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PESTALOZZI AND PESTALOZZIANISM :-Memoir, and Educational Princi ples, Methods, and Influence of John Henry Pestalozzi, and Biographical Sketches of several of his Assistants and Disciples; together with Selections from his Publications. In Two Parts. By HENRY BARNARD, LL.D New York: F. C. BROWNELL.
VI. Experience a Burgdorf, 1799-1804, .
education, . . . . . . .
Influence on the Infant School System of England,
1. Childhood and Youth, 1746-1767,
V. Life and Writings between 1781 a
Yverdun, 1805, . .
. 123 APPENDIX. By the American Editor,
• 127 Celebration of Pestalozzi's Centennial Birth-day in Germany and Switzerland, . 129 List of Publications by Pestalozzi, . List of Publications in different languages on Pestalozzi and his Educational Prin. ciples and Methods, . .
• 142 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES of several of the assistants and disciples of Pestalozzi. . . 145 Preface, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 1. Johannes Niederer,
. 151 II. Hermann Krüsi,
16) III. Johannes Buss, .
193 IV. Joseph Schmid, V. John George Tobler.
205 VI. John Ramsauer,
213 VI. John Ernst Plamann,
217 IX. Hans George Nägeli. X Johannes Harnisch, .
221 31 Karl Augustus Zeller. .
223 XII Charles Christian Wilhelm von Türk,
155 XM. Bernhard Gottlieb Denzel, .
27 XIV. Friedrich Adolf Wilhelm Diesterweg,
219 Gustavus Frederick Dinter, .
IV. Johannes Krüs
SELECTIONS FROM THE PUBLICATIONS OF PESTALOZZI. -
I. Leonard and Gertrude.: a Rook for the People. -
V. Account of his own Educational Experience.,
X. Paternal Instruction,
THE KINDERGARTEN-ITS GENESIS AND NAME.* To Froebel, the friend of children, to whom the childish nature rer and willingly revealed itself, was it given to find, in the very grow of the child, the natural way of development. Long years of loving observation taught him that the individual inner life of the child reveals itself nowhere more freely and perfectly than in play. He wished to apply his means of development to the personality, as it makes its appear. ance in self-activity, and this could happen only in play. With this his problem was solved at once. He had only to allow the child to play; to give him suitable materials for it; to find proper games to teach the child and his com, wnions, and to prepare them by degrees for useful occupa tions, and eventually for real work, by methodically arranged gradations Of this we will hear him speak. In a letter to Barop, written Feb. 18, 1829, he says: “During the short time employed in writing these lines the thought of my and our educational work has essentially unfolded itself, while it has gone further back in respect to its application, and grounded itself so much the more deeply. The education and training of little children from three to seven years old has occupied my mind for a long time. A multitude of thoughts and influences crowding upon me at once decided me to establish an institution for the care and development of orphan and motherless children of both sexes, of the ages abovementioned.” This thought appears much more clearly in a letter from Burgdorf, Switzerland, written March 1, 1836, in which he announces to the educational circle at Keilhau that he has decided to found an institu. tion for instruction in the art of accurate observation, leading to self. improvement, through play and occupation. In the course of the letter he says further:
"For a long time I have cherished the thought of making my means of facilitating accurate observation for culture and instruction complete and universal by a multiplication and publication of the same. Only since the end of the last year, and especially since the beginning of this, do my circumstances and relations permit the carrying out of this under. taking. I consider and order my whole life in reference to it since I have taken the decided resolution and formed the plan; first to perfect all my methods of facilitating accurate observation, of teaching, instruction, and culture, into many series following each other, separated into members, but vitally connected in the forni of children's plays, and as a means of self-occupation and self-information through observation and creation, through a varied self-activity, and therefore through a methodical and legitimate satisfaction of the instinct for culture in the child. My under. laking differs very essentially from all similar ones already introduced, in its spirit, in its inner qualities, in its unity, from which everything pro ceeds, and in conformity to the laws of life, according to which all mani. foldness is revealed, in its inner vital coherence; in a word, in the many. sided human scientific, as well as practical, foundation.” Then follows the further presentation of the peculiarities of the system. Soon after
* By Ferdinand Winther, in Diesterweg's Wegweiser.- Edition of 1876. Translated by Mise Lucy Wheelock, of the Chauncy-Hali Kindergarten, Boston.
this private announcement there followed, in the Sonntagsblatt, in 1838, a public request that families should unite to carry out the motto of this paper, “Come, let us live with our children.” He says therein,
“As this paper is designed, first of all, to explain and introduce the proposed institution, it begins immediately with the foundation of the whole. In the germ of every human being lies embedded the form of its whole future life. On the proper comprehension and care of this beginning depends solely the happy unfolding of the man leading to perfection, and the ability to accomplish his destiny, and thus to win the true joy and peace of life. The active and creative, living and life-producing being of man, reveals itself in the creative instinct of the child. All human education and true culture, and our understanding also, is bound up in the quiet and conscientious nurture of this instinct of activity, in the family; in the judicious unfolding of the child, to the satisfaction of the same, and in the ability of the child, true to this instinct, to be active."
Froebel's practical experiment with the Kindergarten in Blankenburg was received at first with doubtful smiles. But when the people saw with what joyful zeal children of every age, after a short time, pressed to the merry sports, in the invention of which Froebel was inexhaustible, and in the guidance of which he was a master; when the children tool home their ornamental sewing and weaving, where, contrary to their former babits, they devoted themselves, of their own free will, to entertaining occupations, then, with their growing understanding of the system, the parents began to appreciate it, and doubt changed to true interest in Froebel's young creation. In the midst of this activity, full of life and experience, the idea of the Kindergarten grew clearer and fuller in Froebel's mind, so that in 1840, at the Guttenberg festival, which the educational institutions for children and youth in Blankenburg and Keil. hau celebrated in common, he could present a new and more comprehensive plan, which he hoped to call into life with the help and participation of the German people.
Appeal to the Women of Germany in 1840. One cannot read without admiration and emotion the words with which, in his speech at the festival, he tried to win the German women for his work. “Therefore, I dare," he said, toward the end of his speech, “confidently to invite you who are here present, honorable, noble, and discreet matrons and maidens, and through you, and with you all women, young and old, of our fatherland, to assist by your subscription in the founding of an educational system for the nurture of little children, which shall be named Kindergarten, on account of its inner life and aim, and German Kindergarten, on account of its spirit. Do not be alarmed at the apparent cost of the shares; for if you, in your housekeeping, or by your industry, can spare only five pennies daily, from the presumptive time of the first payment until the end, the ten dollars are paid at the last payment. Do not let yourselves be kept from the actual claims of the plan by the contemptible objection Of what use to us is it all?' Already the idea of furthering the proper education of the child through appropriate fostering of the instinct of activity, acts like light and warmth, imperceptibly and beneficently, on the well-being of families and citizens; how much
greater then are the possibilities of the daily, or even weekly, or monthly, attendance at such an institution. Staying here for a few hours has a good and blessed influence for days, weeks, months, and years, for good is not like a heavy stone which only acts, and is perceived where it presses; no—it is like water, air, and light, which invisibly flow from one place to another, awakening, watering, fertilizing, nourishing what is concealed from the searching eye of man,-even slumbers in our own breasts unsuspected by ourselves. Good is like a spark which shines far and points out the way and direction. Therefore, let us all, each in his own way, advance what our hearts recognize as good-the care of young children. Do you ask for the profits of your investment; in technical language, the dividends on your shares? Open your eyes impartially, your hearts also; there is more in it than we have represented in the plan of the undertaking. Or is the beautiful any less a gift and a real value in our life because it passes away easily? Is the good also any less a gift because only the heart perceives it? Is the true any less a gift because it is unseen, and only the spirit observes it? And shall we count for nothing the reaction on the family weal, and the happiness of the children, in joy of heart and peace of mind? You can enjoy these great gifts in full measure; for they are the fruit of your coöperation, the fruits of the Garden which you establish and care for,--the fruits of your property. Besides, is it not almost more than this to take the lead and stand as models for a whole country, to advance the happiness of childhood and the well-being of families throughout an entire nation?"
Universal German Institution. Froebel was not deceived in his deep, unshaken confidence. Owing to the deeply-felt need of suitable training for children before their entrance into school, the Kindergarten was founded as a Universal German Institution at the Guttenberg festival in 1840, a day which pointed to a universal breaking of the light, and in his report of June, 1843, which is signed by the burgomaster Witz, as well as by Middendorff and Barop, Froebel could announce good results of his effort, and a general and honorable recognition. In order to kindle the sparks of appreciation glimmering here and there into a clear flame by the breath of his own never-failing enthusiasm, he proposed to visit all the larger cities of Germany. He succeeded, especially in Hamburg and Dresden, in winning laborers for his vineyard, and in establishing Kindergartens. The seedcorn which he thus scattered fell in good soil, and grew to flowering plants through the faithful care of his pupils and adherents.
Mother Play and Nursery Song. Sonntagsblatt. Of his literary works of this time, two, devoted to the pedagogics of the Kindergarten, deserve especial mention. Die Mutter- und Koselieder is so called from the little rhymes which Froebel gives the mother to sing or repeat in order to occupy and entertain profitably her child from one to two years old, with all kinds of sports and plays, when dressing and undressing, washing, eating, etc. The little arms and legs, hands and fingers, play the principal part; they learn to do little feats, to manage and move themselves, and are strengthened by exercise. Many occur. rences also of domestic life or those nearly allied, are judiciously illustrated by picture and song. This method happily discovered by Froebel has since received the highest artistic development through Richter and Oscar Pletsch. The Sonntagsblatt (1838–1840) has a special value from the fact that Froebel published in it his “play-gifts” which characterized the Kindergarten and its method of culture, explained their meaning, and described their use. A comparison of Froebel's play-gifts with those which from year to year competitive industry offers so richlynot exactly for the benefit of the world of children-first shows them in their true light. Almost all the playthings which we buy in our toy-shops filled with all possible expense, are finished and perfect in themselves, often perfectly constructed objects whose beauty cannot be denied. Children stand amazed and delighted at the sight of a Christmas table ornamented with such gifts. But how long does the joy ląst? After a short time it changes first to indifference, then to disgust; and economical parents put away under lock and key for a later time, the things that are still tolerably well preserved. What can the child do with playthings on which already the fancy of an artist has worked and has left almost nothing for the self-activity of the child. The only thing it can do with these is to take them apart and destroy them. But the punishments inflicted on such occasions, show how many parents entirely misunderstand this expression of the instinct of activity so worthy of recognition, and the desire for knowledge and learning of the children. If one give to an indulged child the choice of his play-material, he will see that a stick of wood will be the dearest doll, mother's foot-stool the coach of state, a little heap of sand material for cooking, baking, building, writing, and drawing, and father's cane a darling pony. According to these experiences Froebel was anxious to make his gifts for play as simple as possible.
Gifts for Play. First Gift for Play. The Balls—three balls of primary and three of secondary colors. With these the very little ones practice catching, swinging on a string, hopping, rolling, hide and seek, etc. With advancing age all known ball-plays come in succession.
Second Gift. Sphere, Cylinder, and Cube. The sphere, a solid ball, movable, but in every position the same. The cube stationary, but differing according to the position. The cylinder, rolling or standing, connecting the other two. All three in their connection leading over to the building plays.
Third Gift. The cube, divided into eight equal parts. It shows the whole and its parts, outside and inside, relations of size and number, arrangement, and direction.
The Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Gifts form another step by perpendicular, horizontal, oblique divisions into different sizes. The variety of the different forms is infinitely great and is classified into—First, forms of knowl. edge, in which the laws of form, magnitude, and number are used; second, forms of beauty, by which the perception of what is pleasing to the eye is represented; third, forms of life, in which objects of real life, as furniture, implements, buildings, plants, and animals, are imitated.