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NET SOUTH WALES, British colony : Area, 323,437 square miles; population, 519,182. Capital, Sidney;
population, 134,756. Number of schools, 878; number of scholars, 87,313; amount of government-grant, £110,000.
WESTERN AUSTRALIA, British colony: Area, 978,000 square miles; population, 25,353. Capital, Perth.
Colonial secretary, Fred. P. Barlee. Statistics for 1872–Number of schools, 77; average number of scholars in daily attendance, 2,400. TASMANIA, British colony: Area, 26,215 square miles; population, 100,675. Capital, Hobart Town;
population, 19,092. Chairman of the board of education, Henry Butler. Statistics for 1872—Number of schools, 139; number of children on the rolls, 10,491; average daily attendance, 5,209; expenditure for education, £12,342 78. 9d. NEW ZEALAND, British colony: Area, 102,000 square miles; popnlation, 256,393. Capital, Auckland;
population, 20,425. Number of schools, 193; number of scholars, 14,632; amount of government-grant, £33,701.
In endeavoring, as far as possible, to bring together the facts by which to test the respective systems of education by their effects upon the welfare of individuals and people affected by them, the following statistics, from reports obtained in Great Britain, Ireland, and Italy, are presented without comment:
Crime and education, (Great Britain, Ireland, and Italy,) criminal statistics.
England and Wales, 1871-'72; population, 22,712, 266. Crimiral classes, 46,877.
Proportion of criminal classes : in London, 3,139, or 1 in 1,237.8; decrease since last year, 11.4 per cent. In Pleasuretown, 613, or 1 in 411.3; decrease, 17.2 per cent. In towns depending upon agricultural districts, 540, or 1 in 383; decrease, 4.4 per cent. Commercial ports, 2,340, or 1 in 536.7 ; decrease, 11.5 per cent. Seats of cotton and linen manufacture, 1,927, or 1 in 492.1; decrease, 4.2 per cent. Seats of woolen and worsted manufacture, 1,447, or 1 in 417.9; decrease, 23.1 per cent. Seats of small and mixed textile fabrics, 624, or 1 in 508.2; decrease, 23.1 per cent. Seats of hardware-manufacture, 1,387, or 1 in 470 ; decrease, 8.8 per cent. Smallest proportion in London. Largest proportion in towns depending upon agricultural districts. Total proceeded against, 559,929; convicted, 423,581; discharged, 136,348.
Degree of instruction of those committed during the year, (excepting debtors and those com
mitted for naval and military offenses.)
Ireland, 1872; population, 5,368,696. Number of jails, 39; number of bridewells, 91; number of prisoners in jails December 31, 1872, 2,477. Total number of prisoners committed during the year, 30,222, viz: males, 18,772; females, 11,450. Summary convictions, 23,612; males, 14,324 ; females, 9,288. Lunatics, 27; males, 24; females, 3. Persons confined in bridewells for drunkenness, 3,537.
Number of individuals who attended prison-schools, 4,346; males, 3,242; females, 1,104. Average daily number of pupils, 509; males, 380 ; females, 129. Number of teachers, 59 ; males, 36; females, 23.
Total expenditure of jails, £88,070 158. 3d. Average total cost of each prisoner per annum, £35 158. 9d.
Scotland, 1871–72; population, 3,399,226.
Italy, 1871 ; population, 26,801,154. Number of establishments and number of inmates :
Bagni penali, the galleys, 28; average number of inmates, 13,910. Carceri giudiziare, prisons in which are confined the accused until removed to the prisons to which they are condemned and debtors, 238; average number of inmates, 32,433.
Educational status of condemned prisoner8.-Number of prisoners condemned to one year and less, 5,362, (5,117 men, 245 women.) Entirely illiterate: In the bagni, 883; in the case di pena for men, 2,576; in the case di pena for women, 221-total illiterates, 3,680. Able to read : In the bagni, 5; in the case di pena for men, 31; in the case di pena for women, 2-total number able to read, 38. Able to read and write: In the bagni, 316; in the case di pena for men, 1,198; in the case di pena for women, 21—total number able to read and write, 1,535. Having a superior education : In the bagni, 2; in the case di pena for men, 45; in the case di pena for women, none-total number having a superior education, 47.
Number of prisoners not of full age : Males, 960; females, 135– total, 1,095. Entirely illiterate : Males, 397 ; females, 78—total, 475. Able to read: Males, 67 ; females, 19– total, 86. Able to read and write: Males, 421 ; females, 22-total, 443, State of education not ascertained: Males, 75; females, 16-total, 91.
In the carceri giudiziare. Attended prison-schools: Males, 5,533; females, 186— total, 5,719. Percentage of inmates : Males, 16 per cent.; females, 8 per cent. Learned to read: Males, 1,676; females, 64–total, 1,740. Learned to read and write : Males, 2,490 ; females, 42—total, 2,532. Remained illiterate: Males, 1,367; females, 80—total, 1,447.
Educational status of prisoners, (total number.)-Entirely illiterate: In the bagni, total, 799; in the case di pena, males, 1,709; females, 182—total, 1,891. Able to read : In the bagni, total, 175; in the case di pena, males, 657 ; females, 95—total, 752. Able to read and write: In the bagni, 424; in the case di pena, males, 1,607; females, 60— total, 1,667. Able to read, write, and cipher: In the bagni, total, 65 ; in the case di pena, males, 417; females, 11-total, 428. Total illiterate, 2,690; total number able to read, 927 ; total number able to read and write, 2,091 ; total number able to read, write, and cipher, 493. Of the number of illiterates there learned to read : In the bagni, 55 per cent.; in the case di pena, men, 38 per cent.; women, 68. Of the number of illiterates there learned to read and write: In the bagni, 36 per cent.; in the case di pena, med, 50; women, 25 per cent. Of the number of illiterates there learned to read, write, and eipher : In the bagni, 9 per cent.; in the case di pena, men, 12 per cent.; women, 7 per cept. There remained illiterate: In the bagni, 6 per cent. ; in the case di pena, men, 10 per cent.; women, 9 per cent.
Namber of volumes read in the bagni, 718; in the case di pena, 11,939.
Jannary 1: Illiterates, males 111, females 5—total 116; able to read, males 259, females 11-total 270; able to read and write, males 270, females 14-total 284; able to read, write, and cipher, males 43, females 32—total 75; having a superior education, male 1, female 0-total 1.
Entered during the year: Illiterates, males 227, females 17-total 244; able to read, males 28, females 6-total 34 ; able to read and write, males 152, females 13_total 165; able to read, write, and cipher, males 33, females 2-total 35; having a superior education, males 2, females 1-total 2.
December 31: Illiterates, males 60, females 11-total 71; able to read, males 109, females 8-total 117; able to read and write, males 154, females 23—total 177; able to read, write, and cipher, males 349, females 33—total 382; having a superior education, males 2, female 0-total 2.
THE OFFICE LIBRARY.
The library of the Office has received during the year exceedingly valuable series of reports from foreign ministries of instruction; it exchanges with all the departments of public instruction in all the States of the Union-with the colleges, libraries, and other institutions of learning. From these sources and from purchase, it has already become the most valuable pedagogic library in the country. Much is yet needed to make it complete, however.
CIRCULARS OF INFORMATION, 1873.
During the present year the following circulars of information have been published and distributed by this office :
No. 1. Historical summary and reports of the system of public instruction in Spain, Bolivia, Uruguay, and Portugal, 80, pages 66.
No. 2. Schools in British India, 80, pages 30.
No. 3. Account of college-commencements for the summer of 1873, in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, 89, pages 118.
No. 4. List of publications by members of certain college-faculties and learned societies in the United States, 1867–72, 89, pages 72.
No. 5. Account of college-commencements during 1873, in the Western and Southern States, 80, pages 155.
These pamphlets have received continuous numbering at the bottom of their pages, and it is designed to publish a general title, introduction, and index, so that they may be bound into one volume.
OFFICE-CORRESPONDENCE. The correspondence of the Office has steadily increased since the date of the last report.
The lack of sufficient clerical force has not permitted the recording of the correspondence as promptly as could be desired and the permanent records are not in as favorable a condition as at the time of making my last report.
Amidst the extensive correspondence conducted with school-officials of all grades and with workers in collateral branches, many interesting letters—foreign and domestic—have been received, from which the lack of space forbids extended extracts. I take pleasure in acknowledging the receipt of many letters, both from State-superintendents and many other educators, both official and private, scattered over the whole country, showing an intelligent comprehension of the duties of this Office and a hearty co-operation with it. For these many expressions of encouragement and praise I am deeply grateful, and am by them confirmed in the belief that the Office is in a measure fulfilling its purpose.
Of the few extracts from correspondence given below, the first refer to the report of this Office for 1872:
(From John F. Moss, esq., clerk of school-board, Sheffield; England.1 Permit me to remark that the report has proved very instructive and is of particolar value to us at this time, when so much attention is being given to the subject of national education, with the especial view of improving the schools for the people.
(From Charles F. Dennet, esq., Brighton, England.) I consider the volume of 1872 as one of the most valuable public documents ever issued in America, and it must tell on the world. At this moment, when the battle of education is being fought out as it is in England, the volume has an intrinsic valae, and I believe its circulation among the liberal-minded in power and authority in this kingdom must do good and help on the good work.
(From J. J. Ribon, consul-general of Salvador, New York City.) The government of Ecuador bas instructed this consulate to obtain all possible information respecting the organization, management, and methods of teaching which bave brought the school-system of the United States to its present state of efficiency. I therefore take the liberty of requesting from you a copy of your valuable report for 1872.
(From John Jessup, superintendent of education, Victoria, British Coluunbia.] I herewith acknowledge the receipt of your report for 1872. The very large amount of interesting information which it contains cannot but be useful and instructive to educationists throughout the civilized world who may have the good fortune to obtain a copy.
The Austrian minister, Baron Lederer, through Hon. Hamilton Fish, Secretary of State, notified this Office as follows:
I have the honor to inform you that His Majesty the Emperor and King, my august sovereign, has just founded a university at Klausenburg, in Transylvania, and to beg you at the same time to have the kindness to bring this fact to the notice of the Department of Public Instruction, requesting said departnient to transmit information thereof to the presidents of universities in the United States. The following extracts will explain themselves:
(From the Secretary of State.) The syllogos of Epiros have requested of Mr. Boker, the minister of the United States at Constantinople, a statistical work on the schools of this country, of which they say they have heard. As it is supposed that the work referred to may be a report of your Office, at least in part, I will thank you, should this be in your power, to enable me to comply with the request adverted to.
(From Prof. Geo. A. Stearns, director of the National Normal School of the Argentine Republic.)
I venture to suggest that a document on the public-school-system of the United States would be of great service to this country, if not to other parts of the world. It is a subject very little understood here and needs the authority of your Bureau to correct false impressions. (From Fujimoro Tanaka, second assistant minister of the department of education of Japan, transmit.
ting certain photographs.) These two pictures are photographs of the Imperial University in Tokei, taken on the occasion of opening its new buildings by the presence of His Imperial Majesty the Tenno of Japan.
[From Prof. C. O. Thompson, of the Free Institute of Industrial Science, Worcester, Mass.) In studying the high-school-problem I cannot find any statistics showing the percentage of graduates, nor the percentage of boys in the graduating classes. This is a point of vital importance. May I venture to suggest that this information would be worth enough to warrant a special search for it.
(From J. C. Jillson, esq., of the Central High School, Pittsburg, Pa.) I wish to make some experiments on tbe ventilation of our school-rooms, more particularly on the amount of carbonic acid and other ingredients present. Have you any printed directions or can you suggest any simple method of conducting the same?
[From A. J. Schem, esq., chief editor of the Deutsch-Amerikanisches Conversations-Lexicon.] As the German-American cyclopedia, a work which chiefly intends to diffuse full and correct knowledge of all American affairs among the Germans of this country and in Germany, has reached the article “United States," I am very anxious to obtain the latast official documents, and therefore ask you the favor to send me the reports of your Department.
RECOMMENDATIONS. I would most respectfully but earnestly urge the following recommendations: First. An increase of the permanent force of this Office commensurate with the increasing amount of work to be done.
Secondly. An appropriation sufficient to pay for suitable cases for the books and records of the Office, and for preserving the models of school-apparatus, &c., presented to it.
Thirdly. Additional funds for the publication of circulars of information, to meet the increasing demand for the same.
Fourthly. The enactment of a law requiring that all facts in regard to national aid to education, and all facts in regard to education in the Territories and the District of Columbia, necessary for the information of Congress, be presented through this Office. For the purpose of enabling the Government to meet its responsibilities with respect to the education of the people in the Territories, I recommend that the office of superintendent of public instruction for each Territory be created, to be filled by appoint