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saw rolls of flannel, and linen bandages, and second-hand garments of every description. These are brought to the rooms, and mothers and the elder girls in the families are taught to repair and make them over to the best advantage. This is a very interesting part of the work. Children, aud even grown people, feel a greater interest in preparing articles they want than in learning to mend and make with only the learning as an object.

In the first room I entered were ten or twelve babies, under three years old, drawing their dolls in little baby carriages, and one dressing his doll for the day. Balls, ninepins, reins and implements for work abounded. A quiet young girl, who seemed to be in full sympathy with them, was in charge. Twice during the morning these little things were allowed a pleasure they enjoyed greatly-going into the next room where children a little older than themselves were playing their games. On that day the game was washing, ironing and mangling their dolls' clothes, and putting into wardrobes or bureaus, which they constructed with sticks, blocks and whatever other material they needed and asked for. The older children had cut out many paper garments for these children's dolls. One little dot of a girl was folding pocket handkerchiefs and towels, and when she had done this she picked up some three-inch sticks and then, as if talking to herself, and wholly unconscious of anything else, said, “Now little sticks, you must be my wardrobe;" at the same time her busy fingers made the wardrobe, and the handkerchiefs were placed in it with great care. Another tiny little thing had done her washing very nicely, giving special attention to the rinsing; she was now ready to hang them up, and called for sticks, which she laid on the table to make her drying frame; when fully dry, according to her baby judgment, she told the sticks they must now be a bureau, and into a bureau they were soon transformed, which received the clothes when they were properly ironed and folded. Before the children are given their work they are told to give their attention, for not more than a minute, to something the kindergartner has to show, and this one moment is the base of their study for the day. If asked to give their attention too long there would be a failure, for a very young child cannot keep its attention on one thing long at a time without a strain.

The third gift was on the table in the next room (the divided cube). As it was the Emperor's birthday, some one child had built an arch through which he was to pass. All the rest of the children caught the idea and made arches for the procession—various arches and monuments in his honor. Finally a flag was thought of, and all wanted flags. These flags had been manufactured by the older children on some state occasion and were now lent, so that the jubilee was complete, and it would, perhaps, have suited the emperor far better than the celebration gotten up a few days later in his honor, for this was perfectly spontaneous, and given with a heartiness that went to my heart. In another room, children were weaving, but the difference between this and other kindergartens consisted in some of the mats being real mats, woven from listing, which were to be carried home for use, and each one felt conscious that he was one of a little community that had something to do of which each could perform a part. The quiet simplicity and dignity of the children, as they worked, was past belief if it had not been seen.

The next room was the play-room, where some impromptu play was going on-the dramatizing of something that had really happened, their imaginations filling up any lack of incidents. This was a true picture of Fröbel's own doings. He seized upon the rugged mountain at Keilhau as soon as he and his pupils got there, to mould it to his purposes—digging out rocks and making a path up to a pretty opening that was to serve as a resort, for they scarcely had anything to live in there at first that could be called a house. Mrs. Schrader had caught his spirit truly.

Our next visit was to the music-room where the elder children repaired every day to have a real concert, Four drums and the same number of tambourines, cymbals and castanets were used by the children to accompany the piano. The time was not perfect, but almost incredible for such wee children, and they were very happy and selfpossessed. Strongly accented tunes were played, and those who fully understand how children revel in such music, can perhaps faintly imagine how these rhythmical waves filled the little hearts with delight. This, like all the other occupations, was of short duration—about fifteen minutes perhaps—as long as each one could do his part without weariness.

As we crossed the hall we saw a little boy and girl washing dolls' clothes. The little boy was washing in a tiny tub on a bench just before him. There stood a set kettle low enough for his use, scoured as bright as copper can be; this work is all done by the children, each child leaving it as clean and bright as it is found. A line hung within reach upon which was a row of fairy stockings, drawers, skirts, dresses, aprons, etc., fastened with tiny clothes' pins. These clothes were airing after having been ironed, and I never saw nicer work done. The little flat irons were just the right size. Indeed, it was a perfect laundry, and I now saw the charm of it. The dear dolls were waiting to be dressed, and when that was done, the night gowns were to be washed. Here was a motive for work quite at the child's level. It brought puie delight because it had an immediate object which a dreary practice in laundry work would not have had.

'This year there are ten children who have been through the kindergarten, and now form an advanced class. This will sound like a paradox to those who know that in Germany all children are required to go to school at six years of age, and the kindergarten has not been accepted as a part of public instruction. The influence of this particular kindergarten has been such, and so marked upon the children and their

families, that the law is not strictly enforced in this instance, though it was so in the early part of its existence. Indeed, this is the first year any have been allowed to remain any length of time after it is known or suspected that they are six or more. It is the complaint of all the kiudergartners / meet here that the children are not allowed to remain long enough. The children of this advanced kindergarten, having had all their faculties so naturally cultivated, can tell little incidents in very pretty and concise language; they are then asked to write down what they have said, which they readily do, and then it is examined as to its value; anything that is wrong is made right, and then the children read it and spell the words. It can easily be seen how much ground this can be made to cover legitimately without an arbitrary direction. :

The pots in which the children cultivate plants have a tiny picture or arrangement of bright colors pasted on according to the taste of the child, who thus knows it for his own, having done it himself. The hooks for the coats and hats are marked in a similar way on frames they make themselves. Parents of the better classes sometimes come and ask to have their children admitted, and plead that they shall be put in a class of the better grade. The parents are told there is no difference, that all are good and clean, and are asked to go through the rooms and see for themselves if there is any one place they would choose over another. Without an exception no choice is made. The decided liberality of Mrs. Schrader's views is apparent in this. She does not think it be-t to have many children in one class, because she wishes to have e erything as nearly like family life as possible. The directress, Miss Scheffel, is a lady of the cultivated class. She takes no class herself, and is thus free to listen and to watch for the needs and opportunities of the children. This kindergarten has been working quietly because Mrs. Schrader knew she could not accomplish much without the right helpers. Her first object is to train thoroughly such persons as would make sure the quality of the work for many years. The kindergartners of her own training are women who are not so set in school ideas that they are unable to accept the new education freely. The whole atmosphere is growth, the principal aim to secure spontaneous ideas. Mrs. Schrader confines herself less to the kindergarten material proper than any kindergartner that I have known, but she knows how to take hold of other things in the Fröbelian spirit. If a box is wanted, boxes are the occupation of the day. The folding, cuting, pasting and ornamenting of the covers are done by the children, and they are not only for themselves but for the younger ones who are not able to do it. Whether it is beads, seeds, bits of wool, or a few pine needles that are picked up when walking, there is always an opportunity to preserve them From the beginning Mrs. Schrader has desired to have a work-school connected with her kindergarten, and last year it was established. Fancy work of various kinds, plain knit. ting, wood carving, basket-making, willow mat weaving, etc., I saw pur

sued here. The school is open two hours in the afternoon. Here, as throughout the whole establishment, the natural needs are first attended to. An advanced school has also been opened, based on natural princi. ples, finding science and art and their uses in the needs of the moment. The varied world of enjoyment arising out of this movement fills the life here with a continual charm that is at first surprising, but when one sees it with heart as well as eyes, the wonder is that any kindergarten should be kept on any other basis. I have not mentioned that the children are invited to come back in the afternoons if they wish to do so, to carry on any work in which they may be interested. The children, who have left the kindergartens and gone into other schools, are also invited, and they come regularly on Wednesday and Saturday afternoons. They go into the work rooms, or play with the young ladies who are being trained for kindergartners, who preside over these meetings without any superintendence by Miss Scheffel. This is the mode in which these young ladies become acquainted with the children.

The tables in Mrs. Schrader's kindergarten are not lined. She thinks the lines draw the attention from the true artistic work, which needs training of the eyes, according to the opinion of the most successful German teacher of drawing, Peter Schmidt. The result in Mrs. Schrader's kindergarten is very fine.

To this account of Mrs. Aldrich we add a few extracts from a very attractive and instructive volume by Miss Lyschinska, entitled ** THE KINDERGARTEN PRINCIPLE—its Educational Value and Chief Applications.” Miss Lyschinska is superintendent of Method in Infant Schools under the School Board of London, and she credits to her association with one of Fröbel's family, Henrietta Schrader (née Breyman) of Ber. lin, and her tuition, her knowledge of the Kindergarten Principles as developed in this volume. The opening chapter is devoted to “ A German Kindergarten,” the institution established by Mrs. Schrader, and in which Mrs. Aldrich sees so much to admire.

*Published by W. Isbister, 56 Ludgate Hill, 1880. 180 pages with numerous illustrations,


Inspectress of Infant Schools in the Canton of Geneva

L. CRITICISMS CONSIDERED. The views of Froebel, a man of original mercurial genius, working independently of all traditions, were sure to provoko criticism and opposition. The objections to their practical application may be grouped as follows: 1, Expense; 2, social disturbance; and 3, violations of pedagogic canons.

1. Objections on account of Expense. That the new education, covering several years of the child's life not beforu utilized for purposes of development, and requiring space, constructions, equipment, and skilled personal attention, calls for expenditure of money, cannot be denied; but the results should, and we believe do, justify this expenditure.

Spacious and well-ventilated premises, halls for work and for play, a yard and a garden, are indispensable. If we add the expenses of the management and the material, numerous and capable teachers, it will bo seen that to establish and support Kindergartens imposes great sacrifices, and that the municipalities and governments must be entirely convinced of the excellence of these institutions before they can be expected to swell their budgets for the purpose of founding them. We shall not insist upon the very imperative reasons which make us think that the expenses of construction and management will tend to increase rather than diminish. The quite practical solution which some Belgian cities, Liege, for example, and the Canton of Geneva, in Switzerland, have given to this question is the best answer to these criticisms. The Kindergartens of Liege are communal establishments, for which that city makes great sacrifices. The large number of children on their list (3,200 children in 1876) proves that they are in high favor, and that the Froelelian institutions are highly appreciated by the population.

In Geneva the Kindergartens still bear the name of Infant Schools, but the method of Froebel is applied in them. The law of October 19, 1872, while leaving the initiative to the communes, placed the schouls under the surveillance of the Cantonal authorities. The law is as follows:

ART. 17. One infant school at least is established by the Commune. The Department of public instruction approves the regulations of these schools and watches their progress. The Council of State grants a subsidy for the creation and maintenance of the infant schools.

ART. 18. The infant schools are optional and gratuitous; they receive children until they are six years of age, and are directed by mistresses and sub-mistresses.

ART. 19. The salaries of the mistresses and sub-mistresses are fixed by the State. The premises are furnished by the commune.

* Paper in Proceedings of International Congress, 1880. Translated by Mrs. Mann.

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