Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound

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MIT Press, 1994 - 773 頁

Auditory Scene Analysis addresses the problem of hearing complex auditory environments, using a series of creative analogies to describe the process required of the human auditory system as it analyzes mixtures of sounds to recover descriptions of individual sounds. In a unified and comprehensive way, Bregman establishes a theoretical framework that integrates his findings with an unusually wide range of previous research in psychoacoustics, speech perception, music theory and composition, and computer modeling.

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第 221 頁 - All these helps fail in the resolution of musical tones into their constituent partials. When a compound tone commences to sound, all its partial tones commence with the same comparative strength ; when it swells, all of them generally swell uniformly ; when it ceases, all cease simultaneously. Hence no opportunity is generally given for hearing them separately and independently.
第 220 頁 - Now there are many circumstances which assist us first in separating the musical tones arising from different sources, and secondly, in keeping together the partial tones of each separate source. Thus when one musical tone is heard for some time before being joined by the second, and then the second continues after the first has ceased, the separation in sound is facilitated by the succession of time. We have already heard the first musical tone by itself, and hence know immediately what we have...
第 92 頁 - Timbre is that attribute of auditory sensation in terms of which a listener can judge that two sounds similarly presented and having the same loudness and pitch are dissimilar.
第 221 頁 - But besides all this, in good part music, especial care is taken to facilitate the separation of the parts by the ear. In polyphonic music proper, where each part has its own distinct melody, a principal means of clearly separating the progression of each part has always consisted in making them proceed in different " rhythms and on different divisions of the bars; or where this could not be done, or was at any rate only partly possible, as in four-part chorales, it is an old rule, contrived...
第 331 頁 - ... in the quality of tone which takes place during this fusion is characteristic. On producing the upper tone first and then letting the lower sound with it, I found that I at first continued to hear the upper tone with its full force, and the under tone sounding below it in its natural quality of oo in too. But by degrees, as my recollection of the sound of the isolated upper tone died away, it seemed to become more and more indistinct and weak, while the lower tone appeared to become stronger,...
第 739 頁 - Perception of temporal order in speech: The role of vowel transitions. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 27, 441-449.
第 682 頁 - For the purposes of the present discussion it is not necessary to refer at greater length to local revenues or expenditures.
第 399 頁 - This word is used by cognitive psychologists to refer to some control system in the human brain that is sensitive to some frequently occurring pattern, either in the environment, in ourselves, or in how the two interact...
第 221 頁 - ... proper, where each part has its own distinct melody, a principal means of clearly separating the progression of each part has always consisted in making them proceed in different " rhythms and on different divisions of the bars; or where this could not be done, or was at any rate only partly possible, as in four-part chorales, it is an old rule, contrived for this purpose, to let three parts, if possible, move by single degrees of the scale, and let the fourth leap over several. The small amount...
第 331 頁 - This fusion takes place even when tlie upper tone is somewhat stronger than the lower. The alteration in the quality of tone which takes place during this fusion is characteristic. On producing the upper tone first and then letting the lower sound with it, I found that I at first continued to hear the upper tone with its full force, and the under tone sounding below it in its natural quality of oo in too. But by degrees, as my recollection of the sound of the isolated upper tone died away, it seemed...

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