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MINOR CORRESPONDENCE,

1818.

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A New SUBSCRIBER is referred for the mention. Much inconvenience and uncerCompendium of the History of Notting tainty often arising from erfors and deviahamshire to our Magazine for March and tions originally and apparently very slight, April 1819; and Mr. TWEMLow for that of and unimportant in the deduction of pediCheshire, to December 1816, and April grees, I am induced to trouble your Corre

spondent, and to intrude upon your pages A. H. thanks our Correspondent, Mr. E. with this communication, entirely with the Duke (Part i. p. 509), for his judicious and view of obviating such effects from haste or explanatory answers respecting Stonehenge; inadvertence." and fully agrees with him as to the grandeur The same Correspondent states, in anand sublimity of the whole structure. swer to ANTIQUARIUS, Part i. p. 328, that , R. S. says, “ The Corporation of Liver- some account of Edward Lord Windsor of pool, with their accustomed liberality, have Bradenham, will be found in Langley's Hispresented to the Trustees of the Liverpool tory of Desborough Hundred, and a more Royal Institution 1000l. for the purchase of particular relation, together with a copy mathematical instruments, &c. and voted of his last will, in a quarto volume of the them the sum of 350l. annually for the ge- History of the Windsor Family, neral purposes of that infant establishment." V.

says, “With regard to the author of We understand there is to be an exhibition Bagatelles, (pt. i. p. 15,) Iwould beg leave to of paintings in the Artists' Gallery, attach- suggest, that that little book may with some ed to the Institution, at the approaching degree of probability, I go no further,Liverpool Musical Festival in October next. be assigned to the Rev. Bennet Allen, for

VIATOR observes, “To prevent your merly Minister of Ilford, who was the transCorrespondent who inquires after the Scar- lator of “The Massacre of St. Bartholomew gills, from being misled by the pedigree in- from Voltaire's Henriade." serted in Part ii. p. 594 of your Supplement E. F. J. remarks, “ Mention having been . to vol. xcit. I beg leave to mention, that in made (Part i. p. 321) respecting the Barons the authentic pedigree of the antient family of Lancaster, I chere saw the name of of Pigot, I have seen the following particu- Grelle, Baron of Manchester, which, with Jars, which I believe may be relied upon.- many others, is not in Bankes's Extinct Thomas Pigot of Clutheram, whom your Peerage. In a MS Baronage in my possesCorrespondent N. Y. W. G. mentions as fa- sion, containing an account of the Peers of ther of Elizabeth, wife of William Scargill, each reign, from William the Conqueror, knt, was the second son of Geffrey Pigot of to Charles the Martyr; under those created Rippon and Clotheram, knt, descended in a by William I. I have the following account right line from Randolf Pigot of Melmouly of Grelye, Baron of Manchester. Robert and Ripon, co. York, in temp. Edw. Ill. Grelye came into England with the ConThe elder brother of this Thomas was Sir queror, who made him Baron of ManchesRandolph Pigot of Clotheram, knt. living ter; the last of which name was Thomas in the reign of Henry VII. and who married Grelie, Baron of Manchester, who died Joan, daughter of Sir Richard Strangwaies, without issue male, and left his daughter knt. but deceasing without issue, left his sole heir, anno 14 Edw. II. who was marestate to and amongst the four daughters of ried to Roger Lord Delaware, who by her his brother Thomas, whose names and or- had John Lord Delaware, who married Marder of birth were Joan, Margaret, Eliza- garet, daughter of Robert Holland, and beth, and Margery, of whom Joan was Lord Roger Delaware, who married Ellen, married, first to Sir Giles Hussey of Gon- daughter of Lord Mowbray, and died anno thorp, co. Linc. knt, and secondly to Thos. 44 Edw. III. and had Thos. Delaware, who Ffalkinghame [I a lupe the orthography of died without issue, and left Joane his sister the original], of North Hall near Leeds; and heir, who married Sir Thomas West, Margaret, to James Medcalfe of Nappie, knight, Lord of Compton Vallence, from co. Richmond, knt.; Elizabeth, third dau. whom the present Lord Delaware is defirst to Sir Charles Brandon, knt. secondly scended. Arms: Gules, 3 bendlets ento James Strangeways, knt. and thirdly to hanced Or. In the plates to Edmonson's Francis Neville of Barby; and Margery to " Baronagium Genealogicuns," the Earl of Thomas Waterton, esq.

Delaware quarters the above arms of Grelye, “ From the above account, it seems as representative of that antient family." scarcely probable that Elizabeth could have been the wife of Sir William Seargill, un- In our present Number, ii. p. 48, I. 21 less she had a fourth husband, of whom the from bottom, put a full-stop after fabric. pedigree above cited, which is extremely Col. 2, 1. 11 from botcom, read crocket. particular and geaerally accurate, makes Di P. 49, 1.6, read Howery.

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THE

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE.

JULY, 1823.

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

ON THE MOUNTAINS OP SWITZERLAND. THE CHE annual increase in the num- of this chain, which are all calcareous.

ber of English Travellers with They have been evidently detached from their families at this season of the the Alps, although many are found to year, through Switzerland, has in- be not less distant than fifty leagues duced me to offer to public attention from them, and are incontestible mosome observations which, I trust, may numents of a great physical revolution be found not altogether uninteresting, which at some antient period seems to at least to the inquiring members of have overwrned the globe. The calsuch parties; they are chiefly adopted careous stone of Jura is compact, in from a philosophical work of Mr. general of a yellowish brown colour ; Picot. Excursions from home will its beds are interchanged with banks of always be attended with cheerfulness marre or argille, containing beautiful and profitable pleasure, when they are quarries of marble, asphaltus, gypsum, accompanied with a spirit of inquiry salt, and sulphureous waters, a great into customs of Foreign nations, and number of petrifactions, and many productions of different countries. An sorts of fossils. increased love to mankind is then con- Iron mines are abundant; and in tracted towards those whom we did the valleys are frequently discovered not know, and an enlaryed and grate- banks of bouille ligneuse, which owe ful sense of duty to the beneficence of their origin to whole forests or woods, creation is drawn forth from the heart, which appear to have experienced an where it would otherwise have re- enormous pressure, and to have been mained either for ever dormant, or buried at the termination of some at least operated only in the limited grand catastrophe. knowledge of domestic associations. Jura is crossed by a small number

of strait passes, which it is easy to THERE are two principal chains defend, as those of Geneva, l'Ecluse, of Mountains in Switzerland; that of d’Esclées, &c.

It encircles a great Jura, which extends from West to the number of natural grottoes, where the North, and forms those boundaries of snow is retained during the whole the country, and that of the Alps, year; it is covered with pasture less wsbich surround it at the South and verdant and less prolific than those of -East, and which penetrate to its cen- the Alps, but still very profitable to tre; these two chains approach each their proprietors, and capable of feedother in many of their points, and ing numerous Aocks, and carpeted are separated by an immense valley, or with an infinity of all pine plants. rather by plains interspersed with hills The brown bear who formerly inhawhich cover the whole Canton of bited these parts has become very rare, Genera, and a part of those of Vaud, and now never shews himself but in Friburg, &c. The chain of Jura, the most uucultivated and less inhabitnearest to the Alps, presents its mosted valleys. elevated points and blunted summits, The Alps extend in length from which are 1 or 2,000 feet higher than 200 to 250 leagues, and in breadth the rest of the chain ; on the declivi- from 50 to 80, from the Mediterranean ties of this same side there are innu- and Provence to the frontiers of Hunmerable fragments or blocks of greis gary; crossing Switzerland, wherein or granite, wholly foreign to the rocks and in the neighbouring countries

they

4
On the Mountains of Switzerland.

(July, they attain their greatest elevation, may find the temperature of the air to and produce their most extensive mas- be almost the same both day and ses, taking different names or epithets night, in summer and winter. according to the countries through The influence of the heat upon the which they pass.

The Romans in evaporation in the air of mountains is former times, and the French in our almost triple that which is exercised days, have constructed several routes, in the plain; it is to the great rarity and thuse over the Simplon and of the air in the Alps, and to the Mount Cenis are of the latest date, energy with which it accelerates evaand most general service.

poration, that we should ascribe the The Alps form one of the principal exhaustion and uneasiness which many chains of mountains of the globe, and persons experience in ascending the the most lofty of any in Europe; for, highest mountains ; their respiration passing the less considerable chains, is constrained, and they are obliged to Mount Perdu, which is the highest stop frequently for rest. summit of the Pyrenees, does not ex- Where the clouds are seen to drag ceed 10,578 feet above the Mediterra- along the mountains and to veil their nean Sea; Velino, in the Appenines, summits, rain may be expected, and does not rise beyond 7,668 feet; Etna when that has continued a long time, 10,000; the Peak of Lomintz, the snow will fall in the middle regions of most eminent of the Carpacs, 8,100: the Alps, before the rain entirely whilst the Finster Aarhorn, in the ceases, and the weather becomes serene Helvetic Alps, attains 13,234 feet; and settled. Mount Rose, in the Pennine Alps, The pastures of the Alps generally 14,580; and Mount Blanc 14,700 consist of two or three stations to feet; these latter mountains are with- which the cattle are led in succession, in 5,000 feet of the Cimboraco, in in the spring, summer, and autumn, Peru, ahove the city of Quito, which and each of which has its particular is considered as one of the greatest season ; in the meadows, below the giants of all the earth.

hills, and in the plain. In almost every The Alps of Switzerland are covered inclosure there is a barn, with stables with perpetual snow, especially those for the reception of hay gathered in whose suinmits exceed 8,000 or 8,200 during the summer, and where, durfeet of elevation ; for it is generally ing the winter, cattle are housed from remarked of the whole surface of the the neighbouring villages, or those at globe, that heat diminishes in propor- the distance of a league or more; the tion as we rise above the level of the view of all these rustic buildings afseas, and that we finally attain a fords great animation to the rural height where constant winter reigns. scenery of the verdure of Switzerland. This height varies, and follows the In these Alps there are 400 Glalatitude of different countries; it is ciers, which, according to Ebel, oc14,760 feet over the Equator, and cupy a surface of more than 130 square gradually abates towards the poles to leagues, each of which are from one 80° of latitude, a point at which it is to seven leagues in length, half a confounded with the surface of the league, at least, in breadth, and from earth, at the sea side.

one to six hundred feet in depth. The moment of the day, which is “Such are,'' says this writer, “the found to be the coldest upon the Alps, inexhaustible reservoirs from which is commonly, as in the plain, that of the greatest and chief rivers of Europe sun rise; so the moment of the great- are supplied." est heat is that at two hours after The Glaciers are formed in the noon; but the difference of the tempera- highest valleys of mountains, where ture between these two points of time the snows accumulate during nine is much less considerable at the great- months of the year, rolling in grand est elevations than at the borders of masses from the adjoining summits, the sea.

and heap upon each other in numeDe Saussure has observed, that at tous beds of many hundred feet of the Col du Giant, at 10,578 feet above condension. These masses being too the sea, it was scarcely one-third of great to be dissolved during the sumthat at Geneva ; whence it may be iner, present, at the return of winter, concluded, that if we can be raised to the appearance of a mass of congealed 6 or 7,000 toises above the sea, we snows; they thus increase every year

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1893.]
On the Mountains of Switzerland.

5 till they are extended into the lower hunters have a custom of suspending vallies, where a greater degree of heat during summer their game in the fisstops their advance. The Glaciers sures of the Glaciers, that they may sometimes diminish during many fol- be frozen, and thus preserved until the lowing years, that is to say, the infe- time when they would use them. The rior part of them, which spreads into inhabitants of the country employ the the fertile meadows of the valleys, loses ice of the Glaciers in desperate malaby the melting of the suminer such dies, especially in dysentery and as a a quantity of ice, that it leaves a por- remedy against ague, on the principle uion of the soil which it occupies. In that contraries cure their contraries ; other years; the Glaciers advance dif- they hold also, that the water of the ferently, and descend further into the Glaciers has many uses, and cures cultivated vallies; there is nothing many diseases ; in summer it is very regular in their march, this depends cold, is thick, and of a cinder colour, on the temperature of the air, and and it issues through the valleys, reabundance of the snows. It is usually uniting in great rivers.". in the spring that this increase of the The inhabitants of the Alpine valGlaciers is made, for during the win- leys suffer during the summer occater they remain at rest like vegetation, sional ravages of the torrents, which but in the summer thin fissures are form and increase prodigiously when most frequently opened, and this ope- there are any falls froin the high ration is accompanied with a noise mountains. The fearful noise which like that of thunder, and with terrific is heard from the heights, announce shakes, that make the neighbouring their arrival for a quarter or half an mountains tremble. Where these kind hour preceding, which affords time to of detonations are heard, and that take some means to avert this destracmany times during the day, a change tive visitation. Those who have been in the atmosphere is expected; these upon these mountains during the time fissares vary from day to day, and ren- of one of these storms, especially durder the Glaciers dangerous to travellers. ing a night of tempest, will retain the

The sudden changes of the atmo- remembrance of one of the most imsphere sometimes produce these fissures posing and terrific spectacles which in the Glaciers; currents of cold air, has been given to man to consider ; which bring with them particles of at one moment it is a wind of extraice, and disperse them to a distance as ordinary violence ; at the next, lighta drift of snow. The Glaciers are ning the most vivid, illuminating for an often covered with fragments of stones instant the rudest scene in nature, and and rocks, brought thither by ava- leaving it in the profoundest darkness, lanches, or fallings from the adjoining followed by thunders re-echoed from summiis. Usually these fragments are the neighbouring summits! The storm by small degrees cast towards the base is often seen to rage below the specand upon the sides of the Glacier, tator's feet, while he is enjoying the where they form enormous walls, 100 most serene and calm atmosphere; feet in height, to which the name torrents pouring their whistling winds of Moraines has been given. The on one side, and trees and roots torn vaults of ice which are observable at up on the other. The tempests of the the foot of the Glaciers, and whence plains in some respects produce similar a torrent sometime issues, are always phenomena, but these are by far the formed in the place where all the waters most terrible and sublime ! A. H. meet which spring from the melting

(To be continued.) of the ice; they take their rise in the spring, and acquire in the summer,

Mr. URBAN,

Newlyn Vicarage, dimensions which often attain 50 to

Truro, July 5. 100 feet on every side. The water is THILST your Reviewer accepts white, and adheres to the numerous my best thanks for his flattering particles of rock which it carries down attention to my little book, (see Part I. with it, and which are extremely at- page 540,) he will allow me to obtenuated by this friction.

serve that, in his critique, there are Sebastian Munster, in his descrip- some positions which seem to want tion of Switzerland about 300 years support, and some remarks which, on since, speaking of the Glaciers, says, due consideration, his candour, I think, page 341, Solent Venalores, &c. “T'he will induce him to retract.

W

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