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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY :

CONTAINING

AN HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL ACCOUNT

OF THE

LIVES AND WRITINGS

OF THE

MOST EMINENT PERSONS

IN EVERY NATION;

PARTICULARLY THE BRITISH AND IRISH;

FROM THE EARLIEST ACCOUNTS TO THE PRESENT TIME.

A NEW EDITION,

REVISED AND ENLARGED BY

ALEXANDER CHALMERS, F. S. A.

VOL. XV.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR J. NICHOLS AND SON; F. C. AND J. RIVINGTON; T. PAYNE ;
OTRIDGE AND SON ; G. AND W. NICOL; WILKIE AND ROBINSON; J. WALKER ;
R. LEA; W. LOWNDES; WHITE, COCHRANE, AND CO. ; T. EGERTON ,
LACKINGTON, ALLEN, AND CO.; J. CARPENTER; LONGMAN, HURST, REES,
ORME, AND BROWN; CADELL AND DAVIES; C. LAW; J. BOOKER ; J. CUTHELL;
CLARKE AND SONS ; J. AND A. ARCH ; J. HARRIS ; BLACK, PARRY, AND CO.;
J. BOOTH; J. MAWMAN ; GALE, CURTIS, AND FENNER; R. H. EVANS ;
J. HATCHARD ; R. BALDWIN; CRADOCK AND JOY ; E. BENTLEY ; J. FAULDER ;
OGLE AND Co. ; J. DEIGHTON AND SON, CAMBRIDGE; CONSTABLE AND co.
EDINBURGH; AND WILSON AND SON, YORK.

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A NEW AND GENERAL';,

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY.

FOUGEROUX DE BONDAROY (AUGUSTUS DENNIS), a learned Frenchman, and member of the academy of sciences, was born at Paris Oct. 10, 1732. . He was the nephew of the celebrated Duhamel, and acquired a similar taste for those studies that end in objects of real utility. He travelled over Anjou and Brittany to investigate the nature of the slate-quarries, and then west to Naples to make.ob. servations on the alum mines and other natural productions. On his return he had the misfortune to lose his tutor and uncle Duhamel, to, whose estatë he succeeded, and on which he carried on very extensive agricultural improve. . ments and experiments, and acquired by his amiable private character the esteem of every one who knew hiin. He died Dec. 28, 1789, leaving the following valuable publications: 1. Memoires sur la formation des Os,?? 1760, Svo, in which, with some discoveries of his own, he ably defends his uncle's theory on that part of physiology. "2. “ L'art de l'Ardoisier,” 1762. 2. “ L'art de travailler les cuirs dorés." 4. “ L'art de Tonnelier,” 1752. 5. “ L'art de Coutelier." All these form part of the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences. 6.“ Recherches sur les ruines d'Herculaneum, et sur les lumieres qui peuvent en resulter ; avec un traité sur la fabrication des mosaiques," 1769, 8vo: 7. “ Observations faites sur les cotes de Normandie,” 1773, 4to. He was the author also of a great number of miscellaneous papers in the Memoirs of the Academy..

i Eloges des Academiciens, vol. V.—Dict. Bist. Vol. XV.

FOUILLOU (JAMES), a celebrated licentiate of the Sorbonne, was born in 1670 at Rochelle, where he studied ethics in the Jesuits' college. He went afterwards to Paris, and continued his studies in the community of M. Gillot, at the college of St. Barbe, including the time of his being licentiate, and was immediately nominated theologal of Rochelle ; this office, however, he declined, nor had he ever any benefice, but the commendatory priory of St. Martin de Prunieres, in the diocese of Mende. M. Fouillou having engaged in the affair of the “ Case of Conscience,” was obliged to conceal himself in 1703, and to retire into Holland about 1705; but the air of that country not agreeing with him, he was seized with an asthma, which proved incurable. He returned to Paris about 1720, and died there September 21, 1736, aged sixty-six, leaving several theological works, all anonymous, and all discovering great opposition to the bull Unigenitus. The principal are, l. “ Considerations sur la Censure (of the Cas de Conscience) de M. l'Eveque d'Apt.” 2. “ Defense des Theologiens contre M. de Chartres,” 12mo. 3. “ Traité sur le Silence respectueux,” 3 vols, 12mo. 4. “ La Chimere du Jansenisme, et le Renversement de la Doctrine de St. Augustin, par l'Ordonnance de Luçon, et de la Rochelle,” 12mo. 5. “ Traité de l'Equilibre,” a small piece containing observations on the 101 propositions censured by the hull Unigenitus. Fouillou had also a great share in the first edition of “ L'Action de Dieu sur les Creatures,” 4to, or 6 vols. 12mo; “ Gemissemens sur PortRoial,” 12mo; “ Grands Hexaples,” 1721, 7 vols. 4to, and. “ l'Histoire du Cas de Conscience,” 1705, 8 vols. 12mo.

FOULIS (ROBERT and ANDREW), two learned printers. of Scotland, were, it is supposed, natives of Glasgow, and passed their early days in obscurity. Ingenuity and perseverance, however, enabled them to establish a press from which have issued some of the finest specimens of correct and elegant printing which the eighteenth century has produced. Even Bodoni of Parma, or Barbou of Paris, have not gone beyond some of the productions from the press of Robert and Andrew Foulis. It would be highly agreeable to trace the progress of these ingenious men, but their history has been neglected by their coun

Moreri. L'Avocat's Dict. Hist.

trymen, and at this distance little can be recovered.' Robert Foulis began printing about 1740, and one of his first essays was a good edition of Demetrius Phalereus, in 4to. In 1744 he brought out his celebrated immaculate edition of Horace, 12mo, and soon afterwards was in partnership with his brother Andrew. Of this edition of Hurace, the sheets, as they were printed, were hung up in the college of Glasgow, and a reward was offered to those who should discover an inaccuracy. It has been several times reprinted at Glasgow, but not probably with the same fidelity. The two brothers then proceeded in producing, for thirty years, a series of correct and well printed books, particuJarly classics, which, either in Greek or Latin, are as remarkable for their beauty and exactness as any in the Aldine series. Among those classics we may enumerate 1. « Homer," 4 vols. fol. Gr. 2. “ Herodotus,” 9 vols. 12mo. 3. “ Thucydides,” 8 vols. 12mo. 4. “ Xenophon," 8 vols. 12mo. 5. “ Epictetus,” 12mo. 6. “ Longinus," 12mo. 7. “ Ciceronis Opera,” 20 vols. 12mo. 8. “ Horace,” 12mo and 4to. 9. “ Virgil," 12mo. 10. « Tibullus and Propertius," 12mo. 11. “ Cornelius Nepos,” 3 vols. 12mo. 12. “ Tacitus,” 4 vols. 12mo. 13. * Juvenal and Persius," 12mo. 14. " Lucretius,'' 12mo. To these may be added a beautiful edition of the Greek Testament, small 4to; Gray's Poems ; Pope's Works; Hales of Eton, &c. &c. &c. . · It is a melancholy reflection that the taste of these worthy men for the fine arts at last brought about their ruin ; for having engaged in the establishment of an academy for the instruction of youth in painting and sculpture in Scotland, the enormous expence of sending pupils to Italy, to study and copy the ancients, gradually brought on their decline in the printing business; and they found the city of Glasgow no fit soil to transplant the imitative arts into, although the literary genius of Greece and Rome had already produced them ample fortunes. Unsuccessful as they were, however, in this project, it ought not to be forgot that Robert Foulis, with whom it originated, was the first who endeavoured to establish a school of the lic' beral arts in Great Britain. Andrew Foulis died in 1774 ; and Robert in 1776 exhibited and sold at Christie's in Pall Mall, the remainder of his paintings. The catalogue forms 3 vols.; and the result of the sale was, that after all the concomitant expences were defrayed, the balance in

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