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Electod by the people....
Elected by the people.....
Jilected by the people .........
2 In Ada and Boise Counties, $300 per annum; in others,
not to exceed $250. 2 $1 to $2 for each school.census-scholar in county, with
traveling expenses, postage, &c. ...... $1 per diem for each member of board, while in ses.
sion, for five days ic each three months.
$25 to $500 per appum.
prominent. answering to these, in all the States and Territorios, except Delaware and Alaska, with State-boards Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, South Carolina, Vermont, and Virginia. A territorial board of education exists also in Arizona. COST OF EDUCATION AND OF POLICE.
It has been impossible during the past year to give any special attention to the prosecution of the inquiry into the relation of ignorance* to crime or of education to morals and public order.
Particular attention, however, is invited to the following very valuable and instructive summary of facts in regard to a number of our cities :
Table showing the cost of police-department and of public schools for one year in several cities.
* For 9 months. * Rev. Eleazer Smith, for a dozen years chaplain of the New Hampshire State-Prison at Concord, declares that, of the three hundred prisoners who have entered the institution during his official term, about one in six could not read when they were committed. Of the three hundred, not one has been taken from any of the learned professions-not one lawyer, or physician, or clergyman, known and recognized as such by any of their professions, and not one editor or school-teacher. "I lave been," says Mr. Smith, "so long connected with the prison and its records and history, that I can pretty confidently affirm that from its opening, some sixty years, there has not been among its inmates one clergyman, lawyer, physician, editor; not one deacon, steward, church-warden or class-leader; nor one son of a clergyman; and I have been able to learn of but two persons who, at the time of the commission of the crime, were members of any church."
Table showing the whole number of arrests and the number of arrests of persons under 20
years of age.
22, 404 12, 535
1, 179 40, 007
1, 822 21, 131 31, 585 4, 861 8,016
14, 243 11, 035
* Given as minors.
1 Of whom 49 were under 10 and 460 between 10 and 15.
The percentage of arrests of persons under 20 years of age to the whole number of arrests was, in Detroit, 14.4 ; in Chicago, 12.5; in St. Louis, 9.2; in Memphis, 8; in Albany, 6.2 ; in Buffalo, 5.7; in Boston 5.33; in the District of Columbia, 4.87.
Of the 12,535 persons arrested in Buffalo, 1,414 could neither read nor write and 133 could read only; of 11,781 persons arrested in the District of Columbia, 4,227 could peither read nor write; of 6,273 persons arrested in Albany,532 could neither read nor write and 93 could read only; of 4,861 persons arrested in Detroit, 668 could neither read nor write and 55 could read only.
The police-records of Boston show tbat "the increase of minors among the arrests nearly keeps pace with the increase of population."
The San Francisco police-report for 187 1-'72, while finding cause for congratulation in the fact that, while the population bas largely increased during the past three years, the number of arrests has greatly diminished, mentions with regret the increasing evil of "juvenile ruffianism” as the most difficult matter with which the police-department has to deal.
VENTILATION OF SCHOOL-HOUSES.
The increased attentions given to this subject are especially gratifying.
Deeming it very important that this report should carry with it some indication of the progress of inquiries in this direction, I include the following résumé of opinions and facts:
In a notice in the Sanitarian for May, 1873, of a treatise on ventilation, by Lewis W. Leeds, it is remarked that
The greatest sanitary want everywhere is ventilation, to be supplied in all existing tenant-houses, work-rooms, school-rooms, and all places of assemblage. Many cbildren are taken from school in consequence of headaches, fever, sore throats, and weak eyes, “ caused by too close attention to study," when, if the cause be investigated, it will be found that they have been confined in a close room, with perhaps fifty other living, breathing creatures, where there is no ventilation. Consequently they are inhaling over and over again the same impure breath.
In the Sanitarian for January, 1874, the following “life-problem” is presented :
Every full-grown adult throws out by respiration about four and a half gallons of deleterious gas and watery vapor per hour; and the children of school-age average, each one, about three gallons per hour. Suspended in this deleterious respired air and vapor, there is in every 1,000 gallons 3 gallons of dead decomposing animal matter! * * * Now, if one person throws out four and a half gallons of poisonous air every hour, how long will it take 1,000 persons to fill a church full ; fifty children to fill a school-room full ?
An article quoted from the Pall Mall Gazette in the Sanitarian for June, 1873, says:
The marvel is not how many children die, but how many escape. Work-houses are under (assumed) competent supervision; so are mad-houses; so are prisons; but schools, where the young receive their life's permanent impress, are left out as beyond the range of inquiry altogether, sive in that queer jumble of inconsistent half-truths we call education ; and the master and mistress may kill the children intrusted to their care with untroubled consciences.
The report of the board of health of the city of Boston for the year 1873 speaks as follows of the defective ventilation of the school-houses of that city :
Let some person who never has thought of it go into some of our school-rooms, even in our own city, about 12 at noon, on a moist winter-day, wbere some 60 to 100 pupils are climbing the wearisome heights, and the darkest troglodytic dormitories of our city have something of the scent of an orange-grove in full blossom in comparison. You ask about the ventilation, and your eye is directed to two or three holes in the wall, near the ceiling, but you are not told whether moral suasion is to coax, or corporal punishment drive, the deadly poison np there, nor who or what does the coaxing or driving. But you must be persuaded to believe that a mastodon crawls out of a gimlet-hole, when no inducement is offered him to go.
Dr. C. R. Agnew, in an article in the Sanitarian for April, 1873, says:
In the city of New York, with its boasted public-school-system, there is room for reform from the primary schools up to the New York College. I quote from a recent report:
* Seventeen school-buildings bave been inspected, against all of which reports are made of bad sanitary condition. Six of them have class-rooms so damp and dark that they are declared to be unfit for school-purposes and in one case it is recommended that the entire building be vacated. * * **** One of the principals of one of the largest of those public schools has told me that they get ou with the primary children very well in the morning, but that it is almost impossible to keep them awake in the afternoon from the effect of mental strain and bad air."
In the Sanitarian for April, 1873, Dr. Jaynes, city sanitary inspector of New York City, details tbe results of some experiments with the air in the public schools :
From our public schools Dr. Endemann obtained seventeen samples of air, the esamination of which determined the presence of carbonic acid, varying in amounts from 9.7 to 35.7 parts in 10,000; or, in other words, from more than twice to nearly nine times the normal quantity. The ventilation in these buildings is generally faulty and can be obtained only by opening the windows--a practice detrimental to the health of the children who sit vear or directly under them. The following experiment made in the Roosevelt Street school shows the inefficiency of ventilating-flues in the wall, upprovided with means for creating an upward current. An examination of the air in one of the class-rooms provided with a ventilating-flue was made while one of the windows was opened, and yielded 17.2 parts of carbonic acid in 10,000. The window was then closed, and after the lapse of ten minutes another examination gave 32.2 parts of carbonic acid, or an increase of 15.6 parts. The experiment now became to the teacher and children so oppressive that it was not continued. Dr. Endemann says: “If the accumulation of carbonic acid had been allowed to continue, we might have reached within one hour the abominable figure of 110." The following is a statement of the average result obtained from the several experiments made in each school :
Experiments. Carbonic acid.
19.5 28.1 21.3 17.6 14,7 24.2
As expired air contains, not only this poisonous gas, but also effete animal matter escaping from the bodies of those present, and in quantities in proportion to the amount of carbonic acid exbaled, it follows that air vitiated by respiration is far more deleterious than air vitiated by the same amount of carbonic acid from other sources; and as the standard of permissible impurity has been placed by high sanitary authority (Dr. Parkes and others) at 6 parts of carbonic acid'in 10,000 of air, it is evident tbat the best practical talent should be engaged in designing and perfecting means for securing to our public schools adequate and thorough ventilation.
The Sanitarian for August, 1873, contains the report of Mr. Lewis W. Leeds concerning the ventilating and warming arrangements of some of the school-houses in the city of New York. An examination of two of the best gave the following results:
In No. 35 the windows in all the class-rooms were found pulled down from the top, for the purpose of relieving the rooms of a condition wbich the teachers termed “ blaziness." The ventilators for the exhaustion of the foul air are all near the floor and many of them communicating with flues in the outside walls. On testing these flues there was little or no motion of air in them, and as commonly into as out of the room. A considerable pumber of wrought-iron radiators had recently been placed in various rooms to assist in warming and for the purpose of establishing an air-current. This combination of direct radiation and currents of partially-warmed air is an excellent one when properly carried out. But in this case there seemed to be a total wapt of knowledge of the subject in the executive head of the work. The arrangement as a whole is imperfect and inefficient.
No. 47 had been passed by the sanitary inspector without criticism, and a better condition was anticipated. It is warmed by seven hot-air-furnaces. All the warmed air is brought into the class-rooms through registers on the interior or warmest side of the room, directly against the teachers' backs and the ventilator for the escape of the foul air is placed directly above the registers, thus submitting the teacher, who sits on the warm side of the room, to a perfect blast of hot air, which, after roasting him or her, rises immediately to the ceiling and escapes. But the children sitting on the opposite and cold side of the room, with their backs to the windows, have to suffer for the teachers' roasting by the open windows, exposing them to cold draughts upon their backs and shoulders and contributing in no small degree to their frightful mortality.
* . One only of the seven furnaces bad a good supply of fresh air. Five of the others were wholly devoid of fresh-air-entry from the external atmosphere, while they couterfeited the appearance by the show of large registers from the cellar. These contained an accumulation of dirt, flavored with the odor of the hen-coop, into which the fresh-air-supply-box of the seventh furnace had been conrerted, the mouth being shut off by a damper--not odor-tight-veritable foul air where fresh was most to be expected. The ventilating-flues, instead of being carried out separately as chimneys, and each communicating with an open ventilator, (as had been represented,) were found gathered together on each side of the house into large capolas. One of these cupolas was found boarded over so as completely to obstruct the air. This had been done for the purpose of using it as a pigeon-house.
Thus there are in one of the first-class schools in the city of New York about 1,200 children “ tortured by the most unscientific and villainous appliances for warming and ventilation that the human mind can conceive of. If the very converse of warming and ventilation were desired, this system could scarcely be excelled for producing alternate blasts of hot, foul air around the head for breathing, and cold, chilly draughts against the back and feet for killing."
Two new school-houses, “supposed to embody the most perfect system of ventilation and warming," were also examined. In the words of the report:
There is not one single foot of fresh-air-supply in either of these buildings. The only dependence for fresh air is the pernicious system of opening the windows; and the radiators are commonly placed opposite the windows, so that the cold air has to be blown across the room before it comes in contact with them. There is some little show in some of the rooms of an attempt to carry off the foul air, but in reality it is wholly ineffective. There are small, rough flues in the brick wall, into which registers are placed, with the worthless object of conducting the foul air into a large exposed space under the roof and allowing it to escape under well-displayed cowls. Some of the overheated air possibly ascends at times up the hottest of these flues, but it is so quickly cooled by contact with the cold roof that it falls back again into other rooms where the flues are less heated. And thus, at best, a current of foul air only is established, without any means of escape.
In the Sanitarian for November, 1873, Mr. Leeds gives the results of an examination of ten additional school-houses, some of them recently erected in the city of New York. Of two of these it is said, “There is not a sign of a register for fresh-air-supply or escape of foul air in the whole building;” and of four others, “No attempt whatever to provide a regular supply of fresh air.” Only one has “ample fresh-air-boxes in good condition;” and in this, and in every other building examived, the provision for the