« 上一頁繼續 »
(Copyright, 1919, New York Tribune, Inc.)
THE BOLSHEVIST STATE
led to the sale, Lord Aberdeen's action is a to our Senators and Representatives. Paris to report to his constituents at significant and valuable example for men And the President, without consulting home, Italy has not withdrawn from the of wealth in both countries to follow. If with them, and without reporting the Conference. At this writing we are not we are to meet successfully the great peril arguments against his position, with- without hope that wiser counsels may yet to civilization threatened by the Bolsh- out even reporting the facts on which prevail and that some compromise may evist movement, those who possess both action must be based, has notified the be found that will allay the irritation intelligence and wealth must co-operate Powers that no other view than his can which the prolongation of this dispute in a movement for a better distribution America regard as consistent with the has excited in both peoples. It is of the of both intelligence and wealth--of intel principles for which she has fought and utmost importance to the whole civilized ligence by a system of free education, upon which only she can consent to make world, not only that Italy and Jugoslavia, including industrial education, and of peace." The compulsion is upon her to but that the Latin and the Slavic races, wealth by just such measures as are being square every decision she takes a part in should be true and loyal friends in defendtaken in connection with and really as a with those principles. She can do noth- ing civilization against the perils which part of the sale of so large a portion ing else.”
formerly threatened from the autocracy of the Aberdeen estate. If the leveling This document Italy evidently, the of the kings and which now threaten from which is sure to take place in the present other Powers apparently, have taken as the dictatorship of the mob. reconstruction period is directed by the America's ultimatum. Possibly Italy may higher and better elements in society, it modify her claims in the Adriatic rather will be a leveling up; if it is not so than risk the withdrawal of America WHAT THE WORLD directed, it will be under the control of from the Peace Conference; but an agree
OWES GERMANY the unscrupulous and the unintelligent, as ment, even should one be obtained by a it is now in Russia, and it will be a level. surrender of what her people evidently THAT does a community owe the ing down. regard as a just and necessary claim,
criminal ? upon such a demand coming from what It does not owe him food and clothing
is probably now the wealthiest and most and shelter. It may supply him those FIUME AND THE LEAGUE powerful nation on the globe does not necessities as incidental means to an end, OF NATIONS
augur well for future international peace but not as part of its debt to him.
by amicable diplomacy or judicial arbi- It does not owe bim expressions of RESIDENT WILSON startled the tration.
sympathy and affection. It may have world by a statement given out on Jugoslavia as a state does not yet exist. sympathy for him, and even affection; April 23 respecting the controversy be- It is a nation in the womb. What its but whatever feelings it has are the natutween Jugoslavia and Italy, a statement boundary lines are to be, and what its ral product of its humane spirit, not a which, with apparently good reason, has international status, are yet to be deter- part of its debt. . been regarded as in effect an ultimatum. mined. If it is impossible to settle by con- It does not owe him any effort to In this statement he presents the argu- ciliation or compromise, or, conciliation relieve him of the painful consequences ments in support of the claims of Jugo and compromise failing, by arbitration,
of his crime. Some of those consequences slavia, but not the arguments in sup- the question what shall be the boundaries are material, some are spiritual. They port of the claims of Italy; and he as- of an unborn state whose very existence may involve loss of property. The comsumes the right to decide the question at depends upon the will of the World munity does not owe it to the criminal to issue between these two peoples. That Powers, and whose protection depends on make good any of that loss. They may issue was briefly defined in The Outlook the good will of its neighbors, there is no involve the incurring of distrust on the for January 15. We define it more fully question which can be so settled. If one part of his fellow-men. The community on another page, and give to our readers Power may enforce its own judgment may put the criminal into the way of the arguments used by the advocates both upon so complicated and difficult a prob- earning a renewal of faith in him ; but it of Italy and of Jugoslavia.
lem as that which is presented by what is does not owe it to the criminal to try to A far more important issue to the miscalled the Fiume question, the democ- re-establish that faith for him. world has, however, been raised by Presi- racy of nations is still hardly so much as The first duty of the community is dent Wilson's action.
a hope, hardly more than a dream. not to the criminal. It is protection A League of Nations, however inge- It is affirmed and it is denied that the of the law-abiding citizens from future niously framed, would be of little use if President's statement had before its issu- crimes and reparation to the law-abidany nation could at any time issue an ulti- ance the approval of Clemenceau and ing citizens by the criminal for past matum which the other nations must ac- Lloyd George, and the affirmative report crimes. cept or see the League dissolved; and it and the denial are apparently of equal To the criminal, however, it has a duty would be of no use if any representative authority. The President's statement is also. It owes to him such a course of of a nation, acting on his own authority interpreted by some as an address to the discipline that he and those who are in and without consultation with his own gov- people of Italy over the heads of its offi- his frame of mind will acquire, if possiernment, could issue such an ultimatum. cial representatives, by others as an expla- ble, first, a motive to make such restituThis is what President Wilson has done. nation to the people of America of their tion as is in his power; and, second, if The Council of Four has not accepted his representative's action; but there is noth
representative's action; but there is noth- possible, an adequate sense of his guilt view of the question whether the city of ing in the document itself to indicate to and a resolve not to repeat his crimes in Fiume should be put under Croatian or whom the President addressed it. If he the future. Italian control. The American people are hoped by his appeal to win the sympathies It is not vindictiveness on the part of the not well informed on this question. The of the Italian people for the settlement community that leads it to such a course discussions which have taken place in the which he proposes, he must by this time of treatment for the criminal; it is, Council have not been reported to them. have abandoned his hope. The union of rather, an intelligent sense of justice, and Their knowledge on the subject is derived Italy in support of the Italian claims as of its own duty. from vague, unauthorized, and often con- formulated by its representatives in Paris In the community of nations, Germany tradictory rumors. No pains have been
appears to be substantially unanimous. is in the position of the criminal. taken to give accurate information even Though the Italian Premier has left Undoubtedly Germany is suffering
Updaghtedly there is miseryjnerTHATS in Union
of all the Christian
from a lack of food and clothing and to recognize in all her future relations the to be held at Cleveland, Ohio, at this other necessities; but that fact does not rights of other peoples.
time- April 30-May 1-to promote this make it a part of the debt of the civilized That is not a vindictive peace; it is movement. Its specific objects are to world to Germany to supply her with the only possible just peace.
interpret and strengthen the movement, those needs. Possibly as a means to an The French see this perbaps more to study the problems of the Christian end, and as the result of a laudable hu- clearly than any other people. That may Church, first, in our own Nation in the mane instinct, it may be desirable to send be in part because they are where they present era of reconstruction and social her food and other things. Even for have lasting proofs of the crime Germany
have lasting proofs of the crime Germany unrest; second, in its new world responsicriminals in prison the community pro committed ; but it is also in part because bility and opportunity; and, third, to seek vides food, clothing, and shelter, but only the French, even in war and after war, out the best method of assembling and as a part of the course of discipline to think clearly and logically.
using effectively the Christian forces of which it subjects them. Elsewhere in this What ought to be done to Germany America in the Christian service to which issue are two articles describing condi- will not be altogether pleasant for the
will not be altogether pleasant for the all followers of Jesus Christ are summoned tions in Germany. In one article the Germans. Those who do what ought to at this time. under-nourishment of a large part of the be done will not be wholly popular with There are two reasons why Christian German population is ascribed to lack of the Germans. That makes no difference. Cooperation appears to us a much more sufficient food supplies; in the other it is It may involve trouble for the world and hopeful method than Church Union for attributed to conditions of transportation, further expense. That is not decisive. securing efficiency in Christian work. and the unwillingness of multitudes of Ger. Does the world owe it to Germany? If Historically the chief obstacles to the mans to work. It is not vindictiveness to so, the debt ought to be paid.
union of all Christians in Christian work say that it is not the duty of the Allies
have been compulsory creeds, compulsory to Germany to supply the shortage of
rituals, and compulsory forms of church food, or to improve the transportation, or
organization. That all men should think to supply the lack of labor. The world
CAN THE CHURCHES
alike respecting the intellectual problems does not owe Germany the necessities of
GET TOGETHER ? involved in religion is neither desirable life.
nor possible. That they should all find Undoubtedly misery in Ger HAT a union of all the Christian the same symbols equally fitted to express many, as there is normally among forces the Nation
the religious emotions of different temcriminals. But that fact does not make it is no longer doubted by any considerable peraments is also neither possible nor a part of the debt of the world to express number of thoughtful followers of Jesus desirable. And while it is conceivable sympathy and affection for the Germans. Christ ; but they differ respecting the that they might all agree upon one form The world may pity those who are suffer. method best adapted for this purpose. of church government, it is certain that ing the evil effects of what they have One
seeks to find a common creed such an agreement, though it might give done, but its feeling is the natural in- upon
which all can agree and a common union, would not give liberty; and liberty stinct, not a part of the world's debt or organization in which all can unite. For and union are as desirable in the Church an essential in the fulfillment of the this purpose, as heretofore reported in our as in the Nation. Philosophy, therefore, world's duty.
columns, a number of Episcopal and Con- would lead us to expect that Church Undoubtedly Germany is suffering and gregational clergymen have combined in
gregational clergymen have combined in Union would not be attained by the adopwill long suffer from the material and a proposal to make such changes in the tion of the same creed, the same ritual, spiritual consequences of the crime she canons of the Episcopal Church that an and the same form of organization. has perpetrated-loss of property, loss of Episcopal bishop can conscientiously give And history confirms the conclusion to the world's esteem. It is not vindictive- ordination to non-Episcopal clergymen, which philosophy points us. Calvinists ness to say that it is no part of the and non-Episcopal clergymen can con- and Methodists, Episcopalians and Conworld's duty to make good that loss to scientiously accept such ordination. gregationalists, Baptists and Pedo-BapGermany.
The other method proposes to leave the tists, have united in Christian work in What the world owes to Germany is creeds, rituals, and ecclesiastical organi- the Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A., what the community owes to the criminal. zations of the various Churches un- while they have retained their separate But what the civilized world owes to Ger- changed, and to secure co-operation in creeds, rituals, and church organizations ; many cannot be adequately considered Christian work without making any and the possibility of Christian co-operaapart from what the world owes the com- changes in or interfering with the liberty tion has been still more emphasized by the munity of nations. The first duty is to the of the several Church organizations. The Red Cross, in the work of which organilaw-abiding and peace-loving nations-a most striking and most promising phase zation thousands have taken part who duty to compel Germany to repair as far of this method is that afforded by the possessed the spirit of Christ though they as she can do so the wrong's
Interchurch World Movement of North did not call themselves Christians. petrated, and to protect the rest of the America.
These grounds for hopefulness in the world from the repetition of similar crimes. What is proposed by this movement success of this Interchurch World MoveNo spirit of pity or compassion for Ger- is not union but co-operation ; not that ment are still further confirmed by the many or the German people should pre- any organization shall merge with any fact that nearly forty Church organizavent the world from fulfilling this duty. other organization or surrender any of its tions, representing nearly all the Protes
Its duty to Germany as a criminal na- distinctive features, any of its liberties, tant Evangelical denominations in the tion is such treatment as will, if possible, any of its convictions, or even any of its United States, have already taken favoramake the German people realize the prejudices. The movement simply pro- ble action concerning this movement for crimes they have committed, realize the poses co-operation in procuring informa- co-operation in Christian activity. indignation of the civilized world against tion respecting world needs and in obtain- Any reader who desires further inthem because of those crimes, come to a ing funds for supplying those needs ; but formation concerning this movement can sense of their own guilt and shame, and so “ each organization will maintain its own doubtless obtain it by writing to the provide Germany with a motive strong treasury and regulate its own affairs as Interchurch World Movement of North enough to impel her to undertake all heretofore.”
America, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York possible reparation for past crimes and An Interboard Conference was called City, inclosing stamp for reply.
she has per
HE controversy between the Italians Thus, on one side of the controversy is of this coast by Austria-Hungary placed
and the Jugoslavs, in which President a young state, but an ancient nation ; on Italy under an enormous handicap. The Wilson's espousal of the Jugoslavs' cause the other side is a nascent confederacy Austrian fleet could maneuver and form has brought the Peace Conference to the which, though composed in part of old behind the screen of islands and steam gravest crisis, has been simmering in nations, has, as a whole, never been a out at unexpected points to make an atParis for many weeks. ' At one time the nation, but is about to become a new tack wherever the Italian fleet (which had Jugoslavs proposed that the question be state.
no harbor between the extreme north left to the decision of President Wilson ;
and the extreme south) was most unprebut the Italians declined the proposal, One of the two bones of contention be- pared. Making these naval attacks in the saying that to accept it would be an ad
tween Italy and Jugoslavia is the city of early morning, the Austrians had the admission that the Peace Conference itself
Fiume. Situated near the northern end vantage of the sun at their backs. The was incapable of deciding the very ques- of the Adriatic, next to Istria (which is
Austrian submarines, under cover of darktions which it was called together to settle to be Italian without dispute), but sur
ness, could cross to the Italian shore and and an acknowledgment that the Entente rounded by territory which is Croatian lie easily on the sandy bottom, concealed Allies could not act together. Now, by and serving as the principal port of by the muddy waters brought down by the turn of events and by the issuance of Croatia, Fiume is in an anomalous posi- the Italian rivers. Safe from observation his statement, the President is placed in tion. Its history records the struggles of by airplanes, these submarines could rise the position of deciding the question as
peoples in this ancient part of the civil- at any opportune moment, sink Italian an unchosen arbitrator. To this contro- ized world. Apparently Roman in origin, shipping, and bombard the Italian coast. versy there are two parties, and in it are during the Middle Ages it was held by The currents of the Adriatic flow north involved two questions.
various rulers. In the fifteenth century it along the Dalmatian coast, sweep to the The two parties are Italy and Jugo came under the Hapsburg dynasty, but,
westward, and then run south along the slavia. The two questions involved in the as during all the preceding years, it re
Italian coast to the Mediterranean. The disposal, respectively, are Fiume, a port tained its largely Italian character. In
Austrians could release mines wherever on the Adriatic, and the coast and coastal 1779 it was united to Hungary, with they chose, and the currents would carry islands of Dalmatia, across the Adriatic which it has remained with the exception them along the Italian coast; while mines from the eastern coast of Italy.
of two brief periods in the nineteenth released by the Italians would be simply
century. Once, for nine years, it was at- carried out to sea. The possession of THE PARTIES TO THE CONTROVERSY
tached to Austria ; and again, later, for Dalmatia by a hostile country has thereOn both sides of the controversy are nineteen years, it was ruled by the Croa- fore proved itself to be a terrible menace peoples who fought for the Allied cause; tians. It has always, however, been very
to Italy, for which she has paid a great but on one side there are also peoples independent in spirit; it has had its own
price in men and treasure. who belonged to one of the Central Èm
statutes ; it has had rights which the pires, and some of them fought to the last Hapsburgs acknowledged by receiving its
THE TWO PACTS against the Allies.
homage separately; it has used officially Concerning Fiume and Dalmatia there Italy entered the war in 1915 and the Italian language. When the Croats
have been two international agreements. occupied the larger part of the Austroruled it, they provided that the city of
One of these is known as the Pact of Hungarian forces, diverting them from Fiume should have two seats in the Croa. London, the other as the Pact of Rome. attacks upon France, Russia, and Serbia. tian Legislature; but the city's repre
The Pact of London is a treaty secretly When Russia collapsed, great numbers of sentatives refused to elect Deputies and
contracted between Italy on one side and Austro-Hungarian troops, released from
left these seats perpetually unoccupied. France and Great Britain on the other. the eastern front, reinforced the armies Fiume much preferred her status in According to this France and Great attacking Italy. Though Italy is com- Hungary. When the war drew to an end Britain agreed that if Italy entered the paratively young as a modern state, she
in October of last year, the Deputy of war a victorious peace would insure to is old as a nation, for there has never Fiume in the Hungarian Parliament pro
her Gorizia and İstria, without Fiume, been any question that for centuries the
tested against Fiume's going back to and a certain portion of the Dalmatian Italian people have had a common lan- Croatia. The majority of the people of
coast and a good many of the islands. guage, tradition, and culture.
Fiume are undoubtedly Italian in sym- (The shaded territory bounded by the Jugoslavia is composed-or will be pathy, and it was at the request of heavy black line in the accompanying when organized—of three related peoples, Fiumians that Italian soldiers entered map indicates the lands which this treaty all Slavs, but differing in history, religion, Fiume after the armistice; but the country promised Italy.) The Pact of Rome is and traditions. Of these peoples, the Ser- round about Fiume, as well as the country not, strictly speaking, an international bians were in the war from the first, which it serves as a commercial outlet, is treaty, but an informal agreement beresisting the encroachments of Austria
non-Italian. Fiume is the chief port south tween Italy and the Jugoslavs. By this Hungary. The other two peoples, Croats of Trieste, and its commerce landward is agreement both sides were supposed to and Slovenes, were subject peoples under with Croatia, Hungary, Rumania, Czech- have come to an understanding. the Austro-Hungarian monarchy of the oslovakia, Austria, and Germany. The Hapsburgs. The people who are directly only standard-gauge railway connecting
JUGOSLAV ARGUMENTS affected by this controversy are princi- an Adriatic port with these countries is In behalf of Jugoslavia the following pally the Croats. They live chiefly in that which has its terminus at Fiume. arguments have been urged : Croatia, which was a subordinate province
President Wilson's Fourteen Points of Hungary. These three southern Slav
have been accepted as the basis on which peoples (including those of Serbia, Mon- What is known as Dalmatia consists of peace should be made. The President, tenegro, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Slovenia, the coast and the coastal islands on the who issued them, is the most authoritaand Croatia) have agreed to form a con- eastern shore of the Adriatic. It has a tive interpreter of them, and he says that federation. The Jugoslavs, therefore, are mixed population. Most of it is Slavic; they mean that Italy cannot have Fiume not yet a nation, but two of their constitu- but the population of many of the towns or Dalmatia. Avowing these principles, ent peoples form nations famed for their is largely, if not predominantly, Italian. America entered the war and was wellove of liberty, and some of the others The coast forms the greatest possible con- comed ; on the basis of these principles have been in revolt against the tyranny trast with the western, the Italian, shore President Wilson initiated peace and by which they were oppressed. The Croats of the Adriatic. It is rocky, pierced by hostilities ended. By them, therefore, all form one of these subject peoples, but inlets and harbors, and masked by a line the nations in the war are morally bound. they have had a considerable measure of of islands stretching for a great part of Italy should recognize this and yield. autonomy as a part of Hungary.
its length. During the war the possession One of these Fourteen Points is the
to the treaty and yet also demand Fiume. AUSTRIA
If England and France are bound by this HUNGARY
treaty, they are bound not to give her TRENTINO
Fiume. If Fiume is vital to Italy, why Tonalet Pass Trent
did she leave Fiume out of the treaty ? SLOVENIA
Some Italians claim that this ought to be added to her now in payment for the
extra cost she incurred on account of the averona L Garda
kussian defection. That argument is groRiver
tesque, for it makes the Croatians for
pay what the Russians failed to do. It may Belgrade
be that Fiume is a little more Italian in BOSNIA
population than not, but the region of which Fiume is the economic capital is
overwhelmingly Croatian. So the princiFlorence
ple of self-determination applies as well
as the principle of commercial rights. HERZEGOVINA
As to Dalmatia, the only plausible rea
son for giving it to Italy no longer holds. MONTENEGRO
The Italians want it for reasons of selfdefense; but Italy no longer needs to provide for self-defense, because Austria
Hungary, which threatened her, no longer Antivari
exists; and, moreover, whatever defense ROME
she may need she can get through the
League of Nations. In view of that fact, Foggiao
Dalmatia ought to go to Jugoslavia be
cause its population is overwhelmingly Naples
Jugoslav. There are Italians in Dalmatia,
it is true; but they are in the minority, TYRRHENIAN
and their interests or desires must be subordinated to those of the Jugoslav majority. In the downfall of Austria-Hungary, which has relieved Italy of her
burden of fear and of her need for selfCorfu.GER:EECE
defense, the Jugoslavs, by their disaffec
tion and revolt, were the chief cause. THE BONES OF CONTENTION
Out of gratitude to them Italians ought The lands on the Adriatic bordering the Jugoslavic countries are shown above. The heavy black line willingly to concede this territory. Moreindicates the frontier according to the London Pact (as explained in the accompanying article); and the over, even if the Italians are not willing shaded portions indicate the territories assigned to Italy
to concede it, the Jugoslavs ought not to disavowal of secret treaties. The London interests of Italy as well as of Jugoslavia that the Italian minority has put its
be deprived of it. Even if it be conceded Pact was a secret treaty, and therefore require that Italy's demand for Fiume is no longer valid. Moreover, it was not and the Dalmatian coast be rejected. To stamp upon the civilization of Dalmatia, signed by many of the nations that took
that is not conclusive; for if Italy tried this there are even Italians who will agree to get all the territory which she once ruled part in the war; indeed, it was not even
for some Italians have expressed the hope in the immemorial past or over which known to them, and consequently any that Italy would not do violence to her
her civilization has spread its influence, peace made by the agreement of all those past by trampling on the rights of others.
she would get the bigger part of Europe. who took part was quite independent of As to Fiume, President Wilson's Four
Italy must be content with what she can any such separate arrangement. Besides teen Points apply because Fiume is the
reasonably claim by virtue of her real that change in belligerents there has outlet for non-Italian nations. President
needs and the real rights of living popubeen another change, namely, the break- Wilson has himself stated this in the fol
lations, ing up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. lowing words: “ Fiume must serve as the The Pact of London was made on the outlet of commerce, not of Italy, but of
ITALIAN ARGUMENTS understanding that the territory in ques- the land to the north and the northeast In behalf of Italy the following argution belonged to a hostile country ; but of that port, Hungary, Bohemia, Rumania, ments have been urged : since the breaking up of the Austro-Hun- and the states of the new Jugoslav group.
To listen to the discussions about Fiume garian Empire these people in Dalmatia To assign Fiume to Italy would be to and Dalmatia one might imagine that the have joined the Allies and are to be in create the feeling that we have deliber- Allies had forgotten that for over three the League of Nations, and their territory ately put the port upon which all those years Italy fought for their cause and must therefore not be treated as hostile countries chiefly depend for access to the Croatians fought against it. There may territory:
Mediterranean in the hands of a Power have been pro-Ally Croatians, but there As it is, Italy has got a great deal of of which it did not form an integral part were no Italians fighting against the territory out of the war, and she ought and whose sovereignty, if set up there, Allies. Something is due to friends and not to be seeking more. She ought to be must inevitably seem foreign, not domes partners, and, not the least, a measure of content with what she has, and should tic or identified with the commercial and confidence. be warned not to demand too much. If industrial life of the regions which the Italy has no intention of applying to the this peace settlement is to make peace port must serve.” Therefore, following Fourteen Points in her own case any other secure, it must not leave heartburnings Mr. Wilson's statement, it must be con- interpretation than that which has been among the Jugoslavs such as the granting cluded that to concede Fiume to Italy applied in other cases. Those Fourteen of Italy's demand would be sure to leave. would be to strangle, not only the Slav Points were not put forward as President Unfortunately, Italy has become imperial- hinterland, but the countries lying behind Wilson's personal views, but as a summary istic, and is seeking to do what she has it. And Italy recognized this herself, for of the common view of all the Allies ; and never sought to do before--for the sake of she agreed in the Pact of London (which the Allies together and not any one man adding territory to bring alien people un- she now invokes) to let Fiume be Croa- should interpret them and apply them. willingly under her sovereignty. The best tian. She cannot now demand adherence One of the things for which the Allies