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attributed in some measure one of the most noteworthy developments within the English Church in recent times. Whatever indigenous causes may have contributed to its growth, the Broad Church movement has received a perceptible impulse and bias from German philosophy and criticism. In helping directly to this movement these factors have contributed indirectly to a very different one. No doubt, it would be going beyond warrant to style the extreme High Church movement, known as Tractarianism, a simple reaction against Broad Church theories. The mixed standards of the English Church contain some ingredients which are suited to serve as the standing basis of a High Church development, and such a development, once started with special vigor, naturally is with difficulty brought to a halt. Still, Tractarianism appears measurably as a reaction, at least in its primary stage. Among the causes which urged on its originators was an already existing Broad Church movement, an initial tendency to a more latitudinarian or liberal school than had as yet obtained a footing in the Establishment. Men like Thirlwall, who made an opening for German criticism by his translation of Schleiermacher's essay on Luke's Gospel, Coleridge, who was noticeably affected by German speculation, and the early Oriel School, represented by Whately, Hampden, and Thomas Arnold, though by no means inclined to great laxity in their theological views, gave sufficient tokens of independent thinking to awaken some apprehension in conservative minds.

Tractarianism was also a reaction against the tendency of the Evangelical School. By exalting above measure a certain line of gospel truths, this school had fallen into a species of theological narrowness. Herein was a valid ground of criticism, though otherwise the Evangelicals in the early part of the century had the special merit of embodying a large fraction of the earnest piety and missionary zeal of the Establishment. At the same time they were quite as much in sympathy with Dissenters of similar doctrinal views as with the opposing school in their own communion. Accordingly they were regarded by High Churchmen as guilty of a species of disloyalty to the Anglican Establishment.

In a conspicuous degree Tractarianism was a reaction against political liberalism, or what was esteemed to have that character. It was a Tory protest against a reform movement which gave political equality to the Dissenters by abolishing, in 1828, the Corporation and Test Acts, secured Roman Catholic emancipation in 1829, and sought through a series of acts in the following years to mend abuses in both Church and State. Naturally those who did not go with the tide resented Parliamentary interference with the affairs of the Church, and began to agitate against the Erastian theory of ecclesiastical government.

With the progress of the century the legislation of 1828 was supplemented by additional acts in favor of Dissenters. Compulsory church rates were abolished in 1868. The exclusive right of the clergy of the Church of England to conduct burials in consecrated ground was taken away in 1880. By the abolition of religious tests in 1854 and 1856, the way to certain degrees at Oxford and Cambridge was opened to Dissenters. Later acts (1871, 1882) made Dissenters eligible to nearly all university honors, the headships and fellowships of the

colleges (with few exceptions) being made accessible to them. Progress was also made toward a non-partisan basis in relation to education. “By the education act of 1870 the State entirely separated itself from all concern in the religious instruction of elementary schools, tolerating and accepting all schools indifferently in which the secular instruction was found sufficient, and arranging for the establishment of rate-paid Board schools, which were to be purely undenominational.” 1 More recently a provision in the direction of free education has been added to this scheme.

The grief to High Church feeling which may have been caused by this abridgment of the special privileges of the Establishment has been offset in some measure by the revival of Convocation, which awoke out of its long slumber in 1852. A more equivocal consolation was afforded by the relaxation, in 1865, of the terms of clerical subscription.

A happy and creditable breadth of spirit was exhibited by Convocation in connection with the revision of the English Bible, which was projected in 1870. The motion to invite eminent scholars of all religious bodies to co-operate in the great undertaking encountered but moderate opposition. “It is no secret that Dr. Ellicott, Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, Dr. Alford, Dean of Canterbury, and Dr. Stanley, Dean of Westminster, were most active in originating the revision, and to their influence the catholic character of the undertaking is chiefly to be ascribed.” 2 While the proprieties of worship have been a special theme in certain circles, the most eccentric methods of Christian work have been developed by the Salvation Army, which arose in connection with the mission in East London, in the years following 1873, and spread rapidly over a great part of the Christian world. These methods too have been met with not a little of charitable consideration. A new sense of the desperate condition of the unevangelized masses in the crowded centres of population has taken hold of the Church, and has quenched much of the fastidiousness over methods which otherwise would have been manifested. The ferment which is in progress respecting the needs, temporal and spiritual, of the unchurched multitudes of the great cities, is not the least among the hopeful signs of practical piety in this generation.

1 Perry, History of the English Church, Third Period, p. 535. 2 Stoughton, Religion in England from 1800 to 1850, ii. 395.

A reference to the colonial field is needed in a proper survey of the Anglican Establishment. The first colonial bishop was appointed in 1787, with Nova Scotia for his field. In 1793 the see of Quebec was founded, in 1814 that of Calcutta. Between 1850 and 1879 no less than forty-one bishoprics were instituted in the English colonial and missionary field.

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Tractarianism had its headquarters at Oxford, and its beginning in the year 1833. The circumstances under which it arose and the spirit with which it was inaugurated are well indicated by the words of one who was at the time in full sympathy with its aim. We quote from the account of William Palmer: “At the beginning of the summer of 1833, the Church in England and Ireland seemed destined to immediate desolation and ruin. We had seen, in 1828, the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, cutting away from the Church of England one of its ancient bulwarks, and evidencing a disposition to make concession to the clamor of its enemies. In the next year — the fatal year 1829 we had seen the principle fully carried out, by the concession of what is called 'Roman Catholic emancipation,' a measure which scattered to the winds public principle, public morality, public confidence.” In this way, complains the writer, the security of the Church was endangered, its supervision being left in “ the hands of a Parliament reckless of the high and sacred interests of religion, and now for the first time numbering by law among its members Romanists and Dissenters." The sacrifice of ten bishoprics in Ireland to gratify a Romish democracy, he argues, was a startling indication of what might be expected from the enemies of the Church with their enlarged opportunities to control legislation. “Nor was this,” he says, “the worst. The prevailing spirit of innovation had begun to infect the Church itself. Writers had been at work for some time disseminating superficial and fanciful novelties on religious questions, disdaining all appeal to authority, and encouraging a taste for rationalizing theology. The publications of the author of The Natural History of Enthusiasm,' which went directly to the subversion of all existing religious

1 General Booth could thus write of his Army in 1890 : “Its flag is now flying in thirty-four countries or colonies, where, under the leadership of nearly ten thousand men and women, whose lives are wholly given up to the work, it is holding some 49,800 religious meetings every week, attended by millions of persons, who ten years ago would have laughed at the idea of praying.” (In Darkest England, Appendix.)

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