« 上一頁繼續 »
of both sexes in the family or the school. There was, at that time, a great system of apprenticeship, borrowed from England, prevailing in this and other States, in which children and youth were bound out to service by their parents, by the selectmen, or otherwise, until the age of twenty-one for males, and eighteen for females. According to the articles of indenture, the minors thus bound out were to receive instruction in certain branches of knowledge, and a small outfit, including the Bible, when they were of age. This outfit was sometimes enlarged by good masters beyond the conditions of the contract, when the servants did well, and it sometimes happened that the female servants did so well that they made connections in life fully equalling those of their master's daughters. Allusion is made to this in the well-known distich
"Him portioned maids, apprenticed orphans blessed,
The young who labor, and the old who rest." Allusion is also made to this system in the Constitution of the United States. It was a self-supporting, beneficent system, in which one ounce of prevention in the family and district schools was worth a pound of cure in the reform schools of the present day.
The father, when about to die, instead of leaving his unwary and impulsive son "Lord of himself, that heritage of woe," during his minority, could place him at service, under a strong but easy yoke, like a child at home, until he could be able to see and shape his own destiny as an independent housekeeper.
The mother, instead of leaving her daughter during her minority, as & waif, to be picked up and cast off, could place her in a good family, where she could grow up as a flower in a fair garden, ready to be transplanted in due time to the garden of her husband.
The girls continued in the district schools a longer or shorter period, according to the exigencies of the parents or masters.
Besides these common schools, in those days the ministers of churches often had private schools in their houses, during some portion of the year, in which their own children, if they had any, and the children of their parishioners, were instructed in some of the higher branches of knowledge. Many girls derived great advantage from breathing the literary atmosphere of these parish schools, as they might be called. Standing on this higher ground, their views became more enlarged, and their feelings more elevated through the whole of their lives.
Many of the ministers of Connecticut fitted students for College, and in some instances girls studied Latin and Greek so successfully under their instruction, that they were fully prepared to enter Yale College.
Examples of Educated Women and Educating Mothers. Joanna, daughter of Bryan Rossiter, physician, of Guilford, Connecticut, was highly educated ; born July, 1642; married Nov. 7, 1660, Rev. John Cotton of Plymouth, Mass., and had ten children, six of whom lived to occupy places of respectability. Rev. Josiah Cotton, in a history of the Cotton family, cited in Sibley's Graduates of Harvard College, writes of his mother :
“She was a woman, not of ceremony but of substance, of great knowledge, uncommon wisdom and discretion, and a notable faculty of speaking and writing. She understood something of Latin and poetry, had a good insight in the medicinal art, in the practice of which she was much impressed, and became very useful and helpful in the town. She ruled her children and servants well, very careful to set good examples, keeping up family duties in my father's absence, and managed secular affairs, most of which passed through her hands, with singular prudence and industry, and finally, she was a good wife, a good mistress, a good neighbor, and a good Christian.”
Rev. Edward Taylor was born in Coventry, Eng., in 1642, graduated at Harvard College in 1671, went to Westfield, Mass., Dec. 3, 1671, died 1728-9. His first wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. James Fitch, and granddaughter of Rev., Henry Whitfield of Guilford. By her he had eight children. His second wife was Ruth, daughter of Samuel Wyllis of Hartford. By her he had six children. The five daughters of the second wife were all married to clergymen in Connecticut.
Miss Lucinda Foote was the eldest daughter of the Rev. John Foote, Y. C. 1765, who was the pastor of the Congregational Church in Cheshire for about fifty years. She was one of ten children. Three of the sons were fitted for College by their father, she studying with them. The following is a certificate of President Stiles, as to her qualifications for Yale College. It is written in the Latin language. “ The President of Yale College.*
“To all to whom these presents shall come, GREETING. “Be it known to you that I have examined Miss Lucinda Foote-twelve years old--and have found that in the learned languages, the Latin and the Greek, she has made commendable progress, giving the true meaning of pas. sages in the Æneid of Virgil, the select orations of Cicero, and in the Greek Testament, and that she is fully qualified, except in regard to sex, to be received as a pupil of the Freshman Class in Yale University. “Given in the College Library the 22d of December, 1783.
“EZRA STILES, President.” She pursued a full course of college studies, and also studied the Hebrew with Pres. Stiles, subsequent to the date of this certificate. Miss Foote was born in Cheshire, May 19, 1772, was a sister of Gov. Samuel A. Foote, and married, July 29, 1790, Dr. Thomas S. Cornwall of Cheshire, who was a practicing physician in Cheshire for more than fifty years. She was the mother of ten children, one of whom, Mr. Edward A. Cornwall, the only survivor, furnished me with this information. She died in Cheshire, Aug. 23, 1834.
* Praeses Collegii Yalensis Omnibus, S. P. D. Nobis Notum sit, quod Dominam Lucindam Foote, aetat. 12. Examine probavi, eamque in Linguis edvetis, Latinâ et Graecâ laudabitem Progressum fuisse; eo ut familiariter et reddidisse et traetâsse reperier; tum verba tum sententiae alibi in Aeneide Virgilii, in Selectis Ciceronis Orationabus, et in Graeco Testamento, Testorque omnino illam, nisi pro Sexûs ratione, idoneam, ut in Classem Recentium in Universitate Yalensis Alumna admitteretur. Datum è Bibliothecâ Coll. Yal. 22 die Decemb. Anno Salutes MDCCLXXXIII.
EZRA STILES, Pracsca
Sarah Worthington Goodrich, eldest daughter of Rev. Samuel Goodrich, Y. C., 1783, was partly educated in the family of Rev. Daniel Smith of Stamford, who married a cousin of her mother, and who fitted students for college. She was herself so well fitted under his tuition, that she cried when the other members of the class could enter College and she could not. She married Amos Cook, a graduate of Yale College in 1791, and for her second husband, Frederick Wolcott, a graduate of Yale College in 1786. She was the mother of six children.
Rev. Wm. Worthington of Saybrook, Yale College, 1716, had five daughters. His practice was, for a number of years, to keep four of the daughters in the study with him, while one was engaged in pursuing her domestic duties and education with her mother. In this way they all became very thorougly educated in literature, as well as in domestic employments, and made the best of wives, the best of mothers, and the best of housekeepers.
The oldest, Mary, married Aaron Eliot, son of Rev. Jared Eliot, He was deacon, colonel, and physician in Killingworth, member of the General Assembly nine sessions. His wife, Mary, was the mother of eight children.
The second daughter, Elizabeth, married, 1st, Col. Samuel Gale, and 2d, Rev. Elnathan Chauncey, a graduate of Yale College in 1743. She was the mother of six children, one of whom was my mother, namely Catherine Chauncey.
The third daughter, Temperance, married, 1st, Dr. Moses Gale, 2d, Rev. Cotton Mather Smith. She was the mother of eight children, one of whom was John Cotton Smith, Governor of Connecticut.
The fourth daughter, Sarah, married Col. John Ely, a distinguished physician, and was the mother of seven children, one of whom, Worthington, was a graduate of Yale College in 1780, and another, John, was a member of Congress.
The fifth daughter, Mehitabel, married Michael Hopkins. When she was taken by him to his father's house, his mother was so much pleased with his choice, that in a letter addressed to a friend, after expressing her admiration of her son's newly married wife, she said,
“Grace was in her step, heaven in her eye,
And every gesture dignity and love." She was the mother of four children, one of whom, George, was a distinguished publisher in New York, and Sylvia, a daughter, was, in her youth, a celebrated beauty.
It should be added that Elizabeth, the second daughter of Wm. Worthington, was sent to Boston for a year, to complete her education by intercourse with family friends and kindred in that town.
Timothy Edwards, Harvard College 1691, settled in East Windsor, 1694, where he was in the ministry sixty-three years, had one son and ten daughters, all of whom he fitted for College. For a period the son, who was afterwards the celebrated Jonathan Edwards, recited Latin to his elder sisters.
Esther, the eldest daughter, married Rev. Samuel Hopkins of West Springfield.
Elizabeth, the second daughter, married Ool. Jabez Huntington of Windham.
Anne, the third daughter, married John Ellsworth of East Windsor. Eunice, the sixth daughter, married Wm. Metcalf of Lebanon. Hannah, the ninth daughter, married Seth Wetmore of Middletown. Martha, the tenth daughter, married Rev. M. Tuttle of Granville, Mass.
“ When his daughters were of the proper age, he sent them to Boston to finish their education. Both he and Mrs. Edwards were exemplars in their care of their religious instruction, and as the reward of their parental fidelity, were permitted to see the fruits of piety in them all during their youth.”
Jonathan Edwards, the elder, and Sarah Pierpont, his wife, had great advantages in their early education, the one being the son of Rev. Timothy Edwards, and the other the daughter of Rev. James Pierpont of New Haven. They were well matched and true yokefellows, each helping the other in the education of their children, of whom they had eleven, ten growing up to maturity.
President Edwards “kept a watchful eye over his children, that he might admonish them of the first wrong step, and direct them in the right way. He took opportunities to converse with them in his study, singly and closely, about their soul's concerns, and to give them warning, exhortation, and direction, as he saw need. He took much pains to instruct them in the principles of religion, in which he made use of the Assembly's Shorter Catechism : not merely by taking care that they learned it by heart, but by leading them into an understanding of the doctrines therein taught; by asking them questions on each answer, and explaining it to them. His usual time to attend to this was on the evening before the Sabbath. And, as he believed that the Sabbath, or holy time, began at sun-set the evening before the day, he ordered his family to finish all their secular business by that time, or before; when all were called together, a psalm was sung and prayer made, as an introduction to the sanctification of the Sabbath.” Vol.1, p. 46, Eng. Ed.
“Mrs. Edwards was a good economist, managing her household affairs with discretion and diligence. She was very careful that nothing should be wasted and lost; and often, when she did anything to save a small matter, or directed her children to do so, or saw them waste anything, she would mention the words of our Saviour, “that nothing be lost,' which she said she often thought of as containing a maxim worth remembering; especially when considered as the reason why His disciples should gather up the fragments.”
Their children were, Sarah, born Aug. 25, 1728; married Elihu Parsons of Northampton; died May 15, 1805, aged 76.
Jerusha, born April 26, 1730. Was betrothed to David Brainerd, the missionary, and died soon after him, Feb. 14, 1747.
Esther, born Feb. 13, 1732; married Rev. Aaron Burr, President of New Jersey College. Was mother of Aaron Burr, Vice-President of the United States. Died Feb. 7, 1758, aged 26.
Mary, born April 4, 1734; married Timothy Dwight of Northampton, and their son Timothy was President of Yale College. Died Feb. 7, 1807, aged 72.
Lucy, born Aug. 31, 1736 ; married Jahleel Woodbridge of Stockbridge; died October, 1786, aged 50.
Timothy, born July 25, 1738; married Rhoda Ogden of New Jersey; died at Stockbridge, 1813, aged 75.
Susannah, bom June 20, 1740; married Eleazar Porter of Hadley; died 1802, aged 61.
Eunice, born May 9, 1743; married — Hunt of New Jersey, and Thomas Pollock of North Carolina ; died in 1822, aged 79.
Jonathan, born May 26, 1745 ; married Mary Porter of Hadley, and Mercy Sabin of New Haven ; died Aug. 1, 1801, aged 56.
Elizabeth, born May 6, 1747; died Jan. 1, 1762, aged 14.
Pierrepont, born April 8, 1750; married Frances Ogden. Was Judge of U. S. District Court for Connecticut; died April 14, 1826, aged 76.
Rev. Joseph Fish of Stonington, Harvard College 1728, had two daughters, Mary and Rebecca, who were, according to Prof. Silliman, " carefully educated in the fear of God, and in all that was requisite to their becoming ladies of the highest intelligence and refinement. Both parents were anxious to give to their two daughters, who were their only surviving children, the best education attainable in those times. At home they were personally instructed by their father in the elements of knowledge, and by both parents they were carefully trained to industry, economy, self-government, filial duty and affection. They were carefully guarded from the contaminations of the world, and a high standard of moral purity and feminine delicacy was ever kept in view, while their manners were formed to the graceful proprieties of life by that politeness which is only the expression in word and action of feelings of real benevolence, taking a lovely and deferential form Their studies and books, their domestic training in the duties of housekeeping, their needles and their pens, and the rites of hospitality and of personal and family religion filled their time, so that they were rarely without employment, and even casual idleness sometimes received a mild paternal rebuke."
" In Newport, under Mrs. Osborne, a celebrated teacher of young ladies of that day (whose interesting biography has been since published), both daughters enjoyed the advantages of superior instruction, and Mary Fish, the elder daughter, maintained an epistolary correspondence with her venerated friend during her long life.-Life, &c.
Mary Fenno, daughter of Ephraim Fenno, was born April 3, 1767. Her father, who resided in Middletown, placed her under the instruction of the Rev. Elizur Goodrich, D.D., of Durham, with whom she studied Latin and Greek, and is supposed to have been fitted by him