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VIDING TO PROEBEL................ 109

II. FROEBEL'S EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM.

Educational Views as Expounded by Friends........... 129-400

1. William Middendorf. ........

............. 129-144

Memoir and Edacational Work.........

.......... 129

Thoughts on the Kindergarten-Devotion of a Life........... ....... 142

11. Freidrich Adolph Wilhelm Diesterweg .....

....145-160

Acceptance and Advocacy of Froebel's Child-Culture...

Child-Culture.....................

....... 151

UI. Bertha V. Marenholtz-Bulow............

................149-288

1. Memorial of a Wonderful Educational Mission........................... 145

2. PUBLICATIONS IN ELUCIDATION OF FROEBEL'S THEORIES ................. 159

THE CHILD--NATURE, AND NURTURE ACCORDING TO PROEBEL..

1. THE CUILD IN ITS HELPLESSNESS AND INFINITE CAPACITIES.................161-169

(1) Relations to Nature Subject to her Laws................

........ 162

(2) Relations to Humanity-The Individual shares the Destiny of the Race.. 169

(3) Relations to God--Lives and Progress for a Higher Development........ 166

Woman-The Educator of Mankind-Develops the Child in all its Relations.... 169

2. EARLIEST DEVELOPMENTS OF THE CHILD....

.............170-179

Physical Movements-Prompted by Necessities of its Being..............

Exercises of the Limbs-Sense of Touch-The Hand..........

. 171

Shaping and Producing Constructions in Sand and Clay............ ..... 172

Sense of Sound-Cradle Songs–Rythm-Awakening of Feeling............

. 174

Material Needs-Gardening-Its Pleasures.........

• 175

Desire to know why, whence, and wherefore--Comparison...................

. 176

Social Impulse-The Basis of Moral Cultivation...........

.. 177

Religious Instinct-Follows Social Development............................. 177

God through Nature-Natural Phenomena Symbolic.......................... 178

FROEBEL'S THEORY OF EDUCATION OR DEVELOPMENT...................... 181-189

Education is Emancipation-Setting free bound up Forces................... 181

Natural Order, or Progress according to Law-Race....

• 182

Pestalozzi's endeavor to discover and apply the principle..

.. 183

Froebel claims to have completed the method......

Chief Aim of Education is Moral Culture........

All Instruction and Developing Exercises should perfect the Sonl.............

Law of Opposites and their Reconciliation.....

...... 187

Theory requires Freedom, Assistance, and Unity.

............189

ERRORS IN EXISTING EDUCATION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD......... ........190 200

Physical-Bad Nursing, and Insufficient Food and Exercise..................

Moral-Improper Surroundings and Treatment............................... 191

Intellectual-Want of Direction and over Stimulant.......................... 193

Requisites for Healthy Growth in well directed Activity..................... 194

Educative Uses of Playthings and Play-Evolution of Ideal................... 16

Necessary Force exists in Mother's Love if properly trained .................. 200

8. FROEBEL'S METHOD OF DEVELOPMENT......

.............. 101-818

Meaning of Method-Both General and Special.......

202

Object of Thought--Perception, Observation, Comparison, Judgment........

. 204

Comparison or Reconciliation of Opposites..........

. 204

Pestalozzi's Fundamental Law-A. B. C., Form, Number, Language.........

. 205

Differences between Education and Instruction..

• 206

Feeling and Willing-Good and Beautiful--Self and Others..........

Insufficiency of Pestalozzi's Doctrine of Form...

. 207

Law of Balance, universal and beneficial.........

211

Mystic side of Froebel's Principles..........

...... 212

THE KINDERGARTEN...........

19 226

The Child World as it appears to an outsider. ...............

.. 219

Movement Games with explanatory Songs. .....

219

Occupations--in playful work and workful play............

220

Ideal and useful Art---Cabinet of Collections and Products..........

Choral melody-affectionate and reverential....

Kindergarten work begins in the Mother's Lap....

Should be continued in all girl schools and education.....

223

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Freedom of Development-Suitable Condition..........
Work or Activity for Development...........
Unity or Progression-Continuity of Development...

Hindrances to the Realization of the Kindergarten.................

7. THE MOTHER PLAY AND NORSERY SONGS..........

Book for Mothers the basis of Froebel's System. .........

Its Philosophy best felt by Children and Mothers....

First Development goes on in play, which must be assisted............ 229

Examples given based on the instincts of infancy

8. EARLIEST DEVELOPMENT OF THE LIXBS.....

... 231-232

Popular Nursery Games originate in the Motherly Instinct...................

Exercices of the Hand, Fingers, and Wrist.

...............232

9. CHILD'S FIRST RELATION TO NATURE....

299

Games should deal with Natural Phenomena........

...... 233

The Weather Cock-The Son-Bird-The Child and the Moon..

Farm Yard Gate-Little Fishes-Bird Song...........

10. THE CHILD'S FIRST RELATIONS TO MANKIND...

Mother-Family Circle and Life-Neighborhood............................

Froebel's Introduction to their Relationships..........................

Finger Games-Physical, Mental, and Moral Uses...

242

First Impressions in Critical Moments most lasting ..........

243

First Walk, Fall, Fright, Pain-Game of Bopeep-Confidence...... ... 244

Cuckoo game-Conditions for Indulgence-Habits............

... 245

First step to moral development-High expels the low.........

Sense of Taste-Germs of aesthetic Culture-Moral Freedom........... 249

Handicrafts and other Industries-Movement Games... ......

... 251

Habitation-Instinct for-Constructive Tastes and Habits..............

Value of Manual Labor-Respect for the Laborer..........................

Sense of hearing and vocal organs-Voices of Nature............... ......... 254

Drawing, ideal and productive-Froebel's Occupations.................... 357

Foundations laid for social development in family and life......

THE CHILD'S FIRST RELATIONS TO GOD...........................

261-278

Belief in God, inborn, intuitive, and can be developed...........

First step through the love and trust in its Mother......

.... 261

Choral Melodies-Gestures, and words of reverence-Prayer..........

Personal Activity and Experiences-Symbolic Interpretations of Nature...... 263

Froebel's Mether Book-Child's own Story and History Book.

269

Inner conscious life not possible with children.............................

Pictorial Representations deepen Impressions............................

.... 271

Christ as a Divine Child-God manifest in Man .......

Church services for Children-Analogies in Nature..............

277

Early Education must be based on religion.................................... 278

12. SUMMARY VIEW OF FROEBEL'S PRINCIPLES................................. 279-280

Education begins and ends with Life..........

................... 279

Follows natural laws, and must be guided by intelligencc and love.......... 279

Mothers and Kindergartners must be trained.....

..............280

SUPPLEMENT TO CHILD'S RELATIONS TO GOD......... ............. ...281-298

Child Life in Christ. By Rev. Stopford Brooke..........

...... 281

iv. Congress of Philosophers at Frankfort, in 1869 ...........

Problem of Popular Education in Pedagogical Section,.........

289

REPORT OF PROF. J. W. Fichte, EMBODYING CONCLUSIONS......

1. Education the Problem of the Age.............................

291

2. Philosophical Systems in the Educational Problem..............
Fundamental Principles of Herbart and Beneke examined.....

25

8. Pechological Basis of Modern Pedagogy.........

4. Axioms of All Christian Pedagogy........

319

8. Pestalozzianism the basis of National Systems..........

318

6. Froebel's additions to Pestalozzi solve the Problem............

822

7. Education of Childhood according to Froebel .......

& Day Nurseries for Neglected Children.......

iruu.................................... 38

... 327

V. International Congress of Education at Brussels, in 1880....337-400

PAPERS ON THE VALUE, AND FURTHER EXTENSION OF FROEBEL'S Views........ 351 1. FISCHER-PRESIDENT OP FROEBEL SOCIETY IN VIENNA......

IN VIENNA....................339-352 Grounds on which Froebel's eystem is assailed, examined................... 339 Kindergarten should prepare for school............

............... 319 Kindergartners should have a special training.............

317 3. GUILLAUME-MEMBER OF BELGIAN EDUCATIONAL LEAGUE.................353-369

Froebel's system extends beyond the Kindergarten age and culture.......... 353
Cardinal idea of his Education of Man-Force in Nature..........
Extension of the Gifte and Occupations into the School period necessary..... 358
Letters to Emma Bothman in 1852—Kindergarten and School....
Language-How Lina learns to write and read-Excursions.......
Number-Form and Dimension-Material for Intermediate Class............. 365

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III. THE KINDERGARTEN AND CHILD CULTURE. Progressive Improvement of Manuals and Methods..369-450 1. A-B-C BOOKS AND PRIMERS......

........... 369-378 Persian-Chinese-Greek-Latin A-B-C..........

..... 369 Primer-Catholic and Protestant..........

373 English Primer of Henry VIII-Horn Book illustrated..........

373 A GUIDE FOR THE CHILD AND YOUTH....

875 RULES FOR THE BEHAVIOR....... Part One-Alphabet, Prayers, Graces and Instructions........

375 Symbolic Alphabet. In Adam's Fall, &c.....

376 Rules for Behavior at Home, School and Church...

...... 378 Modifications in New England Primer enlarged...........

............. 379 & THE NEW ENGLAND PRIMER WITH SHORTER CATECHISM .................. 379-400

Historical Data-Webster's Reprint in 1844 of Edition of 1777............... 379
Illustrations-John Hancock-Adam's Fall-Mr. John Rogers at the Stake... 361
Infant Songs and Prayers--Letters, large and small-Syllables, short and long.. 882
Who was the first Man ?-Lessons for Youth--Commandments-Creed....... 336
Mr. John Rogers' Advice to his Children..........

.............. 388 Shorter Catechism of the Westminster Assembly of Divines

390 Mr. John Cotton-Spiritual Milk for American Babes.................. 396 Dialogue between Christ, Youth, and the Devil.........

.... 398 THE PETTY SCHOOLE. BY C. H. 1659............

......................................401-418 How to teach little children to say their letters, to spell, and to read........ How children who don't study Eatin may be employed......

Hints for providing a Petty School, and its daily and weekly routine......... 8. THE ENGLISH SCHOOLMASTER. BY EDWARD Coote..

Title Page-The Schoolmaster's Cautions.......
ORBIS SENSUALIUM PICTUS..................

415 Janua Linguarum of W. Baters in 1615 .. ................................. 415 Janua Reeerata of Comenius in 1631......

415 English Edition by Charles Hoole in 1658. ..........

.... 415 Encyclopedia of things subject to Senses...........

...... 415 Woodward's Gate of Sciences, 1653.................

.......... 416 THE GERMAN TEACHER'S PATH FINDER-BY DIERTERWEG...

....417-450 Dr. Busse-Intuitional, or Object Teaching in 1873........ (1) Aims and Methods-Teaching by Inspection or Intuition ................ Historical Development from Bacon to Diesterweg.........................

Different kinds of Intuitions for Object Teaching.........................
(2) The Method and its Rules........

Actual Inspection of real material—and doing............
Easy to difficult-Simple to complex-Concrete to abrtract.............
Instruction according to Material, and Individual Child.

Use of Poetry and Conversation........
(3) Best Guides and Aids for Observation, Thinking, and Language........

.. 414

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Kindergarten Work in Different countries............. .451-739 I MADAME HENRIETTA BREYMANN SCHRADER................

.....451 Froebelian Institute in Berlin..........

....453 II. MADAME DE PORTUGALL-GENEVA........

...................473-480 Value and Extension of the Kindergarten Principle... ............

.....................473 III. THE CRECHE, AND CHILD CULTURE IN FRANCE.

.............. 481-488 Day Nurseries-Infant Asylums—Training Institute.................

...:.481 IV. KINDERGARTEN AND CHILD CULTURE IN BELGIUM........................ 489-512

1. PUBLIC KINDERGARTENS IN BRUSSELS.......................................492

2. INTUITIONAL TEACHING IN MODEL SCHOOL. ..................................497 V. RECENT KINDERGARTEN PUBLICATIONS IN ENGLAND..

...513-529 1. HINDRANCES AND ENCOURAGEMENTS IN KINDERGARTEN WORK.............513 2. USE OF NATURAL AND HOUSEHOLD PHENOMENA.......

...............523 8. RELATIONS OF KINDERGARTEN TO INFANT SCHOOLS.......................526 VI. KINDERGARTEN WORK IN UNITED STATES...........

...529-736 A. EXAMPLES OF TRAINING INSTITUTES AND KINDERGARTENS.

V KINDERGARTENS................ 5-35 1. Boston TRAINING CLASS AND KINDERGARTEN.............. 2. MRS. MARIA BOELTE-KRAUS.-REMINISCENCES OF KINDERGARTEN WORKS...539 New York Training Institute and Kindergarten, ...........

........537 3. EXPERIENCE OF NEW YORK FEMALE COLLEGE .............................557 B. PAPERS IN ELUCIDATION OF FROEBEL'S SYSTEM...........

...561-736 1. FROEBEL'S PRINOIPLES AND METHODS IN THE NURSERY. Miss Peabody.561-574

Helplessness of Infancy-Getting Possession of its Organization..........561

Froebel's Use of the Natural Instincts-Uses of the Ball...................566 3. THE MOTHER PLAY AND NURSERY SONG8. Miss Susan E. Blow .........575–594 Unity of Human Life-Germs of all Faculties............

.......578 8. SOME ASPECTS OF THE KINDERGARTEN. Viss Susan E. Blow............595-616

Froebel's Dealing with Natural Phenomena .....
Daily Talks-Doing and Expressing-Occupations........

......601 Laws of Intuitional Teaching...............

.......607 FROEBEL'S PRINCIPLES IN PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM. Miss Peabody.......617-624

Quality of Education to be considered-Special Training.. 6. KINDERGARTENS THE FIRST GRADE IN CITY SYSTEM. W. T. Harris....625-642 Conditions Precedent-Ideal Kindergartens............

..........625 General and Special Disciplines-Transition from Home to School........629 Relation to Trades-Moral Discipline-Education of Play..................631 Practical Conditions Necessary to Success...........

....................639 6. KINDERGARTEN METHODS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS. Mrs. Louise Pollock...643-653

Lecture to the Public School Teachers of Washington...... .........643 9. THE PUBLIC AND CHARITY KINDERGARTEN. Miss Peabody..............651-653

Miss Quincy's Shaw in Boston-Miss Blow in St. Louis...................651 8. INFLUENCE OF KINDERGARTEN TRAINING ON HOMES. Mrs. H. Mann...654-664

Homes of the extreme Poor-New Element of Sweetness and Light.......658 9. KINDERGARTEN WORK IN CALIFORNIA.......

........ ...665-672 Miss Marwedel-Young Women's Christian Association..................663

Silver Street Kindergarten-Kindergarten Workers.. .............668 10. KINDERGARTEN TRAINING FOR ARTIST AND ARTISAN. Miss Peahody....673-678

A Primary Art-School--Play converted into Habits........

Special Training in the Kindergarten......................................676 11. Clay Modeling for Home and Kindergarten. Edwin A. Spring..........679-685 12. FREE KINDERGARTEN AND WORKINGMAN'S SCHOOL. Felic Adler.... 686-690 13. USE OF COLORS IN TEACHING MUSICAL NOTATION. D. Batchelor....... 691-704 14. FREE KINDERGARTEN IN CHURCH WORK, R. Heber Newton............. 705-730 15. KINDERGARTEN FOR NEGLECTED CHILDREN....

.............731-7:36 Barnard's Kindergarten Papers, Hartford, Ct., 736 pages, will be sent by mail on receipt of $3.50

.................595

............0713

INDEX TO KINDERGARTEN PAPERS.

(AMERICAN FROEBEL UNION EDITION.1

in School at by Cho followe 692.

A-B-C Books, and Alphabet Teaching, 371, 402. | Bacon, F.,father of realism and real schools, 421
A-B-C of Perception, Pestalozzi, 205, 823, 360.

Essay on Education., and Influence, 761,
A-B-C illustrated in New England Primer, 383. Babes, American, ('otton's Spiritual milk for, 396.
How taught in Hoole's Petty Schoole, 402, 404. German Kindergarten treatment, 465.

Dice and Pictures, Trencher and Wheel, 403. Baby-class in Kindergarten, 468.
Abel, Carl, law of opposites, 601.

Balance, Froebel's law of, 187, 211.
Abstract and concrete, 501.

Ball in Froebel's Gifts, 358, 567, 571.
Activity, Instinct for, 70, 170,

Red and the Cube, 358, 567, 604, 570.
Pleasurable, is play, 639.

Barnard, Henry, Letter to Mixe Peabody, 3.
Regulated for a result, 224, 533, 619.

Educational Publications, Liet, 761.
Law of Human Development, 223, 639.

Kindergarten and Child Culture l'apers, 3, 791.
Adler, Kindergarten Work, 668. 687.

Barop, Arnold, educational labors, 18, 79, 97.
Free Kindergarten in N. S., 687.

Experience in Switzerland, 97, 101,
Workingman's schools, 689.

Basedow, Normal School at Dessau, 423, 424. 761.
Action, or doing, 224.

Plates of Elementary book, by Chodowiccki, 493
Admission to Kindergarten, 494.

Von Rochow, Salzman, and Campe, followers, 423.
Adolf. Henry, Benefactor of Hambur:

Batchellor, D., Colors in teaching music, 16, 692.
Advanced class in Kindergarten, 470

Analogies of Tone and Color, 692.
Aesthic Intuitions, Nature of, 512

Beauty, and beautiful defined, 210, 752.
Earliest germs can be cultivated, 249.

Composed of form, color, sound, etc., 210.
Aldrich, Mrs. A., Visit to Berlin Kindergarten, 465. In nature and art, sense of, 752.
Mrs. Schrader's Work in Berlin. 451.

Belgium, -Infant school, Gardiennes, 489.
Allegories, use in Education, 436.

League, or institute of Instruction, 337.
Allen, Nathaniel T., 650.

Kindergarten Work, 489, 761
Kindergarten in Family School in 1864, 650.

Marenholtz-Bulow's Kindergarten work. 489.
Allston, Washington, Picture of Uriel, 573.

Bencke, F. E., principles of education, 300, 761.
Alphabet aud Spelling, how taught, Hoole, 401-404. Berlin, Kindergarten, Mrs. Schrader, 451-468.
American Froebel Union, 15.

Teachers' convention, 289.
American Journal of Education, 8, 75.

Berry and Michaelis–K. songs and games. 765.
Amusement, the law of the nursery, 677.

Bibliography of Kindergarten, 127, 157, 785.
Analogies of tone and color, 257, 692.

Birds' Nest, 237, 680.
Material and spiritual things, 238, 277, 604. Blankenburg, Froebel'e Kindergarten, 47, 83, 754.
Angelic feature in human nature, 637, 712.

Blow, Miss Susan E., Kind. in St. Louis. 11, 641.
Anschauungsunterricht, teaching by intuition, 417, Mother play and nursery songs, 575-594.
Antagonism--School and Kindergarten,353,468,

Some aspects of the Kindergarten, 595-616.
Anthon Memorial Church Kindergarten, 729.

Blue, in color and music, 696.
Antithesis, or Doctrine of Opposites, 602, 636. Body, and its health, 231. 314.
Aphorisms on early training. 737, 759.'

Object of study-Pestalozzi, 51.
Appetites, to be regulated, not extinguished, 2 Boelte, Maria Kraus, 10, 15, 551.
Approbation, Love of, in children. 248, 587.

Recollections of Kindergarten work, 537.
Architecture and equipment of Kindergarten, 492. Boileau, cited, 509.
Armstroff, W., Object teaching-its history, 444. Bo-peep, Game of, moral significance, 244.
Aristotle, on early culture of children, 740, 761. Borschitzky, J. F., Songs for Kinder., 543, 765.
Man-educated and uneducated, 637.

Boston Normal Kindergarten, 559.
Arnold, Matthew, cited, 707.

Botany, Froebel's partiality, 212, 367,524.
Art, in its general sense, 621, 752.

Pestalozzi's use, 59.
Art, High, is always simple, 673.

Bothman, Emma, Froebel's letter to, 362.
Art Education, Kindergarten the first step, 673, 631. | Bradley, Milton, Kindergarten material, 14, 775.
Artist and Artisan, Cardinal Wiseman, 673, 684. Breymann, Henrietta, Mrs. Schrader, 451.
Artistic, applied to industry, 255. 678.

Brooke, Stopford, Child-life in Christ, 281.
Art and Philosophy, Froebel's choice between. 35. Brown, T., Philosophy, cited. 561.
Arts and Trades, in schools as they are, 631, 687. Browning, Mrs. E. B., cited. 583, 733.

All Froebel's games develope fome aptitude, 630. | Brussels, Public Kindergartens, 491-496.
Associations, for ednicational pnrposes, 243.

International Congress of Education, 337.
Families for child culture, 213.530.

Building. Infant's first efforts in, 173.
Astronomy, in intuitive teaching, 204

Buildings and Equipment for Kindergarten, 455.
Asylums for dependent children, 483, 566, 712.

Progler's Report, 769
Historical Development, 485.

Bradley's and Steiger's List, 775.
General aspect of inmates, 566.

Buisson, cited, 497
Assistants, 514, 641, 723.

Buls, C., Report on public Kindergartens, 491.
Attractive, how school can be made, 509, 658.

Burdach's theory of child-life, 230.
Attendance at Kindergarten-half time, 494, 641. Burgdorf, Froebel's course for teachers. 80.
Attention, power and habit of, 635.

Byrechenschaften, Unpopularity attached to Keil.
Atherton, I. B., Kindergarten in Nashua, 12. Bushnell, H., Christian nurture. 709, 737. hau, 97.
Autobiography, Froebel's letter, 21-48.

Importance of the earliest impressions, 738.
Mrs. Krans-Boelte, 537-550.

Busse, F., Intuitional or object ieaching, 417–50.
Axioms of Christian Pedagogy, Fichte, 313.

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