.” The cities was to redeem Italia Irredenta. The commercial aggressions of Austria-Ger- of Dalmatia, which give the character to break-upof the Austro-Hungarian Empire many, numbering some eighty million. the region, are Italian, and it is only redoes not alter the face of nature. Italy's All the weak nations will be better cently that the Jugoslavs, and principally reasonable demands for a safe frontier on served if Fiume is in the hands of a the Croats, have thought of Dalmatia as the north have been recognized, even strong nation like Italy. Before the war essentially Slavic. Slavic expansion is though there is to be a League of Nations. Croatia provided only a small proportion normally southeast, for between Dalmatia Why not also on the east? Italy is not of the commerce of Fiume—about seven and the rest of the Balkan Peninsula is seeking territory out of land greed, but per cent. The interest of other countries the great range of the Dinaric Alps. But out of a legitimate desire to render war far outweighs the interest of Croatia in Italy does not want and has never claimed against her difficult and to remove causes this port. It is not as if the Jugoslavs the whole of Dalmatia. What she wants of irritation among Italians. Italy does had no other port on the Adriatic. Italy and feels she has a right to is only onenot crave rule over alien peoples, but she has no intention of cutting off Jugo sixth of what she concedes to the Jugobelieves that if in rescuing Italians from slavia from the sea. Serbia can have slavs. Whatever decision is made, there alien rules she must incur responsibility her economic outlet at several points on will be either Jugoslavs under Italian for the rule of aliens, her own record in the coast, and Croatia can have hers rule or Italians under Jugoslav rule. giving liberty to French-speaking, Ger. on the Channel of Morlacca, including Italy, as a united nation with a great and man-speaking, and Slavic-speaking peo harbors capable of great development and distinctive civilization, with a history provples in her borders is evidence that she can centrally situated. The argument that ing her devotion to the cause of liberty, be trusted to give liberty to newcomers. England and France are bound not to give and with a record proving her ability to
It is to be regretted that the new Fiume to Italy is absurd. That treaty was preserve the rights of peoples of alien Jugoslav state is showing at its birth not a promise to Croatia, but to Italy, and origin within her borders, is claiming only an imperialistic ambition, for Jugoslavia England and France are bound only by that which is in full accord with the spirit is seeking territory won by Italy and now what they agreed to do in support of it, of the cause for which she has fought held by Italy and inhabited by Italians not by what they did not agree to do. If with her allies. Italy has indorsed the who protest against being transferred justice to the Italians of Fiume and justice plan for a League of Nations. The to an untried nation. The Croats have to the commercial interests of Europe League of Nations will be the stronger if never shown any evidence of being able require that Fiume be made Italian, there composed of nations freed from the tempto give liberty to aliens under their con- is no promise that stands in the way. tation of attacking others but well detrol. There should be no talk of Italy's As to Dalmatia, the important thing to fended themselves. She wishes to enter imperialism in the face of the follow. remember is that strategically it is a men- that League strong and unmenaced, with ing figures : According to the respec- ace to Italy, and to Italy alone. From the consciousness that it has been estabtive claims of the nations, aliens under Dalmatia the mainland is safe from at lished by a victory which has consumPolish control would constitute forty per tack because of the impregnable barrier mated the struggle for the liberation of cent of the population, under Czechoslovak of mountains, while Italy is open to attack, her peoples that was begun years ago. control thirty per cent, under Rumanian as has been proved in this war. The pos- Her part in the war she believes her allies control seventeen per cent, under French session of Dalmatia would be therefore · ought to accept as pledge of her good faith. control over four per cent, while under for Italy no offensive advantage, but Italian control less than four per cent. . solely of defensive value; but as a defense
As to Fiume, first and foremost, the it is vital. Italy does not ask for the Much misunderstanding concerning principle of self-determination, if it ap- whole of Dalmatia or even a large part of this controversy is due to the fact that plies anywhere, applies here. Fiume has it. The greater part of the coast and of the terms used are not altogether clear. declared its independence of Croatia and the islands would in any case remain When it is said that Fiume should or Hungary and its union to Italy. This the Jugoslav. All that Italy asks is the pos- should not be Italian, it is not clear city did by a National Council called session of the Italian parts of Dalmatia, whether that is meant to apply to comtogether by a meeting of citizens. If together with such portions as will make mercial control or to political control or Fiume were an isolated city the question it impossible for any Power hereafter to to both. When the term Dalmatia is used,
use Dalmatia as a base of attack upon the implication is that all of Dalmatia is On the contrary, it is on the Italian side Italy. It is impossible to foresee all future referred to; but it is plain that Italy's of the river which is the natural border contingencies. No guarantee written on claim to Dalmatia is a claim to only part of Italy. That the farming population paper can take the place of natural de- of the coast and some of the islands. With on the outskirts of Fiume are Croatian fenses. What Italy wants Dalmatia for respect to neither Fiume nor Dalmatia is is no reason why the city itself should is for defense, not against the Slavs, with it a question of all or nothing. It is connot be allowed to have its natural allegi. whom she hopes to be on friendly terms, ceivable, for example, that Fiume could ance to Italy recognized and confirmed. but against a revival of Germanism. be made a part of Italy politically, preIndeed, Fiume is now Italian. To give it Against that the Jugoslavs themselves serving its ancient local autonomy, and to Croatia would be to wrest it from are not strong because they are not united, yet be made subject to commercial reguthose who hold it now in fact and by because they are comparatively few inlations of an international or quasi-intervirtue of the people's wish. Commercial numbers, and because some of them have national character. It does not seem to justice, as well as self-determination, is been and are still in sympathy pro-Ger- be out of the range of possibility that on the side of Italian rights in Fiume. man. If Dalmatia were purely Slav insufficient naval and military sites be The very fact that it is the natural outlet population and tradition, there might be given to Italy on the Dalmatian Islands of countries to the north and northeast more reason for objecting to Italy's claims to insure Italy against any future attack should determine the decision in favor there; but, in fact, the character of civili- upon that quarter, and, what is equally of Italy. Czechoslovakia, Rumania, and zation in Dalmatia is derived from Italy. important, to establish her peace of mind, Hungary are as much interested in the Dalmatia is not merely a relic of the Ital- and also to give her such towns as are port of Fiume as the Croatians, and ian past, but a testimony to the Italian plainly Italian in character, leaving the there is reason to believe that the Czechs, present. The national consciousness of rest of the coast and islands, with ample the Hungarians, and the Rumanians Dalmatia is Italian. The Slavs there are access to the Adriatic, to Jugoslavia.
A COMPROMISE POSSIBLE
of the ly. That et of Fiume, itself shoubi
TWO ARTICLES ON A VANQUISHED NATION
DO THE GERMANS KNOW THEY ARE BEATEN ?-THE END OF THE GERMAN BLUFFARE THE GERMANS STARVING?_BLATANT CRIME IN BERLIN-ARMED SOLDIERS IN THE HOTEL-IS BOLSHEVISM A PRODUCT OF THE ALLIED BLOCKADE ?-FOOD SCARCITY AND SPECULATION-FOOD SHORTAGE OR BAD DISTRIBUTION?—THE REASON WHY
IDLE-WHAT THE GERMANS THEMSELVES SAY ABOUT ITTHE “ FALSE GOSPEL OF LABOR”_WHAT GERMANY NEEDS
BY GREGORY MASON
STAFF CORRESPONDENT OF THE OUTLOOK THE Germans and the Austrians are “How do you make that out? You on France are the purest poppycock. I I badly beaten, and they know it. lost the war, didn't you ?”
doubt if the Germans could get together In analyzing the impressions gathered in “Yes, we lost the war," answered the four army corps to-day. There are many a just completed tour of several weeks officer, “but we were not beaten. We men in uniform in Germany, but they through Austria and Germany that con- just stopped fighting.”
are not an army. Most of them are wearviction stands out to me as more impor. “I see. When it began to go against ing uniform because they have no other tant than any other.
you, you just quit. Well, if two boys are clothes. With the exception of the small I had read of how the returning Ger. fighting, for example, or if two men are force which still supports the Governman troops were welcomed by the popula. fighting in the prize ring, and one of ment, ali semblance of discipline is gone. tions of German cities after the armistice them throws up the sponge and quits Officers are stripped of the insignia of with flowers and music like conquering cold, to our way of thinking, that fellowrank, and where it is necessary to get heroes, and of how Germans were boast. is a pretty poor sort of a sport. We think permission from military authorities to ing that their army had not been beaten. a good deal more of a chap who stands travel through Germany, in most cases the These reports were enough to make one up and takes his licking.”
permission is given by private soldiers or wonder if the Teutons had been de The Hun had no rejoinder. None of their elected chiefs. As the Russian army cisively defeated, after all. I come back them has. They have never thought of rotted away, so is the German army rotting. now from a circular tour in which I it that way; but when you put it to them The arrogant tone which has crept visited Vienna, Prague, Dresden, Berlin, that way, as I did to dozens, they are into the public speeches of some of GerNuremberg, Munich, and a number of absolutely floored. There is no chance of many's political leaders lately is not an smaller towns, with the conviction that saving face before that argument.
indication that they do not know they Germany is well licked, and feels it. Indeed, to my mind, the world has are beaten. On the other hand, this arro
How about the German boasting, then, gained a moral advantage over Germany gance is the arrogance of sheer desperaand the welcoming receptions for home by this war ten times greater than the tion. As they have seen Bolshevism adcoming soldiers, the music and the tremendous physical advantage repre- vancing on the one hand, and have seen wreaths ? Well, the receptions for the sented by the enforcement of a humili. on the other hand attempts to enforce a soldiers were natural enough. Even the ating peace. For Germany had the whole peace based on bitterness, the Germans bitterest foe of Germany will hardly deny world bluffed. By throwing up the sponge have tried to console themselves with the that the German army fought hard and before her own soil was even touched, reflection that things could not possibly fought well. Remember that to probably above all by surrendering ignobly the be worse, and, knowing they had nothing the majority of Germans the theory that great fleet which had been her proud more to lose, have permitted themselves Germany had been unjustly attacked by est boast, Germany punctured her own to talk with the boldness of a man whose Russia and France prevailed up to the bluff. She did more than that; she neck already feels the noose. last day of fighting. And even if you showed us that her heart is yellow. Even After asking whether the Germans are have lost all your colonies and surren should she be allowed to build a fleet and soundly beaten, the question people most dered your fleet it is human to turn out an army greater than the fleet and army frequently ask a man or woman who has to greet the home-coming brothers, sons, just dismantled, the world need never been in Germany is whether it is true and husbands who have kept your Father. fear her again as it feared her before. that the Germans are really suffering for land free from invasion for four and a Can you imagine the laugh that would be want of food. Probably the persistence of half years. The flowers and the music heard from Cape Horn to the North Cape some doubt on this point in the minds were simply human nature.
if a new German navy should begin to of some Americans is due to the reports As to the boasting, it is just a pitiful brag about another “ Tag"? If their of army officers from occupied Germany, attempt to save a little face. The boy who ships had gone out to fight a glorious where the food situation has greatly imis thrashed by another mutters, as he losing fight, as the Spanish fought off proved since the occupation, or of officers picks himself up and pulls the grass out Cuba, if their Kaiser had gone down at who have been to Berlin or other large of his hair:
the head of his men in all his shining cities in Germany proper, but who have “Aw, yer hit me before I was ready. armor, there at least would have been a confined their observations to the luxuriAn' if I weighed as much as you there dramatic gesture, a brave tradition to ous hotels at which they invariably put wouldn't be anythin' to it.”
build on. But the world knows now that up. The truth is that food in Germany is There is one answer which infallibly the Germans are a nation of quitters who lacking both in quantity and variety, and stops the German's boast that his army lose no more gracefully at war than they that such food as there is is generally of was not defeated. lose at golf or tennis.
poor quality and-even at good hotels — “You know, our army was never really Germany is beaten, and Germany poorly cooked. I had indigestion all the beaten,” a German officer said to me in knows it. The rumors of a great army time I was in Germany. It may not be true Berlin.
being secretly prepared for a new attack that many people are dying of downriglit
starvation, although some undoubtedly troops can be counted on, however. While are some reactionary influences at work in are so dying ; but thousands are dying I was in Berlin, fortunately, the Sparta- Germany, undoubtedly it is necessary to of diseases which would never be fatal if cists not once attacked in the vicinity of be on guard against them. Undoubtedly, the people had enough to eat-diseases this hotel, although there were several too, the suffering of Germany this winter like influenza, pneumonia, and tuberculo battles between them and Government is a wholesome moral lesson for her. But sis. I have no statistics to prove how dis. troops in the suburbs, and once three to keep German fishing boats from taking ease has increased in German cities, but American correspondents, one of them a fish from the North Sea seems like carryI got the following statistics for the city woman, were fired on in their taxicab by ing technicalities too far. of Prague, the capital of the Czecho a mob which took them to be Government Either there will be a reasonably strong slovaks, where conditions are noticeably people.
Germany or there will be a Bolshevist better than in either Vienna or Berlin. “What are the German people think Germany. Take your choice. A reasonIn 1914 births exceeded deaths in Prague ing about?" I asked an American news ably strong democratic Germany may be by .60. In 1917 deaths exceeded births paper man who had been in Berlin several a menace to France (although I do not by 9.14. And these deaths, be it remem- weeks.
believe that). But a Bolshevist Germany bered, were all among civilians; war: “I can best answer that,” responded will be a very powerful menace to all the fatalities are not included. In 1914 in the newspaper man, "by telling you what nations in the world as they are at present Prague orphan asylums there were 2,018 a Russian peasant told me when I asked constituted. patients, of whom 286 died. In 1917 him a few months ago what the Russian It is difficult to base many prophecies there were 1,818 inmates, of whom 1,115 masses were thinking about. What is a for the future on the present situation in died; and in 1918 there were 833 patients, cow thinking about ? he replied, scorn Germany. Conditions vary greatly in of whom 704 died. Conditions in the fully. “Grass !'”
different parts of the country, and condiorphan asylums in Vienna and Berlin Wherever an American goes in Ger tions vary greatly from day to day in the are even worse. In fact, the capital of the many he is stopped by people who ask the same parts of the country. I believe that Germans and the capital of the Austrians same old question, “ When are you going it is by no means certain that Germany will are suffering more for lack of food than to send us food ?” Your elevator boy asks not return to monarchy, although it is any other cities I have seen anywhere. you that, your barber asks you, and your very unlikely that a Hohenzollern will And, as far as I can judge, the food short waiter, when he places before you the ever reign again. I believe the present age is about equally serious in Berlin and monotonous fare of Schweinefleisch, pota- Ebert-Scheidemann Government is very Vienna.
toes, and carrots, puts the same query. weak, and is growing weaker every day. But in all other respects Vienna is far With Lieutenant E. O. Wiederanders, I believe, on the whole, Spartacism or less unpleasant to live in now than an American officer in the courier service, Bolshevism is growing stronger. But this Berlin. The Viennese bear their hard. I flew from Berlin to Munich in a Ger- movement is limited to the industrial disships with a sort of fatalistic melancholy, man bombing plane after the Handley- tricts-a fact for which its opponents may while the small minority of Berliners Page model, driven by a German ace be profoundly thankful, in Germany as who have any money left are bent on wbo had not made his kills unhindered, in Russia. It is bitterly combated by ending their lives quickly in debauchery, as his scarred face and body testified. the German Church and by the German and the great majority who have no We made three stops between Berlin and farmers. And if, for instance, the city of money are going about robbing the minor- Munich-once to fill up our gasoline tank, Munich should set up an out-and-out ity who have, or are expressing their rage and twice to escape the cold, driving rain, Bolshevist Government, it could soon be against society and fate in aimless anar- which even through the leather helmets starved into surrender by the surroundchy. In Vienna there have been only a we wore stung our foreheads like birding agricultural regions of Bavaria. The
shot. Although each time we landed in Munich Bolshevists are well aware of the armistice was signed, while in Berlin fields far from any big town, almost be this, and are therefore inclined to temhardly a day passes without a battle, or at fore we could get our helmets and goggles porize. The fact remains that there is in least a lively skirmish. Crime of all sorts off the big plane was surrounded by a Germany a growing mass of discontented walks abroad blatantly in the dark, dirty crowd of rustics, who seemed to spring citizens inclined to side with any active streets of Berlin. The whole capital is a from nowhere.
faction which promises them improved camp of armed men who appear to be “When is America going to send us living conditions. Ebert is in the tragic uncertain from what quarter their foe food ?” they asked as soon as they recog- position which Kerensky occupied before will strike, or even who their next foe will nized our nationality.
his downfall. The Russians demanded of be. The workingmen are all armed, and But so many postponements have there Kerensky peace and food. Because he most of the bourgeoisie have laid hold of been in the delivery of this food, and so gave them neither his government was some form of weapon against emergencies. little of it is there arriving even now, that destroyed. The Germans are demanding Government troops march through the it is not uncommon to find a note of sar- of Ebert and Scheidemann peace and food. streets as they did during the war, and casm in a German's voice when he speaks Ebert and Scheidemann seem unable to soldiers, in their“ tin hats” or in the pic on this subject.
give the people either, but unless they turesque leather spike helmets that are so And, indeed, to an American in Ger- soon succeed in getting these things for much appreciated by American girls as many or to one just returned from that the people their Government will collapse. souvenirs when brought back by dough country there seems to be an astonishing About the only generalizations on the inboys from the Rhine, guard all public amount of misconception prevalent amongternal situation in Germany which I feel buildings and all the big hotels.
the Allies as to what is Germany's real reasonably safe in making are these three: I lived at the Hotel Adlon, where position. The truth is that the war is over First, conditions in Germany will be there were fifteen or twenty American and Germany thoroughly beaten. With worse before they are better. officers in Berlin on Government missions. thousands of Germans dying from lack Second, affairs have already reached a Every night the great iron gate before of nourishment, can any name but plain state where it is evident that Germany the front entrance was reinforced with a inhumanity be given to the continuance cannot be saved without foreign interheavy chain and two machine guns were of a blockade which prevents the Ger- vention. This intervention may take the posted a few feet behind it where they mans from catching fish in the North form of economic assistance and revictualcould rake the street from the cover of Sea for their hungry population ? To lis ment, or military occupation, or all of two small potted trees. The other en- ten to some of the talk that comes from these measures. There are not a few trances were also protected by machine the Peace Conference, particularly from Germans who would welcome the military guns, as was the roof, and soldiers armed French representatives, one would think occupation of their whole country by to the teeth prowled about the corridors that Germany was still a powerful, well- American and British troops. Occupation of the great hostelry all night long to organized military nation merely resting by the French and Belgians would be very guard against treachery or surprise. The on her arms and likely to launch a new unpopular. It does not seem likely that loyalty of none of these Government attack at any minute. Undoubtedly there there will be any government in Ger. many capable by its own strength of en- to be just, which means that they ought forcing the provisions of the peace, or not to be as harsh as a good many would even of guaranteeing the proper distribu- like to have them. To try to impose tion of such food supplies as might be extreme conditions on Germany is not sent to Germany.
to the interest of the Allies—leaving Third, the peace terms to be enforced aside the question of humanity and juson Germany (and which will very likely be tice-because to try to impose extreme
- because to try to impose extreme announced before this is published) ought conditions on Germany will simply have
the effect of throwing that country over irrevocably to the Bolshevists. Germany ought to be made to pay some indemnity, of course, but to try to get too much will simply result in getting nothing, and will lead to an extension of the epidemic of communism throughout Europe.
Paris, March 26.
II-GERMANY: SLACKER AMONG NATIONS
BY ALEXANDER GREEN
The facts presented in the following article have been collected from a wide variety of sources, which have enabled Dr. Green (who is a graduate of Columbia University, is conversant with many languages, and has for several years been a close student of economic and political conditions in Central Europe) to see the situation in Germany in perspeetive.—THE EDITORS. FEEDING AN ADVERSARY
view with suspicion the actual currency masses of demobilized soldiers prefer to Our adversaries the Germans continue value of the hyperinflated market prices, roam about the land and be fêted as to be, for they object to the indemnities and by the get-rich-quick financiers who heroes. And so it is not strange to find and territorial cessions that are to be
acknowledge fealty to no other power but the “Tag”(December 23, 1918) complain required of them. Yet they demand un
the well-lined strong box. Let us not for that six thousand soldiers in Munich go conditional supplies of food to be sent to them immediately. These failing, the
get that for four years the German soil from barracks to barracks in search of spokesmen intimate, the nation will make
has sufficed to feed much larger popula. food, when on the day the electric works trouble by joining the Bolshevists of
tions and more exacting armies of men opened in Walchensee, which are deeastern Europe. than it is obliged to do to-day.
signed to furnish power to all of BaAt home, as it turns out, the people But when we come to the question of varia, only two workmen presented themwho make this sort of threat have quite raw material for the German industries, selves. other views on the way to deal with re we meet with an entirely different situa Instances of this unemployment directly calcitrants. According to a despatch, the
tion. That is to say, it will be found due to idleness can be multiplied ad inMinister of Foreign Supplies for the
that the absence of such material is by finitum, and that out of the mouths of State of Prussia announced the other
no means the only, or even the leading the Germans themselves. Here follow day that the state would cut off food from districts where general strikes were
cause of industrial idleness and its con- some additional reports : The “ Münin progress.
comitant industrial disturbances. It will chener Neueste Nachrichten" of January According to what the Germans tell be found, on the contrary, from the 4 states: “In Munich about eleven us, to refuse them food instead of mak evidence furnished by the German news thousand workless persons receive succor, ing them see reason will drive the nation papers themselves, that the economic when 3,724 places are being offered in into Bolshevism. According to what the crisis is due rather to a psychological the countryside, when the near-by factory Socialist leaders in Prussia practice, to crisis now taking place within the Ger. at Trostberg seeks 1,000 operatives, and refuse food to cantankerous districts of
man nation, to the workings not only of when practically all the coal mines comGermany will not spread Bolshevism in those districts, but will on the contrary
the torpor caused by the sudden defeat plain that they cannot get miners in make the disturbers see reason very
of their once powerful armies, but, more sufficient numbers.” The “ Frankfurter promptly.
correctly, of the general feeling of lassi- Zeitung” of the same date states that In which case do the Germans merit, tude and idleness that seems to be per- 50,000 persons are drawing upon the belief?
vading every part of the land and weigh Berlin authorities for their sustenance, - From the New York " Evening Sun," •
ing down like a terrible nightmare upon when 100,000 workers are sought for the April 1, 1919.
all effort at reconstruction. At the same lignite industry at places but a few hours THE plenipotentiaries of the German time that the newspapers accuse the distant from Berlin. But, to get even
I Government at Trèves and at Spa enemies of Germany of cherishing cruel nearer to the facts, right in the city of have been making the most of the buga designs upon her future and bewail the Berlin, according to the “Welt am boo of Bolshevism that is soon to take blockade still in existence as to raw Montag” of January 16, the street car complete mastery over Germany unless materials, they publish repeated appeals companies have not been able to find more speedy aid is extended in the form both to their own nationals to return to work than 350 out of the 1,000 workers sorely of foodstuffs for the masses and of raw ma- and give their industries a fresh start! needed by them. Similarly, the sugar terials for industrial purposes. They point This fact alone probes right under the industries in Brandenburg are at a standout with increasing insistence that Ger- superficial wail and uncovers the real still and the beet already at the doors of many is suffering from an industrial cause of the social and economic unrest. the factories is allowed to rot for lack of crisis, that the number of idlers has been It is true that the number of idlers is workers. growing with alarming rapidity, that rapidly increasing. In Berlin, according Of extreme interest is the January 18 there are strike meetings in all parts of to latest reports, there were 95,216 un report of “ Vorwärts” on the unemploythe land, and that all this disturbance is employed on January 9, 130,570 on Janu ment situation: “In Silesia and in Saxthe direct result of the Allies' blockade ary 19, and 153,984 on January 29. In ony the mines are in need of operatives. on raw materials and their unyielding ban Bremen conditions are similar. For the Bavaria announces a dearth in agriculon German exportation.
identical dates this town registered 5,233, tural help. In Mecklenburg, since the It is undoubtedly true that foodstuffs 7,042, and 9,392, respectively. And so departure of the prisoners of war and of are scarce in Germany. It is equally on in Frankfort and other industrial foreign workers, the lack of workmen is true, however, that much of this dearth centers. Quite recently an official Ger- not being supplied by our returning is the direct result of profiteering specu man note estimated the number of un- soldiers.” Foresters, woodcutters, stable lation. With the exception of fatty sub- employed throughout the Empire at one hands, construction workers, kitchen stances and the products of foreign lands, million, with Berlin itself having a quota servants, and a hundred other types of there is at hand in Germany quite a con- of 250,000. But, in striking constrast to skilled and unskilled laborers are urgently siderable supply of native produce of all this situation, work is plentiful. That is, wanted, but not obtained. kinds. The crux of the situation is that plentiful work is offered in all the papers. The situation is indeed so precarious this material is undistributed; it is hoarded According to the “Berliner Tageblatt ” that the newspapers themselves are disboth by the peasants whose shrewd minds (December 22, 1918), however, the large cussing the ways and means of applying proper remedies. They point out that the economic problems of the German Em. strange locality, provided the physical high rate of financial aid given to the pire. Accounts from all papers and from status of the men selected is satisfactory unemployed makes unemployment a con- all parts of the land confirm this general and the salary offered is not inferior to venient and lucrative condition to culti- relaxation. A reading of the “ Schwä. that prevailing in the communities themvate. They also insist that no entrepreneur bischer Merkur" for January 8, of the selves. This first step towards obligatory can consistently be asked to undertake or 6 Welt am Montag” for January 16, of labor has since been found to be merely even continue production if the present “Vorwärts” for January 18, of the a paper measure. Workmen refuse to rate of salaries is to prevail. But what “Frankfurter Zeitung " for January 25, change their residence, refuse to be septhey can find no remedy for, while they and of the “ Berliner Tageblatt" for arated from their families and their all admit its existence, is a deep-seated January 30, brings strange narratives of friends, offer organized protest to all aversion to work among the working unheard-of conditions.
attempts at being “colonized” at strange classes.
Soldiers in the country idle away their places, and prefer to remain in the town. In stating that unemployment has be time in inns and about the villages. They ships where, on one pretext or other, they come a veritable profession that supports sell their arms and horses in order to can peacefully receive their allotment, inits man better than if he worked, the keep up their indolent estate. Coal, wood, stead of handling the spade, the rake, or “Simplicissimus” of January 7 brings a and quarry stones are in immediate de. the plowshare. cartoon representing two workmen in mand for reconstruction. But there is no To conclude this survey, unemployfront of an official bulletin offering em- one or few to lift the snow, to fell the ment in Germany is not the result of ployment in the mines near the resort of trees, or to break the stones, and the lack of foodstuffs or of raw materials in Walchensee.“ Well, I don't know," says miners seem to have taken to strikes with industries so much as of a change, and a one of the men ; “it's a good place for a will and a vigor. It is asserted on every radical one at that, in the inner disposiwinter sports. I might yet have my un- hand that it is useless to increase the tion of the German workman. The employment allotment sent there for the wages when Germany becomes daily less ancient discipline founded on the notion coming months.” And no wonder that able to produce. “ It is an error,” states of " service” and dependence has been idleness is so highly prized. In Munich a Berlin journal, “ to believe that lack of abolished. But the free discipline that the minimum for men per day is four raw materials is the only cause of the Socialism is aiming to have each man immarks, and for the women three. In ad- staggering unemployment. We can say pose upon his conscience, the notion of addition the unemployed receive free without difficulty that a large number of social service, in short, has not yet found theater and movie tickets as well as entrée workmen are voluntary idlers. Four years its way into the proletariat cast of thought. to the concerts. And, with all this, the of the war has taken away the taste for Like Kundry, laborite Germany is müde, “ Münchner Post” is in a position to be work.” (“ Welt am Montag," January müde! The disillusionment of defeat, able to report that on January 7 a mass- 19, 1919.)
the sudden discovery that, instead of enormeeting passed a resolution demanding formal avowal of this fact has even mous indemnities from their enemies, an increase in the “indemnities” to ten been made by the official organ of the they themselves were to be placed in marks per day, and with retroactive fea- Berlin Government, “ Vorwärts," Janu bondage in order to expiate their crimes, tures.
ary 18: “In certain branches of our have worked with all the malice and misIt is thus possible, under present cir economic life there are orders in quanti- chief of the incubus of discouragement. cumstances, for the allotment to exceed ties. But we are constrained to admit the The Germans have, it is easily understandthe salary received from steady occupa- regrettable circumstance that the produc able, labored hard to realize the national tions, so that even if the workman has tion has, on account of voluntary suspen. dream of world-greatness. Their factories accepted a position he is ready to desert sions of work, and due also to sabotage, have belched incessant fire, their brows it at a moment's notice, especially if his taken a frightful slump. For instance, in have been bathed in oceans of sweat. And renewed demands are not properly heeded. a locomotive factory near Berlin where all this to no avail. Is it to be wondered That this situation is, in turn, the mother before the Revolution an engine was at, then, that but few give a moment's of multitudinous strikes, without much turned out every day, there has not been thought to the urgent need of work, that rhyme or reason, has been recognized by made a single locomotive during the entire the large masses of workmen refuse to the Independent Socialists themselves. month of December. The orders would lend an ear to what they now term the Witness the manifesto signed on January have made full production possible and “False Gospel of Labor"? 2 by their leaders, Strobel, Hoffmann, the need for raw materials was largely This one lesson, then, stands out suand Rosenfeld : “ Claims for increase in covered."
preme amid the clamor and clash of the wages have of late become so frequent as This same organ of Ebert and of Peace Conference politicians, a lesson' out to give rise to grave fears for the ruin of Scheidemann, alarmed at the lawless of the mouths of the Germans themselves, our productions. This can have for a ness, declares accordingly, on February whining with fear or loud with impotent result only unemployment, hunger, and 2, what no, modern Socialist news- defiance as they now appear to us. When misery. The exploitations of the state paper has ever been found to declare, a goodly section of the German press are conditioned by the same rules as those namely, that if the present situation con demands that we incontinently send of private industries. Neither the rail- tinues it would be regretted that the raw material and foodstuffs in unlimited ways nor the mines nor the other indus- capitalistic constraint has been removed! quantities, an equally influential number tries of the state can support much longer In other words, the acknowledgment is of them admit that, having started the a condition of affairs under which the made and documented that the Socialistic war with hopes of an economic, if not a expenses are greater than the receipts." feeling of duty and responsibility towards political, domination of the globe, the
The essential and outstanding fact is the working classes offers no incentive to German masses are unable to rise above that Germany does not work any more. work, and that it has actually paid the the disillusionment of their defeat. The Germany has ceased to be the industrious workers to simulate unemployment. . war has robbed them of their energies. land of painstaking artisans. The much- Nor have the remedies proposed done In strange perverseness, they insist upon vaunted conscientiousness of the German away with the proved charms of otiose prolonging the obsequies and deepening workman is gone-gone at least for the dignity. True, on January 24, 1919, the the mourning. In short, together with time being. And this fact has been new governmental order was to take Russia, they are the classic example of a known--and concealed-by the Germans effect according to which the various nation of slackers. What Germany needs since the end of 1918, when one of the communities are invited to withdrawis not food or raw material so much as Socialist Ministers in charge of economic assistance from those who refuse to accept a sound pulling together of the individual reconstruction, August Muller, made his work to which they are sent, even if the nerves in order to overcome her ruinous report on the economic situation and the work is of a different profession and in a national neurasthenia.
Supplementing the two foregoing articles, an editorial on page 12 discusses “ What the World Owes Germany ”