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for where “the learned professions” are neglected; and the reason for this obviously is, that the demand for well educated men of these professions has in recent years been steadily growing, while in the others the supply has been fully up to the demand, if not in excess of it. In a single instance—the Johns Hopkins University—the attempt has been made to assume the university form from the beginning; but this institution, like the others, maintains an undergraduate course, or School of the Liberal Arts, differing from them only in making this an inconspicuous feature of its system. Among the colleges which have made the largest steps in advance in the direction of the higher development, are Harvard, Yale, the College of New Jersey, and our own institution.

COLUMBIA COLLEGE AS A UNIVERSITY. Within the last twenty-five years Columbia College has greatly enlarged the scope of its teaching and the sphere of its usefulness. During the year ending in June, 1857, the total number of students matriculated was one hundred and forty-three, and the instruction given was confined to the department of Arts, and the number of professors and instructors was only six. Our School of Law, which was our first professional school, was opened just twenty-four years ago. Two years later the College of Physicians and Surgeons of this city became associated with us in an educational alliance as our School of Medicine. In 1864 was established our School of Mines, with the intention originally to confine its teaching to the object indicated by its name, that is to the preparation of well educated Mining Engineers ; but, four years later, this design was enlarged by the institution of courses of instruction leading up to five different scientific professions, Mining Engineering, Civil Engineering, Metallurgy, Analytic and Applied Chemistry, and Geology and Palæontology. To these in 1881 was added a course in Architecture. In 1880 was established our School of Political Science, designed to train men for the domestic or diplomatic civil service, or to prepare them to discharge intelligently such duties of public life as may devolve upon them as members of our State or national legislatures, as members of municipal councils, or as public journalists. And in the same year was instituted the Department of Graduate Instruction, which opens up for us in the future a prospect of constantly increasing usefulness.

We have organized a course of instruction in the Modern Languages, the Romance, the Teutonic, and the Scandinavian, with the design not merely to afford, as is often the case in colleges, a few months' tuition in one or the other of these, for the purpose of imparting a more or less imperfect facility in translation, but to carry the student through a continuous course extending from the earliest undergraduate year into the department of graduate instruction if desired, and embracing not only a knowledge of the languages as spoken or written, but also a critical acquaintance with the masterpieces of their literature.

We have prescribed courses of study for the higher degrees of Master of Arts and Doctor of Philosophy; and have provided for the extension of the course of instruction in our School of Law to a third year, on the completion of which the students honorably proficient shall receive the superior degree of Master of Laws.

To a large extent, therefore, our institution has assumed the character of a university. This has not in any manner impaired its usefulness or diminished its attractiveness as a school for undergraduate instruction. On the other hand, in proportion as it has strengthened its professional schools and offered larger inducements to advanced students to come to us for that supplementary education which is needed after the training of the College is complete, in the same proportion the attendance in our undergraduate department has steadily grown.

On the literary side, we need a Department of Comparative Philology, and this need will soon be urgent. We have already many of the elements satisfactorily provided, out of which such a department will be able to gather the material for its work.

It has for years been found impracticable for any one officer, charged at the same time with heavy duties of class instruction, to direct the preparation of the English essays of the students of all the classes, to read and criticise carefully all those performances, and finally to communicate personally to each individual the results of such examination in such a manner as to impress upon the several authors the lessons to be derived from their merits or their errors. To burden the Professor of English Literature with the whole of this intolerable task has long been seen to be impracticable, except at the cost of destroying his usefulness in any other respect; and the work has, therefore, by authority of the Trustees, been for many years divided among several hands, the Professor of English Literature being charged with supervising the performances of only a single class.

Another of the present wants of our College on the literary side of its university teaching is a competent instructor or lecturer upon archæology and ancient art.

Another educational want for which we have yet made no provision is a department of modern art—the Fine Arts-of which we have an admirable type in the School of the Fine Arts founded at Yale College by the late Mr. Street. We have already introduced into our School of Mines a course of Architecture, which, in one of its aspects, is counted among the Fine Arts, and is recognized and taught as such by the Ecole des Beaux Arts of Paris. But in our school the subject is necessarily taught less froin the æsthetic than from the practical point of view; and we cannot properly be said to teach Architecture as a Fine Art at all.

There are several Schools of Art in our city, though not one which adequately meets the need of the time.

In passing from the Literary to the Scientific side, it is to be noted, first, that the important subjects of Ethnology and Anthropology are wholly unrepresented in our scheme. These subjects, which together constitute what may be called the Natural History of Man, have been prosecuted in recent years with an activity and fertility of results which must be pronounced truly astonishing.

The sciences of Ethnology and Anthropology should have an especial interest for us, since some of their most earnest and successful investigators have been our own countrymen. One of the earliest of these was Prof. Samuel George Morton, of Philadelphia, who so long ago as 1839 published his able and original work on the Crania Americana, which was received throughout the scientific world with an admiration mingled with surprise. Later American investigators in the same field have been the late E. G. Squier, of this city, first president of the American Anthropological Society, to whom we owe the first thorough exploration of the numerous mounds of prehistoric antiquity so widely scattered over our Western plains; also the late Lewis H. Morgan, of Rochester, whose studies of the history, affinities, usages, arts and architecture of the aboriginal tribes of this continent and of their probable origin have been most laborious and exhaustive; to say nothing of men still living and hardly less distinguished, among whom may be mentioned Prof. F. V. Hayden, formerly Director of the United States Survey of the Western Territories ; Col. J. W. Powell, present Director of the Geographical and Geological Survey of the same region; Wm. Henry Dall, Esq., the author of recent reports on the orarian tribes of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, the result of an exploration conducted under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution ; Prof. Alexander Winchell, late Chancellor of Syracuse University, who in a recent work entitled “Præ-Adamites," has presented in compact form one of the most able summaries of the present state of anthropological science which has yet appeared.

Anthropology is but a single branch of Natural Iristory, though, considering the comparative dignity of its subject, it is one of special importance. But it is unfortunately the case that, in respect to all departments of this extensive subject, our provisions are equally imperfect. Zoology, Botany, Physiology, and Biology are all unrepresented in our scheme of instruction.

Our sister institutions on all sides of us are provided in these matters with a completeness which puts us quite to shame. The College of New Jersey has a Professor of Natural History and three assistant professors; it has also a Museum or Laboratory for work in Botany and Zoology, and provides systematic lectures in these sciences, and graduate courses in Biology and Palæontology, with no fewer than five instructors. The Johns Hopkins University has a department of Biology, with a Biological Laboratory, provided with all the most perfect instrumentalities for experimental research, having at its head an accomplished professor who has the aid of five associates or assistants. Yale College has a Professor of Zoology, with an assistant, a Professor of Comparative Anatomy, a Professor of Botany, a Professor of Agriculture, who lectures also on Arboriculture, and a Lecturer on Histology, besides an instructor in Physiological Chemistry. Ilarvard University has three Professors of Botany, with two assistants, a Professor of Arboriculture, a Professor of Entomology, a Professor of Physiology, and two Professors, an instructor, and an assistant in Zoology. This institution possesses also in its magnificent Museum of Comparative Zoology, founded by the illustrious Agassiz, and directed now by his hardly less accomplished son, a School for the practical study of Zoology and Physiology, which, for the advantages it offers to the learner, is unsurpassed and perhaps unequaled anywhere in the world. Of course it is impossible that our inferiority in these im. portant departments of natural science can long be permitted to exist. In Botany, especially, though we possess the most extensive and most valuable collection of dried plants in the country—a collection presented to the College nearly a quarter of a century ago by the eminent naturalist whose name it bears, and whose long connection with our College as professor and trustee is one of our most highly-prized and cherished remembrances—yet during all this time it has not been brought into use in the instruction of our students, or made available to their educational benefit.

Among the most serious deficiencies of our scheme of higher education on the scientific side are the want of a Physical Laboratory, with appliances necessary for the training of young men to methods of research, and also that of a similar laboratory for investigations in Organic Chemistry and Gaseous Chemistry. These wants, however, have been already prospectively provided for by the splendid benefaction recently assured to the College in the will of the late Stephen Whitney Phoenix. Mr. Phoenix was an alumnus of our College of the year 1859. His academic record shows him to have been distinguished as a student for pre-eminence in scholarship; and his subsequent life gave evidence of highly cultivated tastes and fondness for intellectual pursuits. Ile was one of the few men of generous impulses, whose clear judgment enable them to see that the most effectual way to advance the cause of the higher education in the country is to employ such means as they may propose to set apart for that object in strengthening an institution which is already strong, rather than in laying the foundations of a new one which must necessarily be feeble. It is known that he took pains during his life to inform himself of the points in which, in the domain of exact science, this institution is most in need of help, and that he made the disposition of his estate defined in his will in accordance with that information. Could his example be followed by some half-dozen more of our affluent alumni, or of our other fellow-citizens who, without having the sentiment of filial regard to stimulate them, are yet animated by a desire to contribute to the

progress of human enlightenment, all the deficiencies in our present scheme of higher education, above signalized, would speedily disappear.

It is the want here of a department designed to train young men to education as a profession, by giving instruction in the History, Theory and Practice of Education. The recommendation made on this subject in the last annual report of the President was not the first presentation of this project to this Board. As early as in 1853, when the proposition to remove the college from its original site was first agitated, it was proposed that simultaneously with the removal there should be a change of system, in which, to the course of undergraduate instruction already in operation, a scheme of university education also, either in continuation of the former or otherwise, should be added. This proposition was the subject of much deliberation and of sundry reports; but no definite result was reached until April 5, 1858, when a definite plan was reported and adopted. Immediately after the adoption of this plan, an additional resolution was offered to “add the science and art of education' to the subjects to be taught in the School of Letters.” And this, too, was adopted with no apparent opposition. The scheme of university instruction here set on foot was but partially put into execution, and, after the experiment of a single year, was abandoned as being premature. Though “ The Science and Art of Education ” was placed among the subjects to be taught in the School of Letters, no Professor or other Instructor appears to have been appointed for the purpose, and this part of the scheme fell through with the rest. The fact remains, however, that by the adoption of the resolution above cited this Board distinctly committed itself to the proposition that the Science and Art of Education is a subject worthy to be taught in Columbia College. Had the general scheme proved a success, this part of it would have gone into operation also; and we should now have been able to look back upon a quarter of a century of experience of the inestimably valuable results accruing from the successful attempt, in this city at least, to transform the business of teaching from a trade to a profession. For the influence of the power here put into action would inevitably have reached not merely the educationists of the higher order, but every humblest teacher of the most insignificant primary on the island. Not that every such teacher would have been brought under the direct instruction of this chair. Possibly not one in five might have been so. But through those who were actually subject to this beneficial influence, the substance of the instruction would have filtered through to all the rest. The errors which these had been taught to avoid would have been stimped out, not only in their own schools, but in those of their colleagues; the just notions which they had imbibed would have been imparted casually or designedly to the rest, and the whole system of public education in New York, from the most elementary schools upward, would have been lifted to a higher level, and all engaged in its management would now be walking in the light of a sound philosophy

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