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weeks ; and threescore and two weeks the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary, and the end thereof shall be with a flood : and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week; and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations, he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined, shall be poured upon the desolate."*
When Esdras was in power, as his chief view was to restore religion to its ancient purity, he disposed the books of Scripture into their proper order, revised them all very carefully, and collected the incidents relating to the people of God in ancient times ; in order to compose out of them the books of the Chronicles, to which he added the bistory of his own times, which was finished by Ne. hemjah. With their books ends the long history which Moses had begun, and which the writers who came after him continued in a direct series, till the repairing of Jerusalem. The rest of the sacred history is not written in that uninterrupted order. Wbile Esdras and Nehemiah were compiling the latter part of that great work, Herodotus, whom profane authors call the Father of History, began to write. Thus we find that the latest authors of the books of Scripture flourished about the same time with the first authors of the Grecian bistory; and when it began, that of God's people, to compute only from Abraham, included already fifteen centuries. Herodotus makes no mention of the Jews in his history; for the Greeks desired to be informed of such nations only as were famous for their wars, their commerce, and grandeur; so that, as Judea was then but just rising from its ruins, it did not excite the attention of that people.t SECTION VII. -CHARACTER OF PERICLES,
&c. I now return to Greece. From the banishment of Themistocles, and the death of Aristides, the exact time of which is not known, two citizens, Cimon and Pericles, enjoyed all the influence and authority in Athens.
Pericles was much, younger than Cimon and of a quite different character. As be will make a very considerable figure in the following history, it is of importance to the reader to know who he was, in what manner he had been educated, and his plan and mode of government.
Pericles was descended, by both his parents from the greatest and most illustrious families of Athens. His father Xanthippus, who defeated at Mycale the king of Persia's lieutenants, married Agarista, niece to Clisthenes, who expelled the Pisistratidæ, or descendants of Pisistratus the tyrant, and established a popular government in Athens. Pericles had long prepared himself for the designs he formed of engaging in state affairs. I
He was brought up under the most learned inen of his age, and particularly Anaxagoras of Clazomene, surnamed the Intelligent, from his being the first, as we are told, who ascribed human events, as well as the formation and government of the universe, not to chance, as some philosophers, nor to a fatal necessity, as others, but to a superior intelligence, who disposed and governed all things with wisdom. This tenet or opinion prevailed long before his time; but he perhaps set it in a stronger light than all others had done, and taught it methodically and from principle. Anaxagoras instructed his pupil perfectly in that part of philosophy that relates to nature, and which is therefore called Physics. This study gave him a strength and greatness of soul which raised him above an infinite number of vulgar prejudices, and vain practices generally observed in his time; and which in affairs of government and military enterprises, often disconcerted the wisest and most necessary measures, or de
* Dan. ix. 23--27. Bishop of Meaux's Universal History: I Plut. in Vit. Pericl. p. 159—156.
$ The ancients, under this name, comprehended what we call physics and metaphysics; that is, the knowledge of spiritual things, as God and spirits; and that of bodies.
feated them by scrupulous delays, authorised and covered by the special veil of religion. These were sometimes dreams or auguries, at other times dreadful phenomena, as eclipses of the sun or moon, or omens and presages; not to mention the wild chimeras of judicial astrology. The knowledge of nature, free from the grovelling and weak superstitions to which ignorance gives birth, inspired him, says Plutarch, with a well-grounded piety towards the gods, attended with a strength of mind that was immoveable, and a calm hope of the blessings to be expected from them. Although he found infinite charms in this study, he did not however devote himself to it as a philosopher, but as a statesman; and he had so much power over himself, (a very difficult thing,) as to prescribe to himself limits in the pursuit of knowledge.
But the talent be cultivated with the greatest care, because he looked upon it as the most necessary instrument to all who are desirous of conducting and governing the people, was eloquence. And indeed those who possessed this talent, in a free state like that of Athens, were sure of governing in the assemblies, engrossing suffrages, determining affairs, and exercising a kind of absolute power over the hearts and minds of the people. He therefore made this his chief object, and the mark to which all his other improvements, as well as the several sciences he had learned from Anaxagoras, were directed; adorning, to borrow Plutarch's expression, the study of philosophy with the dye of rhetoric ;* the meaning of which is, that Pericles, to embellish and adorn bis discourse, heightened the strength and solidity of reasoning, with the colouring and graces of eloquence.
He had no cause to repent his having bestowed so much time to this study, for his success far exceeded his utmost hopes. The poets, his cotemporaries, used to say, that he lightened, thundered, and agitated all Greece, so powerful was his eloquence. It had those piercing and lively strokes, that reach the inmost soul; and his discoure left always an irresistible incentive, a kind of spur, behind it in the minds of his auditors. He had the art of uniting beauty with strength; and Cicero observes, that at the very time he opposed most strenuously, the inclinations and desires of the Athenians, he had the art to make even severity itself, and the kind of cruelty with which he spoke against the flatterers of the people, popular. There was no resisting the solidity of his arguments, or the harmony of his words; whence it was said, that the goddess of persuasion, with all her graces, resided on his lips. So that Thucydides,g his rival and adversary, being one day asked, whether he or Pericles was the best wrestler : answered," whenever I have gtven him a fall, be affirms the contrary, in such strong and forcible terms, that he persuades all the spectators that I'did not throw him, though they themselves saw him on the
Nor was he less prudent and reserved, than strong and vehement in his speeches; and it is related, that he never spoke in public, till after be bad besought the gods not to suffer any expression to drop from him, either unsuitable to his subject, or offensive to the people. Whenever he went to the assembly, before he came out of the house, he used to say to himself, remember, Pericles, that thou art going to speak to men born in the arms of liberty ; to Greeks, to Athenians.”||
The uncommon endeavours which Pericles, according to historians made ase of to improve his mind in knowledge, and to attain a perfectiou in eloquence, are an excellent lesson to such persons as are one day to fill the important offices of state ; and a just censure of those, who, disregarding whatever is called study or learning, bring into those employments, upon which they
* Βαφή τη ρητορική την φυσιολογίαν υποχεόμενος. | Ab Aristophane poeta fulgurare, tonare, permiscere Greciam dictus est.--Cic. in Orat. n. 29.
Quid Pericles? De cujus dicendi copia sic accepimus, ut, cum contra voluntatem Atheniensium loqueretur pro salute patriz, severius tamen id ipsum, quod ille contra populares homines diceret, populare omnibus et jucundum videretur: cujus in labris veteres comici-leporem habitasse dixerunt: tantam que vim in eo fuisse, ut in eorum mentibus, qui audissent, quasi aculeos quosdam relinqueret.-Cic. 1, 3. de Oral 2. 1.98
Not the historian.
! Diut. in Symp. 1. i. p. 620. * Nunc contra plerique ad honores adipiscendos, et ad remp. gerendam, nudi veniunt et inermes, nulla cognitione rerum, nulla scientia orpati.-Cic. 1. 3. de Orat. n. 136.
enter without knowledge or experience, nothing but a ridiculous self-sufficiency and a rash boldness of decision.* Plutarch, in a treatise where he shows, that a philosopher ought chiefly to attach himself to statesmen in preference to any other class of men, because, in instructing them, he at the same time teaches whole cities and republics, verifies bis assertion by the example of the greatest men both of Greece and Italy, who derived this help froin philosophy.t Pericles, of whom we are now writing, was taught by Anaxagoras; Dionysius of Syracuse, by Plato; many princes of Italy, by Pythagoras ; Cato, the famous censor, travelled to the place where Atbenodorus lived, for the same purpose; and lastly the famous Scipio, the destroyer of Carthage, always kept Panætius the philosopher near his person.
One of the chief endeavours of Pericles also was, to study thoroughly the genius and disposition of the Athenians, that he might discover the secret springs which were to be employed in order to set them in motion; and in what manner it was proper to act to acquire their confidence ; for it was principally these things, that among the great men of the ancients constituted skill in politics. He found, by the reflections he had made on several transactions of his time, that the predominant passions of this people were, a violent aversion to tyranny, and an ardent love of liberty, which inspired them with sentiments of fear, jealousy, and suspicion, of all such citizens as were too conspicuous for their birth, their personal merit, their own reputation and authority, or that of their friends. He not only strongly resembled Pisistratus, in the melody of his voice and fluency of expression, but also in the features of his face, and his whole air and manner; and he observed, that the Athenians who had seen the tyrant, were prodigiously struck at the resemblance. Besides, he was very rich, was descended from an illustrious family, and had very powerful friends. To prevent therefore, his being obnoxious to the suspicion and jealousy of the people, he at first shunned all affairs of government, which requires a constant attendance in the city, and was solely intent upon distinguishing himself in war, and dangers.
Seeing Aristides dead, Themistocles banished, and Cimon engaged almost continually in foreign wars, and absent from Greece, he began to appear in public with greater confidence than before, and entirely devoted himself to the party of the people; but not out of inclination, for he was far from affecting popular power, but to remove all suspicions of his aspiring to the tyranny, and still more, to raise a strong bulwark against the power and authority of Cimon who had joined with the nobles.
At the same time, he quite changed his conduct and way of life, and assumed, in all things, the character of a statesman, wholly busied in affairs of government, and entirely devoted to the service of his country. He was never seen in the streets, except when he was going either to the assembly of the people, or to the council. He left off going to banquets, assemblies, and other diversions of that kind which he had used to frequent; and during the many years that he presided in the administration, he was never seen to go to supper with his friends, except once at the nuptials of a near relation.
He knew that the people, who are naturally fickle and inconstant, commonly increase their disregard for those who are always in their sight; and that too strong a desire to please them, grows at last tiresome and importunate, and it was observed that such a behaviour did Themistocles great prejudice. To avoid this error, he used to go very rarely to the assemblies; and never appeared before the people but at intervals, in order to make himself desired ;
† Plut. in Symp. 1. i. p. 777. Olim noscenda vulgi natura, et quibus modis temperanter haberetur; senatusque et optimalium ingenis qui maxime perdidicerant, callidi temporum et sapientes habebantur.-Tacit. Annal. I. iv. c. 33.
Ista nostra assiduitas, Servi, nescis quantum interdum afferat hominibus fastidii, quantum satictatis. Virique nostrum desiderium nihil obfuisset.Cic. pro Mur. n. 21.
and to preserve an ascendancy over their minds that might be always new, and never weakened by too great an assiduity ; ,wisely reserving himself for great and important occasions.* Hence it was said, that he imitated Jupiter, who, in the government of the world, according to some philosophers, busied' himself in great events only, and left the direction of those of less importance to inferior deities. And indeed Pericles used to transact all petty affairs by his friends, and by certain orators who were entirely devoted to him, among whom was Ephialtes.
Pericles employed all his industry and application to gain the favour and es teem of the people, in order to counterbalance the fame and influence of Ci. mon. He could not however equal the magnificence and liberality of his rival, whose immense riches gave him an opportunity of bestowing such presents as appear to us almost incredible, so much did they differ from us in that re, spect. Finding it impossible for him to rival Cimon in this particular, he had recourse to another expedient, in order to gain the love of the populace, no less effectual perhaps, but certainly not so lawful and honourable. He was thefirst who divided the conquered lands among the citizens ; who distributed among them the public revenues for the expense of their games and shows, and annexed pensions to all public employments ; so that certain sums were bestowed on them regularly, as well to gratify them at the games, as for their presence in the courts of justice, and the public assemblies. It is impossible to say, how fatal these unhappy politics were to the republic, and the many evils with which they were attended. For these new regulations besides their draining the public treasury, gave the people a luxurious and dissolute turn of mind; whereas they were before sober and modest, and contented themselves with getting a livelihood by their sweat and labour. I
By such arts as these, Pericles had gained so great an ascendant over the minds of the people, that he may be said to have attained a monarchial power under a republican form of government ; moulding the citizens into whatever shape he pleased, and presiding with unlimited authority in all the assemblies. And indeed, Valerius Maximus makes scarcely any other difference between Pisistratus and Pericles, except that the one exercised a tyrannical power by force of arms, and the other by the strength of his eloquence, in which he had made a very great progress under Anaxagoras.
This influence and authority, however enormous, could not yet restrain the comic writers from lashing him very severely in the theatres ; and it does not appear that any of the poets who censured Pericles with so much boldness, were ever punished, or even called to account for it by the people. Perhaps it was out of prudence and policy that he did not attempt to curb the licentiousness of the stage, nor to silence the poets; that he might amuse and content the people by this vain shadow of liberty and prevent their discovering that they really were enslaved.
But Pericles did not stop bere. He boldly resolved, if possible, to weaken the authority of the tribunal of the Areopagus, of which he was not a member, because he had never been elected either archon, thesmotheta, king of the sacrifices, nor polemarch.|| These were different employments in the republic, which from time immemorial had been given by lot; and none but those who had behaved uprightly in them, were allowed a seat in the Areopagus. Pericles, taking advantage of Cimon's absence, set Ephialtes who was his creature, at work clandestinely; and at last lessened the power of that illustrious
* Plut. de sui laude, p. 441. † Plut. de Ger. Rep. p. 811. I Plut. in Pericl. p. 156.
Pericles felicissimis natura incrementis, sub Anaxagora præceptore summo studio perpolitus et instrue. tus, liberis Athenarum cervicibus jugum servitutis imposuit: egit enim ille urbem, et versavit arbritrio suo. Quid inter Pisistratum et Periclem interfuit, nisi quod ille armatus, hic sine armis, tyrannidem exercuit lama Val. Mas. 1. 8. c. 9.
# After some changes had been made in the form of the Athenian government, the supreme authority was at last vested in nine magistrates, calle archons, and lasted but one year. One was called rex, another polemarchus, a third archon, and this magistrate was properly at the head of the rest, and gave his name to the year; and six thesmothetæ, who presided immediately over the laws and decrease YOL. II.
body, in which the chief strength of the nobility consisted. The people etrie boldened and supported by so powerful a faction, subverted all the fundamental laws and ancient customs ; took from the senate of the Areopagus the cognizance of most causes that used to be brought before it, leaving it very few, and such only as were of little consequence, and made themselves absolute masters of all the tribunals.*
Cimon on his return to Athens, was afflicted to see the dignity of the senate trampled under foot, and therefore set every engine at work to restore it to its pristine authority, and to revive the aristocracy, in the same form as it had been established under Clisthenes. But now his enemies began to exclaim and excite the people against him; reproaching him, among many other things for his strong attachment to the Lacedæmonians. Cimon had himself given some room for this reproach, by his not paying sufficient regard to the Athenian delicacy; for, in speaking to them, he would for ever extol Lacedæmon; and whenever he censured their conduct on any occasion, he used to say, “the Spartans do not act in this manner. Such expressions as these drew upon him the hatred and envy of his fellow-citizens; but an event, in which he nevertheless had no share, made him the object of their utmost detestalion.
SECTION VIII.-AN EARTHQUAKE IN SPARTA, &c. In the fourth year of the reign of Archidamus, there happened the most dreadful earthquake in Sparta that had ever been known. In several places the country was entirely swallowed up; Taygetus and other mountains were shaken to their foundations ; many of their summits, being torn away, came tumbling down ; and the whole city was laid in ruins, five houses only excepted. To heighten the calamity, the Helots, who were slaves to the Lacedæmonians, looking upon this as a favourable opportunity to recover their liberty, pervaded every part of the city, to murder such as had escaped the earthquake; but finding them under arms and drawn up in order of battle, by the prudent foresight of Archidamus, who had assembled them round him, they retired into the neighbouring cities, and commenced that very day open war, having entered into an alliance with several of the neighbouring nations, and being strengthened by the Messenians, who at that time were engaged in a war with the Spartans.t
The Lacedæmonians in this extremity sent to Athens to implore succour; but this was opposed by Ephialtes, who declared that it would be no way ad viseable to assist them, nor to rebuild a city that was the rival of Athens, which, he said, ought to be left in ruins, and the pride of Sparta thereby humbled for ever But Cimon, being struck with_horror at these politics, did not hesitate a moment to prefer the welfare of the Lacedæmonjans to the aggrandizement of his country ; declareing in the strongest terms, that it was absolutely weak and inconsistent,“ to leave Greece lame of one of its legs, and Athens without a counterpoise :" the people acceded to his opinion, and accordingly a succour was voted. Sparta and Athens might indeed be considered as the two limbs on which Greece stood; so that if one of them was destroyed, the rest were inevitably crippled. It is also certain, that the Athenians were so elated with their grandeur, and were become so proud and enterprising, that they wanted a check; for which none was so proper as Sparta, that state being the only one that was capable of being a counterpoise to the headstrong disposition of the Athenians. Cimon therefore marched to the aid of the Lacedæmonians with four thousand men.
We have here an example of the prodigious influence which a man of fine talents and abilities has in a state, when a great fund of merit unites in his person, with a well-established reputation for probity, disinterestedness, and zeal Yor the good of his country. Cimon, with very little difficulty, prevailed so far as to inspire the Athenians with noble and magnanimous sentiments, which
* Plut. in Periol. p. 137. In Cim. p. 488. A. M, 3534. Adl J. C. 470. Plut. in Cim. p. 488, 484.