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than even in South Carolina or Louisiana), that I confidently hoped for an immediate and palpable, rather than a remote and circuitous triumph of the Union, now and evermore blended inseparably with Emancipation-with the legal and National recognition of every man's right to himself. Thenceforward, with momentary intervals of anxiety, depression, and donbt, it has been to me a labor of love to devote every available hour to the history of the American Conflict.
This Volume is essentially Military, as the former was Civil: that is, it treats mainly of Armies, Marches, Battles, Sieges, and the alternations of good and ill fortune that, from January, 1862, to May, 1865, befell the contending forces respectively of the Union and the Confederacy. But he who reads with attention will discern that I have regarded even these under a moral rather than a purely material aspect. Others have doubtless surpassed me in the vividness, the graphic power, of their delineations of “the noise of the captains, and the shouting:' I have sought more especially to portray the silent influence of these collisions, with the efforts, burdens, sacrifices, bereavements, they involved, in gradually molding and refining Public Opinion to accept, and ultimately demand, the overthrow and extinction of Human Slavery, as the one vital, implacable enemy of our Nationality and our Peace. Hence, while at least three-fourths of this Volume narrates Military or Naval occurrences, I presume a larger space of it than of any rival is devoted to tracing, with all practicable brevity, the succession of Political events; the sequences of legislation in Congress with regard to Slavery and the War; the varying phases of Public Sentiment; the rise, growth, and decline, of hopes that the War would be ended through the accession of its adversaries to power in the Union. I labor under a grave mistake if this be not judged by our grandchildren (should any of them condescend to read it) the most important and interesting feature of my work.
I have differed from most annalists, in preferring to follow a campaign or distinct military movement to its close before interrupting its narration to give accounts of simultaneous movements or campaigns in distant regions, between other armies, led by other commanders. In my historical reading, I have often been perplexed and 'confused by the facility wherewith chroniclers leap from the Euphrates to the Danube, and from the Ebro to the Vistula. In full view of the necessary inter-dependence of events occurring on widely separated arenas, it has seemed to me preferable to follow one movement to its culmination before dealing with another; deeming the inconveniences and obscurities involved in this method less serious than those unavoidable (by me, at least) on any different plan. Others will judge between my method and that which has usually been
I have bestowed more attention on marches, and on the minor incidents of a campaign, than is common: historians usually devoting their time and force mainly to the portrayal of great, decisive (or at least destructive) battles. But battles are so often won or lost by sagaciously planned movements, skillful combinations, well-conducted marches, and wise dispositions, that I have extended to these a prominence which seemed to me more clearly justified than usually conceded. He was not an incapable general who observed that he chose to win battles with his soldiers' legs rather than their muskets.
As to dates, I could wish that commanders on all hands were more precise than they usually are; but, wherever dates were accessible, I have given them, even though invested with no special or obvious consequence. Printed mainly as foot-notes, they con-' sume little space, and do not interrupt the flow of the narrative. The reader who does EXPLANATORY.
not value need not heed them; while the critical student will often find them of decided use. Should any one demur to this, I urge him to examine thoughtfully the dates of the dispatches received and sent by McClellan between his retreat to Harrison's bar and Pope's defeat at Groveton; also, those given in my account of his movements from the hour of his arrival at Frederick to that of Lee's retreat from Sharpsburg across the Potomac.
I trust it will be observed by candid critics that, while I seek not to disguise the fact that I honor and esteem some of our commanders as I do not others, I have been blind neither to the errors of the former nor to the just claims of the latter--that my high estimation of Grant and Sherman (for instance) has not led me to conceal or soften the lack of reasonable precautions which so nearly involved their country in deplorable if not irremediable disaster at Pittsburg Landing. So with Banks's mishap at Sabine Cross-roads and Butler's failure at Fort Fisher. On the other hand, I trust iny lack of faith in such officers as Buell and Fitz John Porter has not led me to represent them as incapable or timorous soldiers. What I believe in regard to these and many more of their school is, that they were misplaced—that they halted between their love of country and their traditional devotion to Slavery—that they clung to the hope of a compromise which should preserve both Slavery and the Union, long after all reasonable ground of hope had vanished; fighting the Rebellion with gloved hands and relaxed sinews because they mistakenly held that so only was the result they sighed for (deeming it most beneficent) to be attained. If the facts do not justify my conviction, I trust they will be found so fairly presented in the following pages as to furnish the proper corrective for my errors.
Without having given much heed to rival issues, I presume this volume will be found to contain accounts (necessarily very brief) of many minor actions and skirmishes which have been passed unheeded by other historians, on the assumption that, as they did not perceptibly affect the great issue, they are unworthy of record. But the nature and extent of that influence is matter of opinion, while the qualities displayed in these collisions were frequently deserving of grateful remembrance. And, beside, an affair of outposts or foraging expeditions has often exerted a most signal influence over the spirits of two great antagonist armies, and thus over the issues of a battle, and even of a campaign. Compressed within the narrowest limits, I have chosen to glance at nearly every conflict of armed forces, and to give time to these which others have devoted to more elaborate and florid descriptions of great battles. It has been my aim to compress within the allotted space the greatest number of notable facts and circumstances; others must judge how fully this end has been achieved.
Doubtless, many errors of fact, and some of judgment, are embodied in the following pages : for, as yet, even the official reports, &c., which every historian of this war must desire to study, are but partially accessible. I have missed especially the Confederate reports of the later campaigns; only a few of which have been made public, though many more, it is probable, will in time be. Some of these may have been destroyed at the hasty evacuation of Richmond; but many must have been preserved, in manuscript if not in print, and will yet see the light. So far as they were attainable, I have used the reports of Confederate officers as freely as those of their antagonists, and have accorded them nearly if not quite equal credit. I judge that the habit of understating or concealing their losses was more prevalent with Confederate than with Union coinmanders; in over-estimating the numbers they resisted, I have not been able to perceive
any difference. It is simple truth to say that such over-estimates seem to have been
I shall be personally obliged to any one, no matter on what side he served, who will
The subject of Reconstruction (or Restoration) is not within the purview of this work,
INDEX BY CHAPTERS.
Swamp Bridge Rebels attack, and are repelled
with long at Malvern Hill-McClellan retreats to
Harrison's Bar - Hooker returns to Malvern -
McClellan withdraws to Fortress Monroe, and em-
barks his Ariny for Alexandria.
VIII. Gen. Pope's Virginia Campaign......172
Pope appointed to command the forces of Fremont,
Banke, and McDowell-Advances to the Rapidan-
Banks worsted by Jackson at Cedar Mountain-
Pope retreats across the Rappahannock-Jackson
flanks his right-Strikes the Railroad in his rear
at Bristow Seizes Manassas Junction-Compelled
to retreat -- Longstreet hurrying to his rescue
Jackson worsts King-Two Days Battle of Guines-
ville and Groveton, or Second Bull Run - Pope
driven back on Centerville - Jackson fank, his
right, and attacks Kearny at Chantilly-Pope re-
treats to the defenses of Washington, and gives
place to McClellan–His Losses-McClellan's fail-
ure to support Pope - His Correspondence with
Lincoln, Halleck & Co.
IX. Lee's Invasion of Maryland in 1862..193
McClellan crosses the Potomac, and advances to
Frederick-Address to Maryland-McClellan fol.
lows to Frederick--Lee's plans discovered-He is
intent on the capture of Harper's Ferry-McClellan
fights and beats his rear-guard at Turner's Gap-
Franklin drives Howell Cobb out of Crampton's
Gap-Miles surrenders Harper's Ferry, with 12,000
men, to Stonewall Jackson - McClellan follows
Lte to the Antietum-Battle of Antietam or Sharpe.
burg-Losses-Lee retreats across the Potomac
Porter follows — McClellan hesitates to pursue-
J. E. B. Stuart raids around his Army-McClellan
Inoves down to the Rappahannock-s relieved by
Bragg crosses the Tennessee and Cumberland -
Kirby Smith routs M. D. Manson and Nelson at
Richmond, Ky. - Bragg captures 4,000 men at
Munfordsville Advances to Frankfort, and inau-
gurates Richard Hawes as Governor of Kentucky
Buell follows him from the Tennessee to Bardstown
and Springfield-Battle of Perryville-- Bragg re-
treats out of Kentucky by Cumberland Gap-Rose-
crans fights Price at luka--Price retreats to Ripley,
Miss—Van Dorn assails Rosecrans at Corinth-Is
beaten off with great slaughter-Van Dorn pursued
XI. Slavery in the War-Emancipation ... 232
Patrick Henry on Federal Power over Slavery-
Edinund Randolph--John Quincy Adams-Joshua
R. Giddings - Mr. Lincoln-Gov. Seward Gen.
Butler-Gen. Fremont-Gen. T. W. Sherman-Gon.
Wool-Gen. Dix-Gen. Halleck--Gen. Cameron
His Report revised by President Lincoln-Seward
to McClellan--Gen, Buruside-Gen. Buell-Gen.
Hooker-Gen. Sickles-Gen. McCook-Gen. Double-
dara-Gen. Williains-Col. Anthony-Gen. Hunter
- Overruled by the President-Gen. McClellan on
the N-gro-Horace Greeley to Lincoln-The Re-
sponse-Do. to the Chicago Clergymen-Lincoln's
First Proclamation of Freedoin-The Elections of
1862--Second Proclamation of Freedom-Edward
Everett on its Validity.
| XII. Slavery and Emancipation in Congress. 256
E. R. Potter on Emancipation by War-Lincola
for colonizing the Blacks-Congress forbids Mili-
tary Oficers returning Fugitives from Slavery-
Abolishes Slavery in the District of Columbia-
Lincoln proposes, and Congress enacts, Compen-
sated Emancipation-Prohibits Slavery in the Ter-
ritories--Confiscates the Slaves of Rebels-Opens
Diplomatic Intercourse with Liberia and Hayti
Requires Equality in Education and Punishment
between Whites and Blacks--Right of Search on
the African Coast conceded-Fugitive Slave Act
repealed--Confinement of suspected Slaves in Fed-
eral Jail. forbidden-Coastwise Slave-Trade for-
bidden-Color no Impediment to giving Testimony.
1 XIII. Rosecrans's Winter Campaign, 1862-3.270
The Army of the Ohio at Bowling Green-Réorgan-
ized by Rosecrans-Morgan's Raids-Surprise of
Moore at Hartsville Our Advance from Nash.
ville-Battle of Stone River, near Murfreesboro'-
Bragg retreats---Cavalry Raids on our rear.-Innes's
Defense of Lavergne-Losses Forrest routed by
-Is overpowered and captured near Rome.
Lewisburg--Fight at Droop Mountain.
Morgan's Raid through Kentucky into Indiana
Position and importance of Vicksburg - Grant
Who invests and captures the Post of Arkansas
sails Heleva, and is routed.
ture of Port Hudson...........322
Capture of Aransas Pass and Pass Cavallo--Fort
Banks returns to New Orleans
side and Hooker--Fredericksburg
Rebel Raids in Virginia-Burnside gives place
Our Army recoils-Sedgwick storms Marye's
beaten off with loss.
in 1862-3-Siege of Charleston. .455