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A like judgment may be pronounced on the etchings: they are not quite equal to Landseer's, though certainly clever; but the distorted attitudes, and the hats and coats in which the animals are disguised, will be rather puzzling than pleasing to children. They are, however, brilliantly coloured; and in all respects the publisher has done his best to make the little book attractive.
"A Commercial Perpetual Almanac, and Table for Verifying Dates, by Samuel Maynard, editor of the works of Keith and Bonnycastle," cannot fail to be acceptable
both to the man of science and the historical inquirer, as facilitating their researches either with respect to the natural phenomena of past ages, or the transactions of bygone generations of the human family. We need only say in its praise that it has received the approbation of Mr. De Morgan, Mr. Davies, and other learned professors. When seen it will recommend itself. If the calculation be limited to months, as for bills of exchange, &c. we can equally recommend Mr. MAYNARD'S Desk Almanac, which has an accessory table of the Old Style, for Russian letters, &c.
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
Nov. 30. At the anniversary meeting, the Marquess of Northampton, President, took the chair, and delivered his annual address, giving an outline of the progress of science during the last twelve months, and obituary notices of the most eminent Fellows deceased. The medals were then awarded as follows:-The Copley Medal to Sir John Herschel, Bart., for his work entitled, "Results of Astronomical Observations made at the Cape of Good Hope, &c." One of the Royal Medals to W. R. Grove, esq. for his papers published in the Philosophical Transactions, "On the Gas Voltaic Battery, or certain Phenomena of Voltaic Ignition ;" and "On the Decomposition of Water into its Constituent Elements by Heat ;" and the second Royal Medal to Professor Fownes, for his papers published in the Philosophical Transactions, "On the Artificial Formation of a Vegeto-Alkali," and "On Benzoline." The Fellows then proceeded to the election of officers and council for the ensuing year. The following noblemen and gentlemen were declared to be elected: The Marquess of Northampton, President; George Rennie, esq. Treasurer; Peter Mark Roget, M.D., Samuel Hunter Christie, esq. Secretaries; Lieut.
Col. Edward Sabine, Foreign Secretary. Other members of the Council:-*Thomas Bell, esq. *Robert Brown, esq. *Sir James Clark, Bart., Samuel Cooper, esq. Sir Henry De la Beche, Edward Forbes, esq. *John P. Gassiot, esq. *Thomas Graham, esq. *John Thomas Graves, esq. *Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., William Hopkins, esq. *Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., *Charles Lyell, esq. *The Duke of Northumberland, George Richardson Porter, esq. and Lieut.-Col. Sykes.
Dr. Roget, the Secretary, announced his intention of retiring, at the next anniversary, from the office he has so long held in the Society, having succeeded to Sir John Herschel in the year 1827. alleged as his reasons the continually increasing labour which had devolved upon him in consequence of the numerous changes that had taken place in the mode of conducting the business of the Society and of the Council. He wished to retire while his strength was yet unimpaired, and that he might dedicate his time to the pursuits of science, with which the labours and cares of office have seriously interfered.
[The Fellows whose names in the preceding list are marked with asterisks, were not members of the last Council.]
OXFORD ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY.
Nov. 3. The first meeting this term was held, the Rev. W. B. Heathcote in the chair.
Mr. E. H. Lechmere, of Christ church, read the first part of a paper, illustrated by plans and drawings, "On the Architectural Antiquities of the cathedral of Basle." Mr. Lechmere commenced by briefly enumerating the leading events in the early history of the cathedral, which was founded by the Emperor Henry II.,
in the year 1010; he then proceeded to trace the remains of the earliest and most curious portions of the building, referring at the same time for collateral evidence as to date, &c. to the few monuments which still survive the general wreck of the archives once belonging to the cathedral. The cathedral, which is dedicated to the Virgin, and, as is usual, built in the form of a Latin cross, consists of a nave, (decidedly the earliest portion of the edifice,) two aisles on each side, two transepts, or
cross aisles, and two towers at the west end. The prevailing style it characterises in the earlier features of the cathedral is the early Romanesque or Byzantine, while in the later additions the style which prevailed towards the middle of the fifteenth century, called the Third Pointed, in chiefly perceptible. Basle cathedral possesses an advantage which distinguishes it from most other continental churches, namely, that of being complete; and though chiefly built in a transitional period, its leading features harmonise with each other, and form a whole of surpassing beauty.
Nov. 17. The report of the committee, alluding to the progress made in the work of restoration at Dorchester Abbey church, mentioned that the altar is the gift of an unknown benefactor, that the good effect of the chancel has been much enhanced by the offering of some hangings to serve as a reredos, and that the restoration of the east window is now complete. The committee expressed a hope that the elevation of the chancel roof, further to the westward, would not be prevented by the want of the necessary funds.
The report next directed the attention of members to the proposed restoration and the colouring in the sacrarium of Nwcomb church, Oxfordshire.
The question of the best mode of warmmg churches was brought before the Sovely by the President. The Rev. W. Newell stated some of the objections which can be urged against warming by stores; he alluded to the irregularity of the temperature which they dittuse, and to the dan
ger of fire which they are found to involve, and was anxious for information on the use of braziers. The President observed that the best mode of warming churches was an important practical question of some difficulty. He mentioned the disadvantages attending the use of charcoal in braziers, especially the dust which they per mit to escape. The Rev. T. Chamberlain spoke favourably of the result, in St. Thomas parish church, of the introduction of moveable stoves, nearly on the Ecclesiological Society's plan: they are intended for coke. The Rev. J. L. Patterson suggested that an arched wire covering might repress a good deal of the dust, that in some churches openings might be made in the floor in a style appropriate to the encaustic tiles, and underground pipes might be introduced, but that an objection to this mode of conveying heat is that it can only be introduced with advantage into new churches, and entails much expense. Mr. Patterson mentioned the success which had attended the introduction of braziers into two churches with which he was acquainted. Mr. F. Meyrick, of Trinity college, was anxious to learn whether it would not be possible to make chimnies ornamental. The President mentioned the introduction of an ornamental chimney into Merton college, and of a pinnacle at Abingdon pierced to admit of the escape of smoke.
The Rev. W. Sewell exhibited an interesting ancient chest, consisting of stamped leather, adorned with sacred monograms, and some lines in German, massively bound and ribbed in steel.
CAMBRIDOR ANTIQUARIAN SOCIRTY, Nee. 20. Professor Willis in the chair. Professor Corite made a communication upon the prodigies recorded in history, He pointed out the mode by which a small portion of truth of a kind which would Appear incredible in ignorant ages was used as the foundation of a legend, in other respects totally devoid of truth; and instanced the case of a goat, belonging to St. Patrick, which was taught to carry water, as a true foundation of a legend of later times, that this goat having been killed, was heard bleating in the stomach of the killer, and all his descendants had goat's beards, &c. He then proceeded to read an account of an aurora, seen at York by Professor Phillips, and compared it with a prodigy recorded in the ANNNS Mirabilis, of figures of animals and armies seen in the sky, from which it appeared that the latter was undoubtedly an aurora.
Professor Willis remarked that there could be no doubt that the middle-age writers attempted to describe with accuracy what they supposed they saw in the sky, and did not invent the accounts given in their works. It was probable that most of these prodigies were to be explained by natural causes, such as Professor Corrie had pointed out. Professor Willis made some remarks on a Clock, found in an old house near Royston, but now in the Museum of the Society, for which it had been purchased by the private subscription of a few of the members. He considered it to have been made in the time of Henry VIII., but not in England. The works having an escapement and pendulum, could not be of that date, since a pendulum is believed to have been first applied to clocks in the year 1678. The case is in the form of a tower, with corner pinnacles. The parapet of the sides is orna
mented with what is termed flamboyant tracery, formed of "pierced work." On each side of the face sa pile of buttresses, supporting an ogee arch inclosing the clock-face, the space between which and the arch is filled up by a mass of most beautiful "stumped" tracery. As stumped tracery was not used in England or France, the Professor supposed the clock was made in Germany, probably at Nuremburg. He dates it at about the year 1500. He remarked that this case, being ornamented with true Gothic mouldings, arches, and pinnacles, disproved Mr. Pugin's statement, that architectural forms were not to be applied to small domestic objects.
Nov. 25. W. D. Haggard, esq. President, in the chair. Mr. Cuff exhibited a gold British coin found in Hampshire, reading on the obverse COMF in a label, and on the reverse VIR above a horse; it resembles one found on the Sussex coast a few years since. Mr. Cuff also exhibited a remarkable gold coin which bore a strong affinity in the design on the obverse (a rude head and cross, with letters) to the early Saxon silver coins termed sceatta; the reverse being an obvious copy of Victory crowning two seated figures, a design of frequent occurrence on the Byzantine coins. It was stated to have been found near London.
A paper by the President was then read, in explanation of some fine silver medals struck by the Dutch in commemoration of the repulse of the fleet of Charles the Second, in the attack of the port of Bergen, in Norway. The obverse has a spirited representation of the engagement. The reverse of one is inscribed:-"On the robbery of Charles the Second, committed the tenth of August, 1665. It is thus that the pride of the Englishman is stopped who extends his robberies even to his friends, and who, in insulting the forts of Norway, violated the rights of the ports of King Frederick; but, as a reward for his audacity, he sees his ships sunk by the thundering bullets of the Dutch." Other medals state that the fleet was commanded by the Earl of Sandwich, and consisted of fifteen men-of-war, four smaller vessels, and two fire-ships, and that the Dutch force comprised ten East India ships, and some other merchantvessels, assisted by the fortifications of Bergen. Mr. Haggard gave a review of the events recorded by these medals, which reflect strongly upon the treacherous and base conduct of Charles towards the Dutch, the only people on the Continent who had expressed any friendship or civi. lity towards him. On the occasion of the
failure of his attempt to persuade the King of Denmark to betray the Dutch, he excused his conduct by saying, "all means were lawful to humble an insolent and ungrateful enemy." Among the medals struck by the Dutch at this period, and referred to by Mr. Haggard, was one to record a tax upon hearths to enable the Dutch to carry on the war against England, inscribed " By the fire which comes from the hearths of Holland they damped the warlike ardour of Great Britain."
THE RECENT EXCAVATIONS AT POMPEII.
In the magnificent street leading from the ancient sea-shore, in the neighbourhood of the theatres, to the so-called crossway of the Fortuna, and thence in a direct line to the northern city wall, there has been excavated a house that surpasses in richness and elegance all that has been discovered previously. The space of the court-yard is open, has a mosaic pavement, and at the walls fantastic pictures of the richest and most tasteful style. At the sides of the atrium (court-yard) are small sleeping rooms, with the following wall paintings :-Polyphemus who receives a letter from Galathea by an amorino riding upon a dolphin; Venus occupied with fishing; a Narcissus; a few swimming gods of Love; a Victoria upon a cart; and several landscapes. In the background of the atrium opens a tablinum, the reception hall, with chequered marble pavement. At the walls of this room there must have been wood paintings, the spaces which they once filled are still plainly seen, as also the charcoal remains of those paintings. They were, perhaps, from the hands of those celebrated masters who, according to Pliny, preferred painting upon wood. At the side of the reception-hall is a dining-room, where are seen three large paintings of full-sized figures. They represent Hercules and Omphale holding his club, and wrapped in the skin of the Nemean lion. Next, Bacchus as a boy, and arm-in-arm with Silenus, on a cart drawn by two oxen, and followed by Bacchantines. Thirdly, a Bacchanal procession of triumph with a Victoria, who engraves into a shield the exploits of the victorious god. Here were also the Triclinian or reposing sofas, the feet of which are richly adorned with silver. Behind the reception hall there appears the garden, with a magnificent fountain at the end, adorned with much mosaic and a little marble statue of Silenus. In the middle is the water reservoir, adorned round about with elegant and rich marble sculptures, such as a small Faunus drawing out a thorn from
the foot of a goat, a beardy satyr, a stag, a hare stealing grapes, an amorino upon a dolphin, a youthful field goddess keeping on her lap a new born goat, whose mother is caressing it standing on her hind legs. This dwelling joins a second equally open atrium where the servants lived. Here was found a four-wheeled waggon with iron wheels and much bronze ornament. The kitchen contained many neat implements of bronze, and the traces of smoke were in many places visible after the lapse of 18 centuries. In the other rooms were found various and most ele. gant vases and vessels, candelabras, and several bronze coins, a few cases with surgical instruments, and many glass bottles of new and odd forms of animals. The dwelling had---what is very rare-second and third stories, to which led a wide staircase. Upon a small picture close to the staircase lies a letter with the (scarcely legible) name of the owner of the house, in oblique characters, and plainly indica. ting his rank. It belonged to the Deuri or senators of Pompeii. All the walls and rooms of the house are decorated with pictures of comic and tragic scenes, and upon one of them is depicted a young girl with mask and double flute, The house has therefore been christened Cassa della Sonatrice, or dell' Ercole Ubbriaco,
LEADEN COFFIN AT GLOUCESTER.
On Friday, Nov. 19th, the men employed in excavating for the branch line from the railway station at Gloucester to the docks found a very large leaden coffin, about two feet below the surface of the ground, in a held the property of Mr. G. Goodyer, immediately opposite "Regnium style" held, and about 200 yards from Burtonstreet turnpike, The dimensions of the coffin are 6 feet 6 inches in length, 2 feet 6 inches wide, and 1 foot 3 inches deep. It is formed of lead, and of a great thickness, from a quarter of an inch in the thinner to half an inch in the thicker parts, Its construction is rude and clumsy, and of the shape of an elongated parallelogram, having no increase of width at the shoulders, and without any appearance of having borne any inscription. From having been long under ground, the lid, although so massive, can easily be broken with the fingers. The contents of the coffin were a skull, a few decayed bones, and a quantity of dirt, partly, no doubt, the remains of mortality, and partly some of the soil which had found its way into the receptacle through the opening made by the workmen's pickaxes. The skull is of the
adult size, but the other bones are very small, and scarcely indicate that they belong to a full-grown man. although the coffin is of a size sufficient to contain almost the remains of a giant. Two or three months ago another leaden coffin was found by the railway workmen in excavating some 500 yards from the spot where these remains were discovered, and it was described in our October number, p. 411.
TOMBS AT JERUSALEM.
At the meeting of the Royal Asiatic Society, held on the 6th Nov. a paper, by Mr. Finn, British Consul at Jerusalem, was read, on some recent investigation made in the so-called Tombs of the Kings at that place, by the new Pasha, who has The labourers have shown that there is no been digging there in search of water. passage from the northern termination of the portico into any subterraneous chambers like those at the southern end, as had been supposed by Irby and Mangles, Dr. Robinson, and others; but some curious regularly-formed excavations were found sunk in the rocky pavement; one of them, diameter and five feet deep. Some human which was circular, was eight feet in bones were found in other excavations. The new Pasha is said to have a taste for antiquities. He buys old coins at any price, and obtains pieces of ancient sculpture from all parts of his government for the purpose of enriching the museum now forming at Constantinople. One beautiful piece of sculpture in his possession has sleeping female, near a cavern, about to been seen by Mr. Finn, representing a be attacked by a serpent, at which a man is in the act of hurling a stone. Another man stands in surprise at the beauty of sphinx form part of the group. the woman. A goat, a sheep, and a
A letter from Copenhagen, the 26th Sept., informs us of the destruction, the same morning, by fire, of the rich and Icelandic Literature in that capital. The valuable library of the Royal Society_of loss is distressing, inasmuch as this library MSS., and a numerous collection of single contained more than 2,000 unpublished copies of ancient Icelandic works. destruction of this library recals to mind composed of more than 40,000 Icelandic that of the Arna-Magnæan Institution, manuscripts, which was burnt during the famous bombardment of Copenhagen by the English in 1807.
PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT.
HOUSE OF LORDS.
Dec. 2. The Marquess of Lansdowne moved for the appointment of a Select Committee," to inquire into the causes of the recent COMMERCIAL DISTRESS, and how far it had been affected by the laws for regulating the issue of Bank-notes payable on demand."- On the suggestion of Lord Stanley, the words "commercial distress" were altered to those used in her Majesty's Speech, and the committee was then agreed
HOUSE OF COMMONS.
Nov. 26. The Chancellor of the Exchequer obtained leave to bring in a Bill to extend the time for the purchase of land and the completion of works by RAILWAY Companies. He likewise moved for a committee on Railway Bills of this session. He rested his motion on the ground that the increased demand for capital on the part of railways had been one and a material cause of the recent commercial pressure, and that it would be wise to let loose into the channels of commerce that capital which would otherwise be absorbed in those undertakings.
Nov. 29. After having moved that so much of her Majesty's Speech as referred to the state of IRELAND should be read, Sir George Grey described the present state of crime in that country, and stated that her Majesty's Ministers had determined to introduce a Bill, applicable to all such districts as the Lord Lieutenant upon his discretion should proclaim disturbed. The Lord Lieutenant would also be empowered to increase the constabulary force of any district to any extent which he might think fit, out of the reserve force at Dublin, which would be increased from 400 to 600 men. The increased force would be paid, in the first instance, out of the Consolidated Fund, but, ultimately, out of the district which it was sent to protect. He next described the regulations intended for the purpose of restraining the use of firearms. Any persons carrying arms after proclamation made would be guilty of misdemeanor. and would be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years. The exceptions would include all justices of the peace, persons in the army, navy, revenue, coast-guard, police, or constabulary, special constables, and all parties licensed to
kill game, or licensed by the Lord Lieutenant to carry arms for their own defence. The arms taken away, in case they were found, would be forfeited at once to the Crown. All persons in a proclaimed district, not included within the enumerated exceptions, would be required to deliver them up, by a day named in the notice, at the nearest police station or any other place therein mentioned. He further proposed that the justices and constables of any district in which a murder was committed should be empowered to call on all males between the ages of 16 and 60 to assist in the pursuit of the murderers; and that any one refusing to assist should be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and be liable to be imprisoned with or without hard labour for any term not exceeding two years.-Mr. Wakley moved as an amendment, "That it is not just to enact any Bill of a coercive character for Ireland without enacting other Bills for its relief." The house divided,-For the amendment, 18; against it, 224; majority 206. The house again divided on the original motion, when the numbers were-Ayes, 233; Noes, 20.
Nov. 30. The Chancellor of the Exchequer moved the appointment of a Select Committee to inquire into the causes of the late COMMERCIAL DISTRESS, and how far it had been affected by the law for regulating the issue of Bank-notes payable on demand. He attributed the pressure recently, and still felt, to these circumstances that there began in the summer of 1846 a drain of our available capital, partly owing to the importation of foreign corn and partly owing to the construction of railroads, and that that drain acted upon a state of credit for which the capital employed was inadequate.Mr. J. Wilson admitted the necessity of appointing the committee, but moved to erase nearly all the words of the motion. and to insert in lieu of them words which would limit the inquiry to this point, "how far the recent commercial distress has been affected by the laws for regulating the issue of Bank-notes payable on demand."-The debate was continued for three nights, when it was closed with a speech from Sir R. Peel, who cordially approved of the course pursued by the Government, and considered they were quite right in not