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Title of Supremacy, wbich he found means to obtain of Phocas, a Rebel, Murtberer, and Tyrant; who succeed. ed Emperor Mauricius, his Liege Lord and Master, ia the imperial Dignity, by this vile Method.

Emperor Maurice losing the Hearts of his Army, Phocas, who was but a common Centurion, taking upon him to head the Mutineers, was by them proclaimed Emperor ; and pursuing his lawful Sovereign, took bim and his family Prisoners; and having flain bis Wife and Children before his Eyes, not sparing the little Innocent which hung at her Breast, did afterwards cause his Master's Throat to be cut : A procedure fo black and barbarous, that Historians are at a lo's, scarce knowing which to condemo most, his Treaion, or his Cruelty.

But soon after this Rebel Tyrant assumed the Imperial Dignity, this Servus Servorum, his most bumble Servant at Rome, seeing Phocas on the one side, displeas'd with his Rival for Universalship, the Patriarch of Conftantisople, because that Bishop wou'd not approve of such his traiterous Murders: And on the other, jealous left the hatred of his Doings shou'd occasion Italy to revolt from his Obedience; resolves to take Advantage of a Juncture so tavourable to his Designs, and thereupon petitioning Phocas, and by the large proffers which he made of his good Service, obtains of him, that the Church of Rome Thou'd thenceforward be the Head of allother Churches, and that the Bishop of Rome Thou'd be called the Sovereiga and universal Bishop.

Thus Papalas well as Heathen Rome, had the Foundations of her Empire laid in Blood. A bafe Usurper in Temporals creates another in Spirituals: A cruel Rebel, to confirm himself in an ill-invaded Throne, gratifies the Ambition of an aspiring Prelace; who in Requital is obliged to varoish over tis Treasons with a Religious Gloss, and wipe out of Memory all his Villanies with this propitiatory Act of Merit, towards what he was pleased to call the Church.

Suppose now Gregory risen from the Dead, to bchold his Succeffor fo imperiously using that Title only, which he had so formally condemned in all his Epiftles, how cpu'd kc avoid this necessary Conclusion, drawn from his


own Words, fo often repeated ? that is, “ Whosoever “ will be called universal Bishop, assumes to himself a

presumptuous, a profane, a facrilegious and an antin “ christian Name: That he is the King of Pride, that he is

Lucifer, which preferreth himself before his Brethren, " that he has forsaken the Faith, and is the Forerunner

of Antichrist ; nay, Antichrist himself.”.

Mr. Du Plessis, one of the reform’d Religion, and a Person of great Figure in France, in the Year 1611, published a Book, which he intituled, “ The Mystery of

Iniquity;" wherein, from the Pride of Paul the sth. who filled the Holy See of Rome at that Time, and the Flatteries of his Creatures, Du Plessis was afforded a large Field, to stile the Pope Autichrist. The Occasion thus.

In a Book dedicated to that Pope, the first Leaf repre-
fented a Tower of a prodigious Magnitude, which apo
peared to the Spectators a Subject of admiration, but
it was only sustained by some Pieces of Timber which
were set on Fire. Two Larin Verfos advised the Be-
holders not to admire that vast Building, which would.
tumble down as soon as ever the Fire had consumed thote
feeble Supporters. In the next Place, you saw the Et-
figies of Paul the 5th. accompanied with Inscriptions
so haughty and fo impious, that it wou'd have been in-
possible to give the Reformed a better hold, cho'ithid
been done delignedly. Whatever Flatteries can be a:-
tributed to a Temporal Prince; whatever Holy Writ
has spoke with most EmphaGs of
Jefus Christ himself, was apply'd Paulo, V. Vice-deo.
to-that Pope. And underneath the

Figure, there was this Motto.


Paulo, V. Vice-deo. To Paul the

Fitth, a Vice-god. But that which

was most remarkable was, that

Du Plessis observed, that the nume-

sal Letters of the Latin, filled up

D very justly the famous Number 666,

500 which all the Chriftians, according

666 to the Testimony of St. John, in the 13th of the Revelations, look upon to be the Number of Antichrist.

CH-A P..

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Againft Prayers in an unknown



E need not take much Pains to prove, chat the

Rooish Church hath made it an Article of Faith, that their publick Prayers shou'd be repeated in a Tongue not generally understood by the People, which undoubtedly is one of the most gross and us Errors that ever intected the Church; because, by this Innovation, the People, instead of offering to God the Calves of their Lips, as the Scripture Phrase

is, are enforced to offer him the Lips of Calves, bleating and bellowing without Vas derstanding

That People fou'd pray in a Tongue that they under ftand, will appear, more certain, reafonable, and necef fary, it we consider, that Prayer in a known Tongue is commended first in general in all those Texts of Scrip. rure which require us to come near unto God, and pray unto him with our Heart; for by the Heart, the Understanding, as well as the Will and Affections, is meant, as appears by that Prayer of Solomon's; “ Give " me an under ftanding Heart. And then pasticularly, and in exprefs Words, the firft Epiflc of St. Paul to the Corinthians, the whole fourteenth Chapter confifts of a folemn Difputation upon this Subject: as if the Holy Ghost had purpofely defign'd to arm us against this po pish Wickedness and Folly: « For if I pray in an unm #known Tongue, faith the Apostle, my Spirit prayeth,

but my Understanding is unfruitful; What is ittäen

* I will pray with the Spirit, and I will pray with the * Understanding also: Else when thou shalt pray with the ** Spirit, how hhall be that occupieth the Room of the 66 Unlearned fay, Amen, ar thy giving of Thanks, fee

ing he underkandeth not what thou fayest? for thou “ verily givest Thanks well, but the other is not edified. “ I thank my God'l fpeak with Tongues more than you " all; yet in the Church, I had rather speak five Words " with my Understanding, that by my Voice I might rt teach others also, than ten thousand Words in an un« known Tongue. Let all Things be done to Edity« ing: If I know not the Meaning of the Voice, I shall “ be to him that speakech a Barbarian, and he that “ fpeaketh shall be a Barbarian unto me." And to prevent any Body's explaining his Words otherwise than he exprefly fpoke them, he adds: “ It any Man think * himself a Prophet or Spiritual, let him acknowledge " that the Things that I write unto you are the Con* mandments of the Lord.” It is evident likewise, that the Apostle speaks of the publick Service, and all the Parts thercof. is, Of Petition, 1.15. 2dly, Of Thankse giving, V. 29. 3dy, Of Prophecying, or Interpreting of Scripture, v. t. 4thly, of singing of Plalms, v.15. And all this, when the whole Church be come together in one place, v. 23. Yea, he exprefly speaks of Prayers made in the Church, v. 19. Of the Edification of others, V. 12 and 26. And of Bleffings allo, wherein the People were to join with the Minifter ; which Prayers, Hymas, Benedi&tions, Thankfgivings, and Ex. pofirions, did conftitute the Exercise of their publick Worfhip in those Days

St. Fames commandeth, that whosoever prayeth, (a) " Let him ask in Faith, nothing wavering: Which neceffarily implies, that we ought to pray to God in ay known Tongue; for what Faith or Aflúrance can he have, that he shall receive what he prayeth for, that knoweth not what he himself sayeth in his Prayers, of

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(42) James 1. 6.


- If

what another prayeth for him, to whose Prayers he fayeth Amen, as our Papists, generally do? What wou'd an Indian think if he was to see a Number of People met together, only to see a Priest act a wild Pars, and hear him mutter a great many Words, which they did not understand one Syllable of May we not argue against fuch a Practice in the Expressions of St. Paul, (a) « therefore the whole Church be come together into one « Place, and all speak with Tongues, and there come in * those that are unlearned, or Unbelievers, will they not

say that ye are mad?

The Practice of having Prayers in an unknown Tongue is so ablurd, that St. Auftin counts it an unhuman, or unmanly, as well as an unchristian Thing; and will not ale low it so much as in our finging of Pfalms, or fpiritual Hymos, saying, (b) “What Profit is here in Speech, “ be it never so perfect, if the Understanding of the « Hearer can not attain it? for there is no Cause why

we shou'd speak at ail, if they understand not what

we speak, for whose Sake we speak, thai they may un" derstand us." And again, (c) What need we fing, “ if we understand not what we sing? It is to sing with

our Voice, and not with our Hearts; for Understand

ing is the Sound, and Voice of the Heart." And in his Expolition on the eighteenth Pfalm, he tells us, “ God

requires that we understand what we fing, like Men " endued with Reason, and not chatter like Birds : " For Parrots, and Mag-pyes, and other Birds, are often

taught by Men, to found out that which they kæow

nor; but to know what they sing, or to sing with " Knowledge and Understanding is peculiar by God's

Will to Man." Much more ought we to regard this in our Prayers, and not to presume to offer the Sacrifice of fools, and come under that fevere Reprehension of

(a) 1 Corin. 14. 23. (b) Aug. de Doct. Chrift. Lib. Capa 16. (c) Ibidem,

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