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Hiero, dazzled, in the beginning of his reign, by the glitter of sovereign power, and corrupted by the flattery of his courtiers, studiously endeavoured to deviate from that path which his predecessor had pointed out to him, and in which he had found himself so happy. This young prince was avaricious, headstrong, unjust, and studious of nothing but the gratification of his passions, without ever endeavouring to acquire the esteem and affection of the people; who on their side, had the utmost aversion for a prince, whom they looked upon as a tyrant over them, rather than as a king; and nothing but the veneration they had for Gelon's memory, prevented it from breaking out.*

Some time after he had ascended the throne, he had violent suspicions of Polyzelus his brother, whose great credit among the citizens made him fear that he designed to depose him. In order however, to rid himself without noise of an enemy whom he fancied very dangerous, he resolved to put him at the head of some forces he was about to send to the succour of the Sibarites against the Crotonians, hoping that he would perish in the expedition. His brother's refusal to accept this command, made him the more violent against him.t Theron, who had married the daughter of Polyzelus, joined with his fatherin-law. This gave rise to great differences of long duration between the kings of Syracuse and Agrigentum; they however, were at last reconciled by the wise mediation of Simonides the poet, and to make their reconciliation lasting, they cemented it by a new alliance, Hiero marrying Theron's sister; after which the two kings always lived on good terms with each other. I

At first an infirm state of health, which was increased by frequent indispositions, gave Hiero an opportunity of thinking seriously ; after which he resolved to send for men of learning, who might converse agreeably with bim, and furnisb him with useful instructions. The most famous poets of the age came to his court, as Simonides, Pindar, Bacchylides, and Epicharmus ; and it is affirined that their delightful conversation did not a little contribute to soften the cruel and savage disposition of Hiero.§

Plutarch relates a noble saying of his, which shows an excellent disposition in a prince. He declared, that his palace and his ears should be always open to every man who would tell him the truth, and that without disguise or reserve.lt

The poets above-mentioned excelled not only in poetry, but were also possessed of a great fund of learning, and were respected and consulted as the sages of their times. This is what Cicero says particularly of Simonides. I He had a great influence over the king ; and the only use he made of it, was to incline him to virtue.

They often used to converse on philosophical subjects. I observed on another occasion, that Hiero, in one of those conversations, asked Simonides his opinion with regard to the nature and attributes of the Deity. The latter desired one day's time to consider of it; the next day he asked two, and went on increasing in the same proportion. The prince pressing him to give his reasons for these delays, he confessed that the subject was above his comprehension, and that the more he reflected, the more obscure it appeared to him.**

Xenopbon bas left us an excellent treatise on the art of governing well, entitled Hiero, and written as a dialogue between this prince and Simonides. Hiero undertakes to prove to the poet, that tyrants and kings are not so happy as is generally imagined. Among the great number of proofs alleged by him, he insists chiefly on their vast unhappiness in being deprived of the greatest comfort and blessing in this life, viz. the enjoyment of a true friend, to whose bosom they may safely confide their secrets and afflictions; who may share with them in their joy and sorrow ; in a word, a second self, who may form but one heart, one soul with them. 'Simonides, on the other side, lays down ad


* Diod. l. xi.

† Diod. I. xi. p. 56.

| Schol. in Pind.
§ Ælian. 1. iv. c. 15.

|| Plut. in Apophth p. 175. TT Simonides, non poeta solum suavis, verum etiam cæteroque doctus sapiensque traditur.--Lib. i. de Nat. Deor. n. 60

** C 1. de at. Deor. 2.60


mirable maxims with respect to the well governing of a kingdom. He represents to him, that a king is not so for himself, but for others : that his grandeur consists, hot in building magnificent palaces for his own residence, but in erecting temples, and fortifying and embellishing cities ; that it is his glory, not that bis people should fear, but be afraid for him : that a truly royal care is, not to enter the lists with the first comer at the Olympic games, for the princes of that age were passionately fond of them, and especially Hiero,* but to contend with the neighbouring kings, who should succeed best in diffusing wealth and abundance throughout his dominions, and in endeavouring to form the felicity of his people. Nevertheless, another

poet, Pindar, praises Hiero for the victory be had won in the horse-race.” “ This prince," says he, in his ode, “who governs with equity the inhabitants of opulent Sicily, has gathered the fairest Howers in the garden of virtue. He takes a noble delight in the most exquisite performance of poetry and music. He loves melodious airs, such as it is customary for us to play at the banquets given us by our dearest friends. Then rouse yourself, take your lyre, and raise it to the Doric pitch. If you feel yourself animated by a glorious fire in favour of Pisa and Pherenice ;t if they have waked the sweetest transports in thy breast, when that generous courser, without being quickened by the spur, flew along the banks of the Alpheus, and carried his royal rider to glorious victory: 01 sing the king of Syracuse, the ornament of the Olympic course !"

The whole ode, translated by the late Mr. Massieu, is in the sixth volume of the Memoirs of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, from which I have made the short extract above. I was very glad to give the readers some idea of Pindar, by this little specimen.

The next ode to this was composed in honour of Theron, king of Agrigentum, victorious in the chariot-race. The diction of it is so sublime, the thoughts so noble, and the moral so pure, that many look upon it as Pindar's master-piece.

I cannot say how far we may depend on the rest of the praises which Pindar gives Hiero, for poets are not always very sincere in the eulogies they bestow on princes : however, it is certain that Hiero, had made his court the resort of all persons of wit and genius; and that he had invited them to it by his affability and engaging behaviour, and much more by his liberality, which is a great merit in a king.

We cannot bestow on Hiero's court the eulogy which Horace gives the house of Mæcenas, in which a character prevailed rarely found among scholars, and nevertheless worth all their erudition. In this amiable house, says Horace, the mean and grovelling sentiments of envy and jealousy were utterly unknown; and men saw, in those who shared in the master's favour, a superior merit or credit, without taking the least umbrage at it. I But it was far otherwise in the court of Hiero, or of Theron. It is said that Simonides and Bacchylides his nephew, employed all kinds of criticism, to lessen the esteem which those princes had for Pindar's works. The latter, by way of reprisal,


* It is said that Themistocles, seeing him arrive at the Olympic games with a splendid equipage, would have had lum forbidden them, because he had not succoured the Greeks against the common enemy, any more than Gelon his brother: which motion did honour to the Athenian general. -Ælian. I. ix. c. 5.

Pisa was the city near to which the Olympic games were solemnized; and Pherenice was the name of Hiero's courser, signifying the gainer of victory.

-Non isto vivimus illic,
Quo tu rere, modo : domus hac nec purior ulla est,
Nec magis his aliena malis : nil mi officit unquam,
Ditior hic, aut est quia doctior: est locus uni-
Cuique suus.

-Hor. lib. i. Sat. 9
Sir, you mistake ; that's not our course of life ;
We know no jealousies, no brawls no strise ;
From all those ills our patron's house is free,
None, 'cause more learn'd or wealthy, troubles me;
We have our stations, all their own pursue, &c.


ridicules them very strongly in his ode to Theron, in comparing them to "ra vens, who croak in vain against the divine bird of Jove. But modesty was not the virtue which distinguished Pindar.*

Hiero, having driven the ancient inhabitants of Catana and Naxos from their country, settled a colony of ten thousand men there, half of whom were Syracusans and the rest Peloponnesians. This prompted the inhabitants of those two cities to appcint, after his death, the same solemnities in his honour, as were bestowed on heroes or demi-gods, because they considered him as their founder.

He showed great favour to the children of Anaxilaus, formerly tyrant of Zancle, and a great friend to Gelon his brother. As they were arrived at years of maturity, he exhorted them to take the government into their own hands, after Micgthus, their tutor, should have informed them of the perfect state of it, and how he himself had behaved in the administration. The latter, having assembled the nearest relations and most intimate friends of the young princes, gave, in their presence, so good an account of his guardianship, that the whole assembly in perfect admiration bestowed the highest encomiums on his prudence, integrity, and justice. Matters were carried so far, that the young princes were extremely urgent with him to preside in the administration, as he had hitherto done. However, the wise tutor preferring the sweets of ease to the splendour of authority, and persuaded, at the same time, that it would be for the interest of the state, if the young princes took the government into their own hands, resolved to retire from public life. Hiero died after having reigned eleven years. I

III. THRASYBULUS. He was succeeded by Thrasybulus his hrother, who, by his evil conduct, contributed very much to the making Hiero be regretted. Swelled with pride and a brutal haughtiness, he considered men as mere worms; vainly fancying that they were created for him to trample upon, and that he was of a quite different nature from them. He abandoned himself implicitly to the flattering counsels of the giddy young courtiers who surrounded him. He treated all his subjects with the utmost severity ; banishing some, confiscating the possessions of others, and putting great numbers to death. So severe a slavery soon grew insupportable to the Syracusans, and therefore they implored the succour of the neighbouring cities, whose interest it was also to throw off the tyrant's yoke. Thrasybulus was besieged even in Syracuse, the sovereignty of part of which he had reserved to himself, viz. Achradina, and the island, which was very well fortified; but the third quarter of the city, called Tyche, was possessed by the enemy. After making a teeble resistance, and demanding to capitulate, he left the city, and withdrew into banishment among the Locrians. He had reigned but a year. In this manner the Syracusans recovered their liberty. They also delivered the rest of the cities of Sicily from tyrants ; established a popular government in all places, and maintained that form among themselves during sixty years, till the reign of Dionysius the tyrant, who again enslaved them.

After Sicily had been delivered from the government of tyrants, and all the cities of it were restored to their liberty, as the country was extremely fruitful in itself, and the peace which all places enjoyed, gave the inhabitants of this island an opportunity of cultivating their lands and feeding their flocks, the people grew very powerful, and amassed great riches. To perpetuate to latest posterity the remembrance of the happy day in which they had thrown off the yoke of slavery by the banishment of Thrasybulus, it was decreed in the general assembly of the nation, that a colossal statue should be set up to Jupiter the Deliverer ; that on the anniversary of this day, a festival should be solemnized, by way of thanksgiving, for the restoration of their liberty; and that there should be sacrificed, in honour of the gods, four hundred and bfty bulls, with which the people should be entertained at a common feast.ll

* S holiast. Pind. s Diod. 1. xi. p. 51, 52.

| Diod. 1. xi. p. 37.
i A, M 3544. Apt. J. C. 460.

* Idem, p. 50.
Died, 1. xi.

p. 55. &com

There nevertheless lay concealed in the minds of many, a secret spirit of tyranny, which frequently disturbed the harmony of this peace, and occasioned several tumults and commotions in Sicily, the particulars of which I shall omit. To prevent the evil consequences of them, the Syracusans established the petalism, which differed very little from the Athenian ostracism; and was so called from the Greek miradov, signifying a leaf, because the votes were then given on an olive leaf. This judgment was pronounced against those citizens whose great power made the people apprehensive thal they aspired to the tyranny, and it banished then for ten years; it did not, however, long continue in force, but was soon abolished; because the dread of falling under its censure, having prompted the most virtuous men to retire, and renounce the government; the chief employments were now filled by such citizens only as liad the least merit.*

Deucetius, according to Diodorus,t was chief over the people who were properly called Sicilians. Having united them all, the inhabitants of Hybla excepted, into one body, he became very powerful, and formed several great enterprises. It was he who built the city Palica, near the temple of the gods called Palici. This temple was very famous on account of some wonders which are related of it; and still more from the sacred nature of the oaths which were there taken, the violation of which was said to be always followed by a sudden and exemplary punishment. This was a secure asylum for all persons who were oppressed by superior power; and especially for slaves who were unjustly abused, or too cruelly treated by their masters. They continued in safety in this temple, till certain arbiters and mediators had made their peace ; and there was not a single instance of a master's having ever forfeited the promise he had made to pardon his slave; so famous were the gods who presided over this temple,for the severe vengeance they took on those who violated their oaths

This Deucetius, after having been successful on a great many occasions, and gained several victories, particularly over the Syracusans, found his fortune change on a sudden by the loss of a battle, and was abandoned by the greatest part of his forces. In the consternation and despondency into which so general and sudden a desertion threw him, he formed such a resolution as despair only could suggest. He withdrew in the night to Syracuse, advanced as far as the great square of the city, and there falling prostrate at the foot of the altar, he abandoned his life and dominions to the mercy of the Syracusans, that is, to his professed enemies. The singularity of this spectacle drew great numbers of people to it. The magistrates immediately convened the people, and debated on the affair. They first heard the orators, whose business was generally to address the people by speeches; and who greatly inflamed their minds against Deucetius, as a public enemy, whom Providence seemed to throw into their way, to revenge and punish by his death all the injuries he had done the republic. A speech of this kind struck all the virtuous part of the assembly with horror. The most ancient and wisest of the senators represented, they were not to consider what punishment Deucetius deserved, but how it behooved the Syracusans to behave on this occasion ; that they ought not to look upon him any longer as an enemy, but as a suppliant, a character by which his person was become sacred and inviolable. That there was a goddess, Nemesis, who took vengeance of crimes, especially of cruelty and impiety, and who doubtless would not suffer that to go unpunished : that besides the baseness and inhumanity there is in insulting the unfortunate, and in crushing those who are already under one's foot, it was worthy the grandeur and goodness natural to the Syracusans, to exert their clemency even to those who least deserved it." All

the people assented to this opinion, and with one consent spared the life of Deucetius. He was ordered to reside in Corinth, the metropolis and foundress of Syracuse; and the Syracusans engaged to furnish him with all things necessary for an honourable subsistence there. What reader, who compares these two different opinions, does not perceive which of them was the noblest and most generous ?


" that

• Diod. I. xi. p. 65,

t Page 67-70.

SECTION 11.-FAMOUS PERSONS AND CITIES IN GRECIA MAJOR, &c. 1. PYTHAGORAS. In treating of what relates to Græcia Major in Italy, I must not omit Pythagoras, who was the glory of it. He was born in Samos. After having travelled into a great many regions, and enriched his mind with the most excellent learning of every kind, he returned to his native country, but did not remain long in it, because of the tyrannical government which Polycrates had established there, who however had the highest regard for him, and showed him all the esteem due to his extraordinary merit. But the study of the sciences, and particularly of philosophy, is scarcely compatible with slavery, though of the mildest and most honourable kind. He therefore went into Italy, and resided_usually either at Crotona, Metapontum, Heraclea, or Tarentum.* Servius Tullius, or Tarquinius Superbus, reigned in Rome at that time; which absolutely refutes the opinion of those who imagined that Numa Pompilius, the second king of the Romans, who lived upwards of a hundred years before, had been the disciple of Pythagoras ; an opinion that very probably was grounded on the resemblance of their manners, dispositions, and principles.t

The whole country soon felt very happy effects from the presence of this excellent philosopher. An inclination for study, and a love of wisdom diffused themselves almost universally in a very short time. Multitudes flocked from all the neighbouring cities to get a sight of Pythagoras, to hear him, and to improve by his salutary counsels. The several princes of the country took a pleasure in inviting him to their courts, which they thought honoured by his presence, and all were delighted with his conversation, and glad to learn from him the art of governing nations with wisdom. His school became the most famous that had ever been till that age. He had no less than four or five hundred disciples. Before he admitted them in that quality, they were probationers five years, during which time he obliged them to keep the strictest silence, thinking it proper for them to be instructed before they should attempt to speak. I shall take notice of his tenets and sentiments, when I come to speak of the various sects of philosophers : it is well known, that the transmigration of souls was one of the chief of them. His disciples had the greatest reverence for every word he uttered ; and, if he did but barely aver a thing, he was immediately believed, without its being once examined; and to afirm the truth of any thing, they used to express themselves in this manner, " The master said it." However, the disciples carried their deference and docility too far, in thus waving all inquiry, and in sacrificing implicitly their reason and understanding; a sacrifice that ought to be made only to the divine authority, which is infinitely superior to our reason and all our knowledgę; and which consequently, is authorized to prescribe laws to us, and dictate absolute obedience.

The school of Pythagoras produced a great number of illustrious disciples, who did infinite honour to their master; as wise legislators, great politicians, persons skilled in all the sciences, and capable of governing states, and being the ministers of the greatest princes. A long time after his death, that part of Italy, which he had cultivated and improved by his instructions, was still considered as the nursery and seat of men skilled in all kinds of literature, and it maintained that glorious character for several ages.ll The Romans certainly entertained a high opinion of the virtue of Pythagoras, since the oracle of Del. phos having commanded that people, during the war of the Samnites, to erec! iwo statues in the most conspicuous part of Rome, the one to the wisest, and the

* A. M. 3480. Ant. J. C. 524, Diog. Laert. in Vit. Pythag.

| Liv. I. i. n. 18. Pythagoras, cum in Italiam venisset, exornavit eam Græciam, quæ Magna dicta est, et privatim of publice, præstantissimis et iostitutis et artibus.Cic. Tusc. Quæst. I. v. a. 10.

και Αυτός έφα. Pythagoras tenuit Magnam illam Græciam cum honore, et disciplina, tum etiam auctoritate, multaque recula posten sic viguit Pythagoreorum nomen, ut gulli alii docti iderentur,---Cic. Tuso, Quest. 1. i. h. 3d,

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