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“ The women are also allowed to attend some of the classical lectures, and others are repeated.* The women students have not been admitted to any mathematical lectures. They study by means of private help. Some of the Newnham Hall students have been allowed, by the kindness of university friends of the higher education of women, to have the papers on the honor examinations in classics, the mathematics, the moral sciences, history, and the natural sciences. Eighteen of our students have come out in honors, and there have been four first classes in this number, and eight second classes. One was placed in the first class by two examiners, and in the second by two. * * * These examinations are informal as yet, and should always be so spoken of. But the papers are the same as those given to the men, and are looked over by the same examiners.”
Higher Education of Women at Oxford. Oxford was nearly ten years later than Cambridge in yielding to the steadily growing demand for the university education of women. An association for the promotion of this object, formed on the plan of that of Cambridge, was organized in 1878 or 1879. Its scheme of lectures has been as yet in operation only for a single year. Two halls have been opened for the reception of women students, the Lady Margaret' Hall, of which Miss E. Wordsworth is principal, and Somerville Hall, under Miss Madelein Shaw Lefevre. The first is governed by a supervisory board, of which the Rev. Edward Stuart Talbot, Warden of Keble College, is the chairman; and the other by a similar board, under the chairmanship of S. W. Waite, B. D., President of Trinity College.
As yet, the women students in Oxford have not been as freely admitted to the university lectures as in Cambridge. Miss Shaw Lefevre writes that “the university professors have, in some cases, agreed to admit women to their lectures, but for the present lectures are provided expressly for the students of the association.” And Miss Wordsworth observes that “the students attend lectures quite apart from the men, though, in some cases, the same professor instructs them.”
When the instructor is a university professor or lecturer, however, he does not receive the women in his university or college lecture-room, but in a building temporarily engaged for that purpose by the association.
The two great and venerable universities of England thus illustrate the modern remarkable movement toward the higher education of women in two distinct stages of its progress. In Oxford we see the movement just beginning; in Cambridge it appears in a highly advanced state of transition. If, from these, we turn to the University of London, established half a century ago, in vigorous and indignant protest against the exclusiveness and bigotry of the older institutions, which would deny to half the men of the United Kingdom, to say
* A gentleman residing in Cambridge writes, in a letter of recent date, that "most of the university professors have opened their lecture-rooms to women, and this has been done in a few cases with college lecturers.”
nothing of the women, the advantages of a liberal education, we shall find the moveinent in its final stage of accomplished purpose. It is now several years since University College, London, opened its doors freely for the admission of women students; but, though the instruction it gave them was identical with that given to men, it taught them altogether separately and at different hours. No very long experience was necessary to make it manifest that an arrangement of this kind is exceedingly uneconomical, in regard both to time and to labor; or that the reasons which had been supposed to make it necessary or proper, were without substantial foundation. By the spontaneous act of the professors themselves, the classes were one after another combined, until at length there is no longer any class in University College, in which young women and young men do not receive instruction together.* The university has been as liberal as the college. It examines young women on precisely the same terms as young men; and grants them the same degrees. In the first examination of women, by this university, for the degree of B. A., held two or three years ago, one of the alumnæ of Newnham Hall, of the year 1875, who had attained a second class grade in the classical tripos of Cambridge, and a third class in the mathematical tripos, secured the degree, and gained along with it first class honors in Latin and English.
From this cursory review of the extraordinary progress made in this movement in England during the brief period of the past ten years, the conclusion seems to be irresistible that the barriers which have so long closed the British universities against women are destined at no distant period to fall away, and that perhaps it may be given to the present rising generation to see the time when not university education only, but the universities themselves will be freely open to all without distinction of sex.
The movement in England, which it has been endeavored briefly to describe, was a movement designed strictly and solely to promote the higher education of women; not regarding the consequent possible presence of inen and women in the same school as anything more than an incident, which for its own sake was neither to be sought nor avoided. In England, therefore, the term “co-education ” is scarcely known; for, considered as defining succinctly an object to be aimed at, there has been no need of it, since no such idea existed. The light in which the undersigned has always regarded this subject has been that in which it has been viewed in Great Britain.
Of what has taken place or is taking place in our own country it is not necessary to say much. The facts of progress are too palpable to require comment. One or two points may be mentioned briefly. The number of institutions professing to give university education, and
* The number of students in University College is very large. Six years ago it enıbraced more than fifteen hundred, of whom nearly nine hundred were in the Col. legiate Department.
possessing the strictly university power of conferring degrees in Arts, in the United States, is very great, and more than half of them admit students of both sexes impartially. It is common to dispose of this fact summarily by remarking that these colleges are in the West. To a dweller upon Beacon Hill, very possibly the West is Beotia. But what shall we say when we see growing up, right under the shadow of Beacon Hill itself, a university which admits young women as freely as Oberlin, or Antioch, or Berea ? And yet this very thing has happened in Boston within the past ten years. The Boston University numbers for the year 1880 in its College of the liberal Arts, one hundred and twenty-seven students, of whom one-third are women.
The University of Michigan is a Western university. It was founded more than forty years ago. From the beginning it has been among the most prosperous of American educational institutions, and few have gained a higher or enjoyed a more well-deserved reputation. Michigan University receives women as students, but it had been thirty years in successful operation before it began to do so; and when it began, it did it under the constraint of a public opinion expressed through the legislature and the public journals, which the trustees and the teaching body could not resist, and to which they unwillingly yielded. Ten years have passed since the change of system, and the university, with seventy-five women in the department of Arts, and nearly fifty in its medical schools, is now more prosperous than before.
In May, 1879, the Board of Overseers of Harvard University adopted a resolution declaring, that, in the opinion of that Board, women ought to be instructed in medicine by Harvard University in its Medical School, the president concurring, though he has pronounced himself strongly against the admission of women into the college. Moreover, under the gentle urgency of some of the ladies of Cambridge, several of whom are members of the families of the professors, a Newnham Hall has grown up within the heart of the university town itself, in which all the instruction is given by university officers. It looks somewhat as if King Priam had allowed the Trojan horse to be admitted within his walls. There are even some of the garrison who, it is surmised, are already disposed to take part with the enemy.
In an address delivered at the semi-centennial anniversary of the Andover Female Academy, in 1879, Dr. Andrew P. Peabody, the eminent professor of Christian Morals in the university, is reported to have used the following language : “ Every professor has assented to the arrangement with the determination to give to the young women the very best of their ability. Whether the young men and young women will meet in the same class-room is a question yet to be answered. I cannot myself believe that the time is very far distant when they will. I can see no reason why young men and young women may not study and recite together as well as talk, sing, and dance together. The reason usually given why they should not is purely a relic of some tradition, the reason for which has been entirely lost to the memory of man. When we think that they are to be together in the building, the most innocent and fitting of all associations would seem to be an association in the very highest pursuits, next to their eternal well-being, in which they can be engaged.”
Col. Thomas W. Higginson, a distinguished alumnus of the college, who, though not a member of the Faculty, is a resident of Cambridge and a member of the committee of management of the University School for young women, testifies from personal observation to the state of feeling existing there, as follows: “Some of the Harvard teachers already express a preference for that method [bringing together the young men and young women in the same classes], at least where classes are small and far advanced; and practice will only strengthen this feeling. If a Greek professor has among his pupils three young men who can read Plato at sight, and two young women who can do the same, it will require some very strong resistance to prevent his hearing all five at the same hour and place. In short, the new plan at Harvard is another guaranty that the world muves. It has a sincere and generous origin-the honest conviction of the committee that the vast resources of Harvard should be made available for girls, supplemented by the desire of some who are parents that their own daughters should be taught."
All terms used as party rallying cries or watch words should be descriptive of the purposes of the parties employing them; or, if description cannot be compressed into a single word, should be significant of the idea which distinctly characterizes the object, purpose, or measure which the party have in view. If they do anything but this, they will probably be misleading; and such, no doubt, is to some ex. tent the case in the present instance. The terın “co-education" con. veys to many minds the impression that those who advocate the measure it denotes are laboring for the specific object, and for nothing higher, or better, or more worthy of attainment than the specific ob ject, of bringing young men and young women together in the same schools. But this is so far from being the specific object of this class of educational agitators, that it is not in fact an object with them at all. The thing which they do actually propose to themselves is to secure for women opportunities for an educational culture as large and liberal as is provided for the opposite sex. Since the only institutions which afford this culture have hitherto been monopolized by men, and since it is not possible, either morally or economically, to create similar institutions for women exclusively, we make the reasonable demand that women shall be received into the existing institutions. Should this demand be successful, it will be, of course, an incidental conse. quence that women and men will receive their education in the same institutions; that is, that co-education will exist as a resultant fact, though not as an object sought for its own sake.
DISTORY. In view of the great importance of drawing, as a branch of education, the Legislature, hy an Act passed May 16, 1870, made instruction in this branch obligatory in the Public Schools ; and required cities and towns, containing more than ten thousand inhabitants, to make provision for free instruction in industrial drawing to persons over fifteen years of age. This Act met with public favor, but it was soon found by experience, that it was impossible to realize satisfactorily the benefits intended by the Act, for want of competent teachers.
To supply this want, it became necessary to establish a State Normal Art-School. The necessity of providing this new educational instrumentality became apparent as soon as the attempt was made to carry out the provisions of the law, requiring the teaching of industrial drawing, -provisions which had been made in compliance with the requests of the leading representatives of the great industrial interests of tue State. It was in vain to look to private enterprise for the means of qualifying the needed teaching staff. Public provision was indispensable.
W providing for the establishment of such a school was submitted 10 te Legislature of 1872, but failed of success. Another year's experience was sufficient to render it apparent to the dullest apprehension, that the attempt to carry forward this great educational improvement without qualified teachers was a waste of time and money, and the alternative which obviously presented itself was either to abandon altogether the project of developing industrial art, or to provide the requisite means of its execution. The Legislature of 1873 wisely chose the latter, and enacted as follows:
“ Resolved, That there be allowed and paid out of the treasury, the sum of seventy-five hundred dollars for the expense of a state normal art-school, the same to be expended under the direction of the board of education. [Approved Junc 6, 1873."
“ Resolved, That the sergeant-at-arms, with the consent and approval of the commissioners on the state house, be authorized to assign the rooms on the third floor of the house, number 33 Pemberton Square, to the board of education, for the use of the state normal art-school. [Approved June 11, 1873."
In pursuance of this provision the Board of Education appointed Visitors of the school, with instructions to organize and put it in operation, and take charge of its immediate supervision. Prof. Walter