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studies. The latter produce superficial minds, pre-occupied alone with form, which are in the habit of looking only at the phrase, and remain inattentive to the reality behind it. In no language is there any literary work that can act as powerfully upon the imagination as nature when observed with an attentive and intelligent eye. There is more true poetry in astronomy than in Racine or Boileau. The spectacle of the starry heavens opens to thought vaster horizons and fills the soul with an enthusiasm far greater than that elicited by the reading of an epic poem. What writer ever imagined a variety of colors, forms, and manifestations of all kinds to be compared with that presented by animals and plants ? What are the metamorphoses of Ovid, the tales of Perrault by the side of the wonderful phenomena revealed by the life of the silk-worm, the bee, the ant, the lowest animals and the most common plants ?

It is not true that intuitive teaching is unfavorable to literary culture. It is, on the contrary, the essential condition of a rational literary culture. It furnishes words and the thoughts they represent from the very earliest age. It teaches to enunciate with clearness and simplicity the thoughts which have been spontaneously formed in the mind. It is true that it repudiates those rules of style which consist in amplifying a dictated summary, in describing things which have not been observed, and in recounting feelings which the child has not felt. But these exercises do not teach to express thoughts in writing, and accustom their victims to be satisfied with mere words.

There is reason in saying that the study of great writers is excellent for literary culture; but intuitive teaching does not exclude it; it prepares the mind to undertake it successfully. It is wrong to begin to explain authors too soon. How do we suppose a primary school pupil can reap any benefit from reading: Animals sick with the pestilence, a scene from Tartuse, the Imprecations of Camillus, a Funeral Oration by Bossuet, an Epistle of Boileau, when we dare not pretend that a child of twelve years of age possesses enough experience of life, enough ideas and judgment, to seize upon the true meaning of those works, which were written for the instruction or amusement of men, and not for the education of children in a primary school? Lamartine, in his Voyage en Orient, makes a very just reflection à propos to this: “Every wave,” he says, “urges me towards Greece; I touch it. Its appearance moves me profoundly, much less however than if all these memories had not withered in my heart by having been amassed in my memory before my thought understood them. Greece is to me like a book whose beauties are tarnished because we were made to read it before we had the power to comprehend it. I prefer a tree, a fountain under a rock, a laurel rose on the border of a river, under the crumbled archway of a bridge tapestried with vines, to the monument of one of those classic kingdoms which recall nothing to my mind but the ennui they gave me in my childhood.”

But how can we form the style by intuitive teaching ? it will be asked. Shall we only require of the pupil to describe the things he has seen and the feelings he really felt ?

And why should we seek for other subjects ? Do we teach style by imitated composition and verbiage ?

We highly appreciate the originality of writers who are imposing by their talent or their genius, and we would make the pupils in the priniary and secondary schools make imitations and amplifications which can have no other effect than to prevent that precious quality from developing! Has not Boileau, that master in the art of writing, said, “Before writing, learn to think"; "what is well conceived is clearly spoken, and the words come easily to tell it."

Intuitive teaching, which teaches how to think and produces conception before description, is what must be preferred even as preparation for literary studies.

Intuitive Teaching makes School atıractive. Shall we speak of the reproach cast upon intuitive teaching because it banishes pain, labor and effort by transforming studies into a species of joy? Is the school then supposed to be a gloomy place where little children are condemned to painful, wearisome labors ? Is it not better to make them feel that work is not a punishment, and that the ideal, which is the sovereign good, is not repose but useful activity ? Intuitive teaching abolishes the sterile efforts which these pupils must make to whom things are spoken of, of which they have not the least idea and which they do not see, but replaces them by that fertilizing effort of the mind which seizez with avidity the notions presented to it in an attractive form. By rendering the earliest studies painful, we rebuff the children and disgust them with study. This is why the school, so badly organized, has need of punishments and rewards as a provocative of labor, while the kindergarten and the school in which the teaching is intuitive do very well without those factitious means of emulation and repression.

Intuitive Teaching not Irreligious, nor Immoral. Intuitive teaching has been accused of being opposed to morality, and of leading to materialism by the habit it gives the mind to admit only what has been proved, to observe only what is tangible.

In certain places the development of the natural sciences and their introduction into the programmes of primary instruction are bitterly combatted, because they are accused of being irreligious. Herbert Spencer has perfectly answered this objection. “ Far from science being irreligious,” he says, “it is the abandonment of science that is irreligious. Let us make an humble comparison. Let us suppose an author whom we should salute every day with praises expressed in pompous style. Let us suppose that the wisdom, grandeur and beauty of his works are the constant subject of the praises addressed to him. Let us suppose that those who praise his works have never seen even the cover of them, have never read them, never even tried to comprehend them; of what value would their praises be? And yet, if we may be permitted to compare small things with great, let us see how humanity has generally conducted itself toward the universe and its great cause. It is not science, then, but indifference to science, that is irreligious."

Intuitive teaching can only be considered immoral by those who look upon morality as a mass of traditional prescriptions to be inculcated upon children by the aid of formulas which they are taught to learn by heart. It is thought that moral culture, which is the essential part of general education, consists in preaching sermons and saying catechisms."

The field for the culture of morality is consequently the family and the schools. It is obtained by observing a discipline that is conformable to nature. By developing good feelings inculcated early, by inspiring sincerity, by forming upright hearts and characters, by showing that in all circumstances labor is the law of humanity, by transforming the school into a little society in which reign truth and justice, we form moral beings much more easily than by telling them stories called moral stories, and by discourses upon virtue and vice.

“The intuition of morality,” says M. Guilliaume, “is the knowledge of duty. Now duty is not the result of theories, It is derived as little from ethics as digestion is derived from physiology. Theory, true or false, plays but a subaltern part in it. It exercises control for the acquiescence of the intellect over the will already fixed without it. But the practice of duty which is the result of action that has become habit, alone has importance for the ends of education.”

Faith in the supernatural has been in all times the greatest obstacle to social progress. The school of the people was not made to preserve the chains which have so long interfered with the blossoming out of the human intellect. A powerful scientific current bears us along. Free examination is the characteristic of modern civilization. In our society man has no longer to expect anything but from himself, from his own will, his own energy, his own intelligence. If we wish to preserve the conquests that are dear to us and constitute our glory, we must conform our system of education to the principles which rule modern society. Authoritative teaching, dogmatic, narrow and full of errors, prejudices and falsehoods, bequeathed to us by the scholasticism of the middle ages is to give place to intuitive teaching which develops the child in the integrity of his faculties and will prepare generations of intelligent, moral and free men.

FRENCH PEDAGOGY- D New. Contributions to the Historical Developemnt of Systems, Institutions, and Methods of Education in France. Republished from the American Journal of Education. Henry Barnard, LL.D., Editor. Revised Edition, with Additions from Compayre and Buisson. Hartford. Part I: 640 pages, $3.50.

CONTENTS.

V

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49

121

VI.

Introduction,.....

1-8 General Survey of the Field down to 1800, ........

9 Systems, Suggestions, and their Authors,......

9-640 1. Inherited Pedagogical Ideas,...

9 1-Greece. 2-Alexandria. 3-Rome,........... Il, The Christian Element in Education,.....

33-48 Teachings of Christ-Institutions of the Church,..................... Earliest Christian Schools-Monastic Lustitution,..

Earliest Christian Schools in France--St. Columbanus,.. 111. St. Benediet, and the Benedictine Schools,................. 49-112

Memoir-Monastery at Monte Cassino............
The Rule of a Holy Life-Influence on Modern Civilization,..........
Examples of Monastic Institutions, Schools and Teachers,....

97 IV. Charlemagne and His Educational Work, ...............

113-1:8 Memoir-Alcuin-School of the Palace,..........

113 Schools of Lower and Higher Grade-Episcopal Seminaries.......... The Universities of France..

. 120-152 Characteristics of the Mediæval University,...

129 Historical Development in France,............

145 The Schools and University of Paris,.......................

.. 153-2014 ndividual Teachers-Schools-Scholasticism,....................... 153 Merging of Individual Schools into a Corporate Organization,.. ..... 101 Earliest Statutes-Institution of Colleges, Halls, ('ommons,....

102 Origin of Faculties-Devotional Duties--Manners-Landit,.......... 168 Method of Instruction-Degrees--Ceremonies in Conferring,......... 173 Personal Figures--Students, Masters, Lecturers,..

177 Religious Orders and the University, ........

183 VII. Teaching Orders and Congregations... .....................

.... 209 221 1. Hieronymians, ........

211 Origin-Educational Work-Agricola, Renchlin, Erasmus......... 213

College de Montaigu at Paris-Influence on French Pedagogy, ... 218 2. The Society of Jesus and their Schools,

s and ineir schools,.............. 225-272 Ignatius Loyola and his Companione......... ............... 225 Constitution respecting Instruction-Edition of 1558,............ 231 Acquaviva-Ratio Studiorum, ........

241 Educational Institutions-Expulsion from France in 1765,........

257 3. The Oratorians or Fathers of the Oratory of Jesus, 213-2916

Founder-Spirit of the Order-Studies--Methods-Discipline,... 273 4. The Port Royalists and their Schools,................ 295–320 5. The Christian Brothers, .......

321-331 6. Other Teaching Orders in France in 1789........... 333-336

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VIII. The Education of Princes,................. ................. 337-376

Importance Attached in the 18th Century,............................
1. Louis XIV., and His Preceptors,....

339
Archbishop Perefixe-La Mothe la Vayer,........................

3-10
2. Bossuet and the Dauphin,...............................

343
Discipline-Recreations-Studies-liistory,......................

345
3. Fenelon, and the Son of the Dauphin,...........

333
Confidence, Love, and Obedience of Pupil Secured,.... .....

354
Studieg-Plan for 12th and 13th year,. ........

357
Letters of Fenelon to his Pupil,........ .....

863
4. Condillac and the Prince of Parma,..

369
IX. The Education of Girls,...

77-464
1. Earliest Practice of the Christian Church,.......... 377
Letter of Jerome to Laeta--Early Examples, .....................

370
2. Vives, b 1492-d 1540..........

885
Education of the Christian Woman,......
Fenelon, b 1651-d 1715, ..................................

899
Letter on the Education of a Daughter,..

408
Madame de Maintenon, b 1655- 1719,............... 491
School for Girls at St. Cyr,....................

455
3. Vincent de Paul, b 1576-d 1660,.......

433
Organization of Women for Charitable Work and Schools, ....... 439

6. Other Authorities-Rousseau-Madame de Genlis, 463
X. Representatives of Differing Systems and Views,....... 465-592
1. Rabelais, 1485_1553,....

480
2. Ramus, b 1515-d 1572,...

481
3. Montaigne, b 1533--d 1592,...

495
4. Descartes, b 1596-d 1650,..

5!3
5. Rollin, D'Aguessicu, Montesquieu,..................... 529
6. Diderot, Helvetus, Condorcet,............................

511
Rousseau, b 1712-d 1778,................................. 515-592
Precursors-Abbe de Saint Pierre,......

515
Analysis of Emile, by Raumer and Compayre,.

519
Disciples and Influence on Modern Pedagogy,.............. ..... 577
XI. Laical and National Education,.......

93-621
1. Antagonism to University and Church Monopoly of Education,... 593
2. Interference of Government-State Foundations,

595
3. La Charlotais-President Rolland-Montesqnien-Turgot,....... 601
4. Abrogation of all Religions and Teaching Corporations,..

621
XII. Revolutionary Plans of National Organization,......... 625-340
1. Mirabeau-Project of Reconstruction, 1790,.......

6:5
2. Talleyrand-Report to Constitutional Assembly, 1791,............ 027
3. Condorcet-Report to Legislative Assembly, 1792, ................ 628
4. Lakanal-Daunou-Fourcroy, 1795, ............................... 630
6. Grand Ideas and Creations of the Revolutionary Period, ..........
Index to French Pedagogy,............

611
The above Revised Edition of Barnard's French Pedagogy will be put
to press as soon as there is evidence that it is wanted. It is the most
comprehensive and instructive treatise on the subject which has yet
appeared in any language.

Principals of Normal Schools, College Professors of Normal Depart-
ments, and Chairs of Pedagogy, and all Educators and Teachers interested
in the gradual development of existing systems and methods, can hasten
the publication by addressing a postal order to the Editor,

7.

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