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could get his bill through the House of Commons, Mr. Stanley (afterwards Earl of Derby), tuen Chief Secretary for Ireland, established, by an Act of the Executive, without waiting or asking for the consent of Parliament, the so-called “ Irish National System of Education," and Mr. Wyse dropped his bill.
An essential part of my scheme was the establishment of two or three new universities in Ireland, each of which should have a chair of education. (In that portion of the pamphlet which dealt with education in Scotland, I proposed the establishment of education chairs in all the Scotch universities, and that a ticket for that class should be required for the degree of M.A.) Mr. Wyse cordially and enthusiastically adopted this idea, and persistently advocated it in Parliament for more than twelve years, and, in every speech he made on the subject, honorably acknowledged the source from which he derived his ideas-a rare thing for statesmen to do. During all this time he and I were in constant communication, and working together for our common object. At length the late Sir Robert Peel, to escape out of a political difficulty in which he was placed by the pressure brought to bear on him by two hostile sects (each of which wanted money for a college to suit its own views), established, not the three universities we wanted, but three provincial colleges, without the power of granting degrees, and without professorships of education. The fact is, Peel was not looking to the interests of education at all. His one object was to satisfy, as cheaply as he could, the Presbyterian and Roman Catholic clergy.
Had Mr. Wyse remained in Parliament, something might probably have been done for education chairs; but soon afterwards he was sent out to Greece as British Ambassador, and there was no one to take up his mantle.
James Pillans, 6. 1795 ; d. 1867. In the same year (1828) Prof. Pillans, in 1825 Principal of the High School in Edinburgh, and afterwards Professor of Moral Science in the University of Edinburgh, advocated the institution of a lectureship on Didactics in each of the four universities. In 1834 (in an article in the July number of the Edinburgh Review for that year, directed to seminaries and teachers in France) he returns to the subject of these lectureships, as follows:
A very moderate endowment would be wanted for three of these, -one at Edinburgh, one at Glasgow, and one at Aberdeen; St. Andrews may be presumed to have ample powers, and funds too, for such an object, under the settlement and bequest of the late Dr. Bell. We are aware that, even if all this were done, it would accomplish but imperfectly what the Prussian and French governments have proposed to themselves, and have so nearly effected. ... A course of lectures on the principles and practice of teaching, continued for four or five months, illustrated by constant reference to the best schools of the place, and by employing the pupils as assistants in the teaching, could not fail to diffuse correct notions and improved methods over the country. To secure this result it would only be necessary to make attendance on one of these courses imperative on every candidate for the situation of a parochial schoolmaster; and, considering the great number of competitors for every vacancy, we see no risk of stinting the supply too much, even as matters now are, and still less, if the salaries of the schoolmasters should be raised. Parliament would do well to imitate the continental governments, by founding along with these lectureships a certain number of bursaries, and encouraging private individuals and public bodies to do the same. ... It would be advisable to enjcin it upon these professors or lecturers, as a branch of their public duty, to occupy part of their summer vacations in the business of regular and systematic inspection, a process without which no organization of schools, however perfect at first, can be saved from speedily degenerating. Supposing the whole of Scotland to be divided, with reference to parochial education, into four districts, corresponding to the four university seats, we might easily secure an efficient inspection of the parochial schools within a reasonable time. It would be the business of the professors, in making their progress among the schools, not merely to visit, examine, and report on the state of each, but to converse with the schoolmaster on the nature of his duties, to point out wherein they were ill done, and exemplify in the school-room a better method of teaching, to hold conferences of schoolmasters invited from the adjoining parishes, and to originate discussions there on school management, and to deliver on suitable occasions discourses on the various topics connected with practical education and scholastic discipline. Thus would the present incumbents, whose circumstances prevented them from attending college. be furnished with the knowledge and the motives requisite for an able discharge of their duties. Such itinerating lecturers, invested with the character of public functionaries, and enjoined by government to report annually on what they saw, might be made to serve all the uses of a traveling commission at much less expense to the country, while they would exercise, at the same time, a most beneficial influence in exposing abuse, in bringing modest merit into notice, in diffusing information, and stirring up a spirit of inquiry about an art which had been hitherto very generally practiced with little or no understanding of its nature or principles, and would thus facilitate, in a variety of ways, the establishment of seminaries for teachers on a permanent footing.
Professor Pillans sought, from time to time, an opportunity to prove his faith by his works, offering to give £5,000 towards the establish. ment of a chair of education in the University of Edinburgh in 1862. But the time had not come for a hearty response.
Training College System of England. In 1840'the Training College System of England, based on an extension of the pupil-teacher substitute for educated assistants, was introduced into Scotland,* where a normal college was organized in connection with committees of the Established Church of Scotland and the Free Church, both at Edinburgh and Glasgow, but without meeting the demands of higher elementary schools or of the grammar schools.
Educational Institute of Scotland. In 1847 the Educational Institute of Scotland was formed “for the purpose of promoting sound learning, and of advancing the interests of education in Scotland.” From the first the Institute regarded education both as a science and an art. The third resolution adopted at the preliminary meeting is:
* For an account of the Training Colleges of Scotland in 1854, see Barnard's American Journal of Education, vol. vii, p. 139.
“That in further prosecuting the object of the Association it seems expedient that a knowledge of the theory and practice of education be more widely disseminated among the profession by means of public lectures, the institution of libraries, and such other means as may afterwards seem advisable.”
A series of lectures was given in Edinburgh in the winter of 1847–48, of which Dr. Schmitz, formerly rector of the Edinburgh High School, says: “The lectures were numerously attended by teachers in Edinburgh and its immediate vicinity, and the public took considerable interest in them." And Dr. Gloag tells us these lectures “were not made for purposes of a local nature merely, but were chiefly intended for the benefit of the younger members of the profession, many of whom were at the time attending college in Edinburgh, and had been invited to avail, and did avail, themselves of the opportunity thus presented to them.” This statement is confirmed by Mr. Middleton, afterwards well known as Dr. Middleton, H. M. Inspector of Schools. On the days preceding the annual meeting in September, special lectures, usually three in number, were delivered, chiefly on the scientific aspects of education. Among the lecturers were Mr. Gunn, High School, Edinburgh, Professor Pillans, and Dr. Cumming and Dr. Bryce of Glasgow. The last-named gentleman drew attention to the necessity of basing both the science and the art of education upon the laws of the human mind.
Meantime the College of Preceptors, which had been established rather earlier (1847) in England, with like objects, was pursuing a course similar to that of the Institute, and sent delegates to the Edinburgh meetings. Both bodies soon found that the systematic treatment of education as a science was a work too great to be satisfactorily dealt with by casual lecturers, however eminent, and both agreed that it was too vitally important to be neglected. Accordingly, in 1851, a Committee of the Institute drew up a scheme, which was approved of, for “Lectures on the Theory and Practice of Education.” Want of funds prevented the scheme from being carried out, though from that time to the present the Institute had sought, in various ways, to realize its views, and to press them for acceptance upon the Scottish universities.
In his Presidential Address in 1858 Dr. Brunton says:
“We must have our Professors of Paideutics; and we shall lend a helping hand to maintain, extend, and improve the education of Scotland, and preserve the preeminence that this ancient kingdom has held for educa. tion in by-past centuries. We must have professors. ... The times are favorable for the institution of such chairs. We have a University Commission, who have the power, if we could induce to have the will, and impel them to action, towards the accomplishment of our purpose. I have some hopes that the petition to these noblemen and gentlemen will obtain a favorable answer. They will found chairs; and can they found any which will have a more beneficial effect on the education of the country, or will tend more to elevate our profession, which is the foundation of all the faculties?”
In accordance with these views a memorial was presented to the commissioners, setting forth in detail the necessity and the advantages of the course advocated. A quarter of a century has been lost; another commission is now announced. Let us hope for a favorable issue. The memorial of 1859 is so applicable to the situation that no excuse is required for inserting it, and asking for it a careful perusal. Nothing better could even now be framed.
Petition of the Educational Institute of Scotland to the Universities' Com.
missioners, 1859, in Favor of Chairs of Education. The Memorial of the Educational Institute of Scotland humbly showeth:
I.-That your memorialists, in the year 1847, formed an association, embracing a large proportion of the leachers of Scotland of various Christian denominations, to which Her Majesty was graciously pleased (13th May, 1851) to grant a Royal Charter of Incorporation, under the name or style of the Educational Institute of Scotland, for the purpose of promoting sound learning. of advancing the interests of education in Scotland, and also of supplying a defect in the educational arrangements of that country, by providing for the periodical session of a Board of Examiners competent to ascertain and certify the qualifications of persons engaged, or desiring to be engaged, in the education of youth; and ihereby furnishing to the public, and to the patrons and superintendents of schools, a guarantee of the acquirements and fitness of teachers for the duties required of them, and thus securing their efficiency, and raising the standard of education in general,
II.-That they have steadily endeavored, so far as was within their power, to carry into effect the objects for which they were incorporated; and have annually granted diplomas to such young men, desiring to enter the teaching profession, as presented themselves for examination, and have certified to their proficiency in those branches in which they were examined and found competent.
III.—That they have long felt, with regret, the want of regular training in the theory and practice of education; and one of the objects specially contemplated by them in forming the Institute was the dissemination of a knowledge of this very important subject by public lectures, etc. The very limited means, however, placed at their command, have not enabled them to do more than furnish a few occasional lectures, which have been eagerly embraced by the members of the profession.
IV.-That it is now more than a century since Condillac first started the idea that the art of teaching and training the young might be, and ought to be, reduced to a science founded on the philosophy of the human mind. He was followed by Dugald Stewart, who fully and clearly demonstrates that no real and solid improvement in education can take place until this idea be realized. Dr. Thomas Brown advocates not less earnestly the same view as his illustrious predecessor. And the hope that it would give birth to such an Art of Education is urged by both philosophers as the strongest argument for the cultivation of that science to which they devoted themselves, and by which they have shed so much luster on the university where they taught and on their country. All those who, during the last sixty years, have thought most deeply on education, being, at the same time, most thoroughly conversant with its practice, have confirmed the opinion of these great men by many new arguments and illustrations. Some have gone farther, and have addressed themselves to the task of tracing the outline and laying the foundation of the much-wished-for science, to which the name Pedeutics has been given. Thus Pedeutics is the art and science of education, or, in other words, education reduced to fixed principles derived from the science of the human mind.
V. - That it is acknowledged by all enlightened educationists that regular scientific and practical instruction in Pedeutics is as necessary for a teacher as the like instruction in Therapeutics, or the scientific art of treating diseases, is to a physician or surgeon; and that a knowledge of mental philosophy is as essential to practical skill in the art of educating as a knowledge of anatomy and physiology is to practical skill in surgery and medicine.
VI.-That every sincere philanthropist will at once admit that a professional education is as necessary for the teachers of the poor as for those of the rich. No man in tbe present day would propound so absurd and heartless an opinion, as that systematic instruction in surgery and a previous acquaintance with anatomy are necessary for the medical attendants of the nobility and gentry, but that a man without any such knowledge will do well enough for practicing surgery upon the poor. Is it less heartless or less absurd to say, that he who trains the children of the rich needs an accurate scientific knowledge of the “intellectual and moral powers," on which he is to operate, but that such knowledge is to be dispensed with in him who is to educate the children of the poor?
VII.—That the study of Pedeutics requires such previous training and attainments as can only be found among the students of a university. It presupposes an acquaintance with mental philosophy; that again presupposes a knowledge of logic; and that again, such a thorough appreciation of the nature and powers of language, as nothing but a sound classical education can give, Highly important, too, if not quite as essential, is an accurate knowledge of the fundamental principles of the different sciences by which the different sets of faculties are exercised.
VIII. - That from these considerations it follows, that the only appropriate and effectual means of securing for our country those great benefits, for the sake of which the sagacious and practical mind of Dugald Stewart urged the construction and cultivation of such a science, is the foundation of a professorship of Pedeutics in each of our universities.
IX. - That a Scottish university is the place in which the first professorship of the kind ought to be founded, and that for the following reasons:
(1) Because students fully prepared to profit by a course of lectures on Pedeutics are more numerous in the Scotiish universities than in any other, since mental philosophy is there studied by a larger number of persons, with greater attention, and in a more practical form.
(2) Because persons whose interest it would be to attend such lectures are more numerous in the Scottish universities than in any other, inasmuch as a very large proportion of their students resort to the occupation of teaching.
(3) Because in a Scottish university such a course of lectures would make its beneficial effects extensively felt and universally acknowledged in a much shorter time than anywhere else. For, in Scotland, not only those who teach the children of the upper and middle classes, but also a large proportion of those who teach the children of the lowest, are men who have already received a university education.
X.—That the intended Chairs of Pedeutics will be to the Normal School what the Chair of Medicine and Surgery is to the hospital ; the former will give a systematic and consecutive view of the principles and rules according to which education ought to be conducted; the latter will exhibit the manner of applying these rules and principles to the endless variety of individual cases that occur in practice. The proposed chairs, therefore, will not supersede or interfere with our normal schools, but will immensely increase their efficiency and usefulness.
An attempt had been made in 1857, but without success, to induce the trustees of the Ferguson bequest to aid in establishing chairs of education. Another effort was made in 1859 to induce these trustees to consider the propriety of aiding the foundation of a chair in the University of Glasgow, which seemed to have a superior claim on the trust. Aid was declined “on the ground that the universities being now popularized