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this cursed, rather than curious art, was proper and almost peculiar to the Eastern people, Jews, Samaritans, Egyptians, and Babylonians, the Greeks very little or not at all studying it, but placing all their wisdom in the arts, and these were Greeks that burnt their books.”
Answer. 1. Who ever expounded this place of other than magic books? 2. If they were not magic (for the word is perierga, that is, curious and superfluous) could Mr. C. find none such but philosophical books?
It is sure that as the Greeks, some were philosophers, so there were some poets, tragedians and comedians, lyrics, as Aristophanes, Pindar, Sopho. cles, Euripides; some orators, as Demosthenes, Isocrates, and some physicians, as Galen, Hippocrates, etc.; they might as well be those curious books as the philosophical.
3. If this exposition of Mr. Cr. is true, then it is a Christian duty and a note of a true convert to burn all philosophical books; yea, and in a public manner: which were an hard saying, and I may question whether Mr. Cr. did ever give this evidence of the truth of his conversion.
4. He seems to be greatly deceived in that he restrains that cursed art to those eastern countries, as though that Greece were free from such devilish practices. For the contrary may appear plainly in Julius Pollux,' who is both ancient and exact in setting forth the religion of the Grecians in lib. 1, Cap. 1, par. 18–19, where he shows that they had their oracles, and spirits that foretold things to come, their debacchantes, and numine afflatos inspired by the devil, their raptures and enthusiasms, extasies, furies, their divinations; and where was the Delphic, that is, Apollo's oracle, but amongst them, with which they consulted on all occasions, and for polytheism they worshiped all the heathenish and devil-gods in the world, and no god was unknown to them but the true, which appears by that inscription upon the altar: Acts 17, 23, .To the unknown God;' besides Acts 16, 16, etc., ye find mention of a spirit of divination which was called Python (being like the oracle of Apollo, whither all the people came to ask questions), and OBH, or eggastrimythos, because the devil filled the bellies of their prophets and prophetesses, and gave the people his answer in filthy manner from thence, and this example is rather to be noted, because when the Damsel was dispossessed by the apostles, her masters were so enraged, and made their complaint to the magistrates, they put the apostles in prison for it, whence it appears that all sorts, both of magistrates and people among them, favored and maintained such devilish practices. And also the like may be noted: Acts 17, 22, where Paul saith of the Athenians, that they were in all things deisidaimonesteroi, fearing and worshiping demons, or devils, and false gods. So that the devil must needs have great power over them. But thus much shall serve for answer to Mr. Crandon, the rest that he brings is either answered before, or toucheth not this controversy. To the only wise God be all glory forever.
PESTALOZZI AND PESTALOZZIANISM.
LAST WORDS. We shall close our editorial studies and publications respecting the great Swiss educator with this, and possibly one additional chapter in the current volume of the Journal. The articles which follow will amply repay the closest attention.
The first gives an interesting picture of the daily life of Pestalozzi's Family School in the old castle of Yverdun, at a time when bis reputation had drawn together pupils and assistants from every nation in Europe. In spite of the unappreciative spirit of the writer, and the evidence of the astounding incapacity of the principal for the administration of affairs, we see and feel the strength and warmth of his great heart which brought and kept together such widely differing antagonisms,—of his constant forgetfulness of self in his immense devotion to the interests of his fellowmen,—and of his insight into the true philosophy and means of human culture, without the trained faculties in himself, the result of his own imperfect education, to perfect and apply the methods.
The second article gives us at once an appreciative account of the princ ples of the Pestalozzian system, by one competent to understand it, and at the same time gives us the first glimpses of the K ndergarten, as it revealed itself to Froebel in his profound study of the child at play and in school.
The third article, in the list of over three hundred distinct treatises on Pestalozzi and his system, and which is far from being complete, shows both the originality and value of his views, so largely and variou ly discussed, and opens up a rich field of special study to the student of human culture.
These and other papers, published in the early volumes of the American Journal of Education, will appear in a separate volume (the contents of which is given on the next page), as soon as there is any evidence that a revised edition is wanted.
HENRY BARNARD. HARTFORD, Conn., March 15, 1881.
of John Henry Pestalozzi, with Biographical Sketches of other eminent
IL PESTALOZZI, FELLENBERG, AND WHERLI, . . . . . . . . .
THER GIRARD AND OTHER SWISS EDUCATORS, .
• PESTALOZZI AND THE POPULAR SCHOOL OF GERMANY,
PESTALOZZIANISM IN GREAT BRITAIX, .
6. INFLUENCE OX POPULAR Music, . . . . . . . . . . .
8. LOUIS AGASSIZ IN THE UNITED Srates..
SEVEXTY-Second BIRTHDAY, ..
Bequest of Father Pestalozzi to his Pupils, ..
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STUDENT LIFE AT YVERDUN UNDER PESTALOZZI.
REMINISCENCES OF A WESTMINSTER BOY.
THE REMINISCENT.* The writer of these reminiscences of his student life at Yverdun [about 1814] was taken by his father from the hard forms and birchen discipline of Westminster School, then under Dr. Page, under somewhat exaggerated expectations of Pestalozzi's Boarding School, which are well described by himself.
“Here was a school composed of boys gathered from all parts of the habit. able globe, where each, by simply carrying over a little of his mother tongue, might, in a short time, become a youthful Mezzofante, and take his choice of many in return; a school which, wisely eschewing the routine service of books, suffered neither dictionary, gradus, grammar, nor spelling book to be even seen on the premises; a school for morals, where, in educating the head, the right training of the heart was never for a moment neglected; a school for the progress of the mind, where much discernment, blending itself with kindness, fostered the first dawnings of the intellect, and carefully protected the feeble powers of memory from being overtaxcd—where delighted Alma, in the progress of her development, might securely enjoy many privileges and immunities wholly denied to her at home-where even philosophy, stooping to conquer, had become sportive the better to persuade; where the poet's vow was actually realized—the bodily health being as diligently looked after as that of the mind or the affections; lastly, where they found no fighting nor bullying, as at home, but agriculture and gymnastics instituted in their stead.” To such encomiums on the school were added, and with more justice and truth, a com. mendation on old Pestalozzi himself, the real liberality of whose sentiments, and the overflowings of whose paternal love, could not, it was argued, and did not, fail to prove beneficial to all within the sphere of their influence. The weight of such supposed advantages turned the scale for not a few just entering into the pupillary state, and settled their future destination.
The account which follows, after due allowance for its unsympathizing tone, throws much light on the internal economy of the institution.
INTERNAL CONDITION. The Pension, during the period of our sojourn at Yverdun, contained about a hundred and eighty élèves, natives of every European and of some Oriental states, whose primitive mode of distribution into classes, according to age and acquirements, during school hours, was completely changed in play-time, when the boys, finding it easier to speak their own tongue than to acquire a new one,
• From an article in Blackwood's Magazine for July, 1849, with the caption Pestalozziana -written some thirty years after leaving Yverdun, with no prejudices in favor of popular education.