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the joists all lead toward the shaft and the spaces all connected with the shaft.
* The ventilating-shaft should be well constructed, so as to be air-tight, if posible. As ordinarily constructed they are very porous, so that a large portion of the air discharged at their top is not derived from the rooms to be ventilated, so that a brisk current may be found issuing from the top of the shaft, while no no corresponding current enters at the bottom. h * The shaft sliould be placed entirely within the building-in its center, if practicable. * * . To estimate the size of the shaft I have taken the estimate adopted for ventilation in the barracks of the British ariny, viz, ten square inches of sectional space in the shaft for each person. In the center of the shaft I would place the pipe to convey away the smoke from the furnace, and thus utilize the waste beat to warm the shaft. In order tbat each room may receive its own share of ventilation and to prevent the foul air of one room from being driven into another room when high winds prevail, I would divide the shaft-space outside the smoke-pipe into two or four shafts, by baving shestiren plates passing from the whole length of the smoke-pipe radially, till tbey strike the sides of the shaft. * * * Each one of these shafts may be devoted to ventilating one room or floor. * * * The inlet-ducts to adınit fresh air, whether hot or cold, sbould have the same sectional area as the educt-pipes for foul air, viz, ten square inches for each person. The practice is altogether too common of making the registers for admitting warm air much smaller than this and of adınitting the air at a very high temperature, i. e., a small amount of very hot air instead of a large amount of warm air. * * * A proper temperature as the first condition of mental activity and the removal of carbonic acid, which “lowers the vitality and kills with indefinite warning," are essential conditions for the development of the nation. We have abolished the choking of our worst criminals by the hangman's rope, let us abolish the strangling of the innocent children' by viewless ropes of poisoned air.
WOMEN AS SCHOOL-OFFICERS.
The difficulty experienced in finding fully-educated men for the various departments of school-work has for some years past led to an engagement of women in this work. In the Northern States, Indiana and Missouri alone escepted, the number of female teachers greatly exceeds that of males. The ability and intelligence which many of these display, combined with a delicate tact in management, bave induced in several quarters the idea of employing women in the higher offices of government: for examıple, as school-visitors, members of school-committees, and county-superintendents. The New Hampshire legislature, by an act in 1872, authorized the election of tbem to the prudential committees of districts or school-committees of cities or towns within the State. The State-reports of both Connecticut and Rhode Island for 1873 decidedly advocate the employment of them as school-visitors on the ground of their special fitness for the office, as well as on the ground that cultivated women are more frequently available for the performance of such duty than equally cultivated men. The people of Massachusetts, under the same impression, have lately employed women in their school-committees. Lynn and Concord both have ladies so engaged. In the latter place a daughter of Ralph Waldo Emerson has been for several years on the committee, and is said to have done valuable service. In Brookline the school-committee itself has constituted an advisory board of ladies, by whom much of the work of the committee has been done. At the last election of school-officers in Massachusetts four ladies were chosen members of the school-committee of Boston and several others in the western portion of the State; and the Springfield Republican, generally well informed on such points, expresses the decided judgment that many more will be elected in another year.
When such movements occur in conservative New England, they may naturally be looked for also in the flexible and sometimes impulsive West. Accordingly the twenty-eighth general assembly of Illinois declared by law that any woman, married or single, might be elected to school-office, if over 21 years of age and possessed of the qualifications prescribed for men. Under this law 34 ladies in thirty counties ran for the office of county-superintendent in 1873, and of these 11 were elected. In Iowa, under a siinilar provision, 9 ladies came upon the superintendent-list and in Kansas 3. In Michigan the recently-revised State-constitution provides for the admission of women to any school-office and in the constitutional convention of Ohio the majority of the committee on education have reported a kindred provision for adoption. Peonsylvania bas moved in the same direction, her just-adopted constitution making women eligible to any office of control or management under the school-laws of the State.
As officers of colleges, also, women are beginning to appear. The new Boston university, as elsewhere noted, bas opened its chairs to them, and two ladies already act as instructors in the school of medicine. Vassar, besides a lady principal, has numerous ladies on its statk of instruction, one of whom is eminent in the scientific world. St Lawrence University presents one on its faculty-list in the chair of French and as assistant instructor in Latin. Antioch College has a lady professor of mathematics; the Ladies' College at Evanston, Ill., like Vassar, a lady principal; and the University of Missouri four ladies as instructors in languages and mathematics, one of whom, recently returned from Europe, is said to have been appointed professor of French and German.
It is, perhaps, too early yet for the expression of decided judgments as to the espe. diency or inexpediency of this elevation of women to school-offices. Experience only can fully decide such points. The fact that they are coming to be so employed is presented as an interesting phase of existing educational experiments, and the bope may be indulged that their quick perceptions and instructive tact will enable them to justify their election to offices of higher power and influence. In Dayton, Ohio, where they have been employed during the past year as principals of public schools, the city-superintendent says that the results have “ more than justified the change. Instead of the insubordination and disorder predicted, there has been improved order. Details of school-mau. agement have been attended to with scrupulous care. Subordinate teachers have yielded the respect due to the position of the lady principals, and notwithstanding the fact that these principals have for the first time taught the subjects of the bighest grade, attending also to the general order of the building, the teaching has been as thorough as in former years." A kindred testimony comes from Cleveland. If it be given elsewhere, an increase of women as school-officers is sure.
THE EDUCATION OF WOMEN.
Educators, like all other workers in the field of modern civilization, must make use of facts for their guidance. Mere speculative theories have been too much followed heretofore in all subjects connected with education, and in none more than in that having reference to the position of woman as scholar, teacher, and worker. A gross conservatism on one side has naturally given rise to immoderate theory on the other. It is only by a philosophical study of accumulated facts and human experience that society can arrive at any judicious modification of woman's education and occupation or correct what is false in any of the numerous theories and plans proposed for her benefit. Should the fact of sex make any difference in the relation of individuals to education either as trainer or trained ? In the education of the young has one sex any work to do which the other sex cannot equally well perform, and are the children in our schools trained actually so different, on account of the difference of ses, as to render modifications in their respective trainings necessary? Are the essential duties of life different for each sex; and, if so, what correspondences and differences must be made in their respective physical and moral training? These questions at the very threshold of this inquiry point to vast fields of thought. Nothing can be more useful for the progress of human society than their judicions discussion; nothing more harmful than vagne declamation and passionate rlapsody. Every community after learning the general facts must take into consideration its own special circumstances. Of these the preponderance in number of one sex over another is the most powerful in effect. The following statistics respecting the populations of certain European countries show in. stances where the females are in excess :
Summary of populations in countries in which women are in excess of the men.
A similar excess of the female population as existing in certain parts of our own country is exbibited in the following table:
Summary of populations of States in which women are in excess of the men.
827, 922 318, 300
906, 096 4,382, 759 1,071, 361 3,521, 951
705, 606 1, 258, 529 1, 225, 163
488, 738 265, 270 578, 955 362, 165 313, 103 384, 984 703, 779 413, 421 155, 640
449, 672 2, 163, 229
518, 704 1,758, 499
104, 756 343, 902 623, 347 597, 058 62, 192
552, 657 1,763, 452
112,597 361, 704 635, 173 628, 105 69, 508
1870 1870 1870 1870 1870 1870 1870
On the other band the other States and Territories of our Union present an excess of males over females as shown in the following table. It will be observed that our country as a whole has conditions of population directly opposite to those present in Great Britain, Sweden and Prussia, there being 19,493,565 males and 19,064,806 females, or an excess of 428,759 males; in other words, an excess of 11 males in every 1,000 of the population,
Summary of populations of the States and Territories in which men are in excess of women.
822, 643 568, 103 162, 175 655, 336 566, 314 204, 407 824, 948 52, 568
10, 112 1,327, 710
37,792 395, 022 164, 830 219, 171 509, 784
1870 484, 471
857, 994 625, 917 202, 224 665, 675 617, 745 233, 299 896, 347 70, 425
32, 379 1, 337, 550
53, 131 423,557 165, 721 222, 843 544, 886
1, 348 93, 183 35, 351 57, 814 40, 049 10, 339 51, 431 30, 892 71, 399 17,857 12, 267
426 245 252
5, 303 2,815 3,824 44,739
42, 665 8, 965
The recent establishment of our political communities, the manner of their settlement, and other causes have produced this latter condition, and these causes have modified the education, the labor, and the position of woman in a corresponding degree. These conditions in every community act in some degree on other communities.
Other elements of great importance are the physical conditions under which tho races inhabiting our country live. So powerful are these that, two hundred and fifty years after the first white settlements on our Atlantic coast, our climate, our food, our habitations, our customs, and our physique are markedly different from those of any one country in Europe. Our political theories and institutions have helped to intensify the conditions out of which they arose. These conditions of life-social, political, and physical-have acted with double intensity in modifying the physical and mental conditions of the American woman. These modifications are too self-evident in some respects to need recapitulation here. But the deterioration in the health of Caucasian women is so alarming in its extent and in its consequences, present and potential, that I feel it necessary to record some important facts respecting it.
The Circular of Information of this Bureau for March, 1872, contained an article on the vital statistics of the country, by J. M. Toner, M. D., from which the following extracts are made:
With a desire to view this question of birth-rate from a standpoint that would be sufficiently comprehensive and yet free from even the appearance of preconceived notions or sectional partiality, I have made something of a study of what the records of the United States census teach upon the subject of population, in its enumeration by ages; also of births, deaths, &c. From this source I find undoubted evidence of a gradual decline in the proportion of children under 15 to the number of women between 15 and 50 years of age in our country.
Summary showing the number of white children of both sexes under the age of 15 to 1,000
females (white) between the ages of 15 and 50 years in the United States.
[Compiled fro:u the several census-reports.)
1, 973 2, 192 1, 493 1, 170 1, 600 2, 034 1, 932 1, 822 1, 904 1. 988 1, 859 1,906 1, 655 1, 422 1,520 1, 123 1, 630 1, 902 2,031 1, 913
1, 155 1, 442 1,327 1.723 1, 702 2,503 1. 612 1, 133 1, 708 1, 892 2, 187 1,386 1,775 1,917
Physiologists and others capable of understanding the meaning of the above table will hardly need further proof, but the personal evidence of an accomplished and acutely-observing woman, who has made the health of her sex of this country a subject of special inquiry, may serve a good purpose. The following testimony was published by Miss Catharine E. Beecher in her “Letters to the people on health and happiness," and republished substantially in her recent work on Woman Suffrage and Woman's Profession :
I am not able to recall, in my immense circle of friends and acquaintances all over the Union, so inany as ten married ladies born in this century and country who are perfectly sound, healthy, and vigorous. Not that I believe there are not more than this among the friends with whom I have associated; but among all whom I can bring to mind of whose health I have any accurate knowledge, I cannot find this number of entirely sound and healthy women.