« 上一頁繼續 »
of the titles of books, the reader may confült the Prolegomena of Salmafius in Solinum. That learned man ridicules Gellius for having fallen into the fame error for which he cenfures others. The appellation of Noctes Atticæ being, in the estimation of Salmafius, no lefs faftidious and affected than those which are enumerated in the Preface.
+ Minerva's robe.]-The original is minor, which in its appropriate fenfe means an embroidered veft facred to Minerva; this was its primitive fenfe, but afterwards it was used to fignify, generally, a matron's robe. In its firft meaning it was specifically applied to a veft which was carried about at Athens with great folemnity at the feast of the Panathenæa ; it had embroidered on it the figure of the giant Enceladus, who was flain by Minerva, and was worked, not by any female hands indifcriminately, but by virgins, who were called Fgyaotiva; there were also woven in this robe the names of exalted and illuftrious characters, fuch being termed a σιπλο. See the Equites of Aristophanes, line 560:
Ευλογησαι βελομεσθα της πατέρας ημών, οτι
In the former of which lines, a remarkable resemblance appears to the first verse of the 44th chapter of Ecclefiafticus:
Let us now praise famous men, and our fathers that begot us. If the peplus received any contamination from dirt, or any thing elfe, it was the office of particular perfons to cleanse it. There was also a peplus at Elea, facred to Juno. In the Iliad, when the Trojan matrons go in folemn proceffion to the temple of Minerva, to implore that goddess to remove Diomed from the field of battle, the offering imagined to be most acceptable to her is a fuperb veft:
Go, a fpotless train,
And burn rich odours in Minerva's fane;
The largest mantle your full wardrobes hold,
Where the word used is λov, upon which lines of Pope I would remark, that the strong epithet of ayeλens, applied to Minerva, is unnoticed; that "a fpotlefs train" is expletive, and not in the original; and that Homer's defcription of the peplus to be used for this purpose is, literally, the most elegant, the largest, and that which you yourself value the moft. The carrying of this robe in folemn proceffion is also mentioned by Virgil;
Interea ad templum non æquæ Palladis ibant
Cicero, in his Epiftles to Atticus, b. 16. c. 11. mentions a book written by Varro, and called Pepliographia, the subject of which is the praise of illuftrious characters. Aristotle also wrote a book, to which he gave the name of Peplum, and which contained the epitaphs of heroes: a fragment of this book is preserved by Canter. In this alfo, as Canter affirms, were the genealogies of Homer's heroes. Confult the Ciceronian Index of Erneftus.
The born of Amalthea.]-The story of this horn is variouЛly related. Jupiter was faid to have been brought up by fome nymphs, and fed with goat's milk, and that in gratitude he tranflated the goat amongst the conftellations, and gave one of the horns to his nurfe, which was endued with the fingular virtue of producing to the nymph whatever the defired to extract from it. According to Erafmus, it was a title commonly given to books, the contents of which were of a mifcellaneous nature. From this the word cornucopia is derived, which in every modern nation and language has been applied as emblematic of abundance.
Patures.-Such collections were called Anthologies,
and fometimes Tipavov. See Carmen Meleagri, p. 55. of the Notitia Poetar. Antholog. fubjoined to the Oxford edition of Cephalus. Anth. Gr.
1 Tapestries.]-The Greek word is Erewars; this also means books of mifcellanies.-Thus Clemens Alexandrinus confeffes that he gave the name of Ergwuares to his books from their various matter. Our author feems particularly to allude to the Ergwaтes of Plutarch, cited by Eufebius in his Preparatio Evangelica, book i.-Thyfius.
Origen also wrote a book, which from its mifcellaneous matter he called rewμars; a metaphor, says Erafmus, taken from painted hangings and tapestry, of which formerly the rich and great were extravagantly fond. The parafite, in the Pfeudolus of Plautus, threatens his flaves, that he will fo lace their jackets that Campanian tapeftry fhall not be half fo variegated. See Erafmus, where he explains the 1 term Periftromata Campanica.
Pandects.]-This literally means a compilation, being derived from av all, and deyoua, to receive. It has fince also been not unfrequently used as a title to books, but is more particularly applied to the Digeft or Code of Justi
• Manuals.]-In its firft fenfe Exxegidia means daggers, weapons convenient for the hand. This is the title of a book which we have of Epictetus. Erafmus alfo
wrote a book which was termed Enchiridium Militis Chrif tiani. Manual, till within these few years, was an appellation frequently given to books in this country, but principally confined to those on the fubjects of devotion. It is now confidered as quaint, and is becoming obfolete.
10 Without any difcrimination.]—The original contains a proverbial expreffion, which it would be difficult to convey in a tranflation. "In quas res cunque inciderant, alba us dicitur linea, fine cura difcriminis folam copiam fectati converrebant." "Whatever they met with a white line, as ★ is said, and without taking the pains to difcriminate, they heaped
heaped together, as if aiming at quantity only." The line anciently used by architects was a white line, which, previous to its being applied, was rubbed over with red chalk: thus, fay the commentators, the expreffion of alba linea was applied to a person who approved of every thing indifcriminately. The correfpondent term in Greek, of hiven oralung was used with the fame fignification by Plato and by Plutarch. It alfo occurs in a fragment of Sophocles, preserved in Suidas:
Τοις μεν λόγοις τοις σοισίν 8 τεκμαίρομαι
I can no more guess what you mean than if a white line were applied to a white stone.
Erafmus in his Adagia does not omit to make mention of this proverb; and the reader will find the Greek expreffion of λευκη σταθμη explained in Zenobius.
"Heraclitus.]-The hiftory of this philofopher is given by Diogenes Laertius, and may alfo be found in Moreri. The more obvious circumstances of his life and manners, as contrafted with thofe of Democritus the Cynic, are fufficiently known.
12 Lead to knowledge.]-The fenfe of the Greek proverb, fays Gronovius, is, that confufed and ill digefted knowledge oppreffes the mind, and does not promote wisdom. A fimilar fentiment occurs in Seneca; non refert quam multi fed quam boni legantur libri. And the Cynic, in the 13th book of Athenæus, expreffes himself to the fame effect:
Πολυμαθημόσυνης της, 8 κενεωτέρον άλλο.
Nothing can be emptier than excess of knowledge. Gronov.
Gronovius has omitted to inform the reader that the above Greek verfe, quoted by the Cynie in Athenæus, is given to Hipponax. See also the first chapter of Ecclefiaftes, the last verfe. For in much wisdom is much grief, and he that increaseth knowledge increaseth forrow."
13 Firft fruits, a tafte.]-Terms taken from the ceremonies of facrifice. Libamentum alludes to the custom of fprinkling wine on the ground after the offering up of the victim, which was called the libation; but the priest first of all tasted it.
14 Moderately.]-This is certainly not expreffed with the full force of the original, which is civiliter, and which implies fuch an education, 'as every Roman citizen may be ézpected to receive.
13 The memory.]-See this paffage in a manner transcribed by Macrobius, in the firft chapter of the first book of the Saturnalia. Invenies plurima quæ fit aut voluptati legere, aut cultui legifle, aut ufui meminiffe, nihil enim huic operi infertum puto, aut cognitu inutile, aut difficile perceptu, fed omnia quibus fit ingenium tuum vegetius, memoria adminiculatior, oratio follertior, fermo incorruptior.
Concerning which paffage it may be obferved, that the first editions of Aulus Gellius retained the reading of oratio follertior, which, confidering the context, has no meaning at all.
16 Ajay.]-A dunce has no concern with the muses, no more have jays, the most garrulous of birds, with mufical inftruments. Concerning the Amaracus, the following words of Servius feem pertinent in this place. Amaracus was the name of a youth who was perfume bearer to fome prince; he happened to fall while carrying fome unguents, and the mixture of them made the odour still more exquifite; from hence the most delicious perfumes were called amaracina. He was changed into the herb fweet marjoram, which, henceforth bore this name. Virgil mentions the herb, Æn. i. 693.
Ubi mollis amaracus illum
Floribus et dulci adspirans complectitur umbra. See alfo Pliny. Nat. Hift. xxi. 13.