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There are some apparent discrepancies, both in the details first presented and in the statistics gathered, from the Peace Commission, but on the whole the figures of the Indian Bureau itself will be found most reliable. The larger portion of such conclusions must, in the main, be simply estimated from imperfect data; being, in many instances, only guesses at the truth. Concentration of the Indians is in all circumstances the first condition of knowledge and progress. Education must always be objective and industrial, to in any way accomplish desirable results
EDUCATIONAL WORK OF SUNDAY-SCHOOLS AND FOR
The secretaries of the principal Sunday-school-unions and missionary associations bave kindly furnished the Bureau with details of the educational operations conducted by them. It was at tirst intended that these should be included in the report in full. The pressure of other matter compels a relinquishient of this intention and a presentation of ouly such statistics as may show to what proportions these forms of educational agency have reached. But it is hoped that the interesting exhibition made in the fuller details inay yet find room for more adequate display in a “circular of information ” from the Bureau. Meanwhile this briefer showing must suffice:
Returns from the denominations from which po reports bave been received would probably increase the totals above given to at least 500,000 teachers and 4,000,000 scholars-numbers which amply indicate the importance of this agency in the education of our youth.
The American Sunday-School Union, belonging to no one denomination, but managed by representatives from several, reports 30,616 schools-embracing 191,946 teachers and 1,230,265 scholars--established by it during the past twenty years. Most of these are probably included in the above returns, as the policy of the union is not to retain the charge of the schools formed by its agents, but to turn them over to the first co-operatiug denomination that may follow in its footsteps and take possession of the ground.
STATISTICS OF MISSION-SCHOOLS. These embrace only schools established by United States missionary associations in foreign countries or among Indians not admitted into citizenship with us, as all others are supposed to be included in the current statistics of the Bureau. The only exception to this is in the case of the Moravian Church, whose mission-schools are sustained by the whole body of its members, so that, save in the case of its Indian work, it cannot be told which are the product of foreign and which of domestic contributions.
The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, whose operations are in Mexico, Spain, Bulgaria, Turkey, India, China, and Africa, reports as follows: Number of training- and theological schools.... Number of boarding-schools for girls ....
21 Number of common schools ........
Number of papils in training-schools, theological and station-classes ..
18,644 The Missionary Association of the Baptist Church North, with missions in Hindostau, Burmah, Assam, China, Africa, and Sweden, reports :
The Baptist Church South reports no foreign mission-schools, but gives 1,353 as the number of its teachers and pupils among the Creeks, Choctaws, and Cherokees.
The Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, working in Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Africa, Hindostan, Siam, China, Persia, Syria, and among the Indians of our plains, reports 295 males and 393 females in its boarding-schools and 7,575 males, with 1,530 females, in its day-schools; total, 10,201. The number of schools and teachers is not given. “The Presbyterian Church South, with fields in Colombia, Brazil, Italy, and China, has 6 schools, with about 120 pupils.
The Reform Presbyterian has in Syria 18 teachers, with 70 boarding and 160 day pupils; total, 230.
The United Presbyterian Church has in Syria, Egypt, India, and China, 463 pupils in Sunday-schools, 2,493 in day-schools, 11 in boarding-schools, and 12 in theological; total, 2,983.
The Protestant-Episcopal Church, whose mission-stations are in Mexico, Greece, Palestine, Africa, China, and Japan, bas in its different fields 4 boarding-schools for boys and youths and 1 for girls; 14 day-schools for boys, and 7 for girls. The teachers in these schools are about 68, the scholars about 1,437.
The Reformed Church in America (late the Dutch) has in India and China 48 dayschools, with 824 pupils ; 2 higher seminaries, with 94 pupils, and a medical class of 5 students. In Japan it has 3 schools for boys and 2 for girls, the number of pupils in which averages 50 males and 60 females.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church reports that in India it has schools in 70 villages, attended by 25 itinerant and 17 stationary teachers, which have an average attendance of about 300 pupils, and who have given instruction during thirty years past to not less than 9,000 pupils. In Liberia, Africa, it bas 1 scbool, with 2 teachers and 50 scholars.
The American Missionary Association (Congregational) does not in its report softciently separate its domestic and foreign work to enable one to judge how many of the 14,048 pupils enumerated are in its Indian and foreign schools.
The Moraviau Church, in its missions in Greenland, Labrador, among our Indians, in the West Indies, in Hindostan, Australia, and South Africa, has 78 boys and 15 girls in training-schools for preparing teachers, with 206 station- and out-station-schools, containing 15,101 scholars, under 176 male and 93 female teachers, with 673 assistant monitors.
The Woman's Union Missionary Society, laboring for the education and elevation of women in Oriental lands, has in Calcutta, India, 75 native teachers under 12 inissionary principals, with 1,000 day-pupils and 30 female pupils in an orphanage. There is also a normal school for training teachers, and 30 schools (probably under the care of the native teachers) are held in the suburbs of the city. In Allahabad it has, under: missionaries, 2 schools with 2 native teachers and 130 scholars. At Yokohama, Japan, it has, under 5 missionaries, 40 day-pupils—10 in boarding-school, 10 iu a daily Bible class, and 30 in Sunday-school,
The whole number of pupils in mission-schools supported from the United States, distinctly returned, is nearly 40,000, exclusive of the 15,101 of the Moravian Church and the 14,048 of the Congregational.
EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND INSTITUTES.
THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION."
The thirteenth annual meeting of this body was held in Elmira the first week of August. The arrangements made for the accommodation of the association gave universal satisfaction and the spirit of the meeting was excellent. President Northrop and the other officers were strongly commended for the admirable manner in which they discharged their duties.
We give a brief report of the proceedings, condensed from a very full report in the Elinira Advertiser. T'he forenoons and evenings were occupied by the general association and the afternoons by the departments.
General association. The association met in the Opera House, Tuesday, August 5, at 10 a. m., President Northrop, of Connecticut, in the chair. Prayer was offered by Rev. Dr. George, of Elmira, and, after the appointment of assistant secretaries and treasurers and the usual committees, Mayor Caldwell, of Elmira, and George M. Diven, esq., president of the board of education, cordially welcomed the association in brief addresses, to which President Northrop appropriately responded.
The question “Ought the Chinese and Japanese indemnities to be refunded unconditionally or devoted to specific educational purposes ?" was introduced by Hon. Edward Shippen, of Philadelphia, who has charge of the younger Japanese students in this country. He gave a brief history of the Japanese indemnity of $750,000 in gold, onehalf of which has already been paid to the United States and invested in bonds, now amounting, with the accumulated interest, to $800,000. The other half remaius unpaid. The actual damage suffered by the United States in the difficulty did not exceed $19,500. He next sketched the rapid progress of Japan during the four years past, notwithstanding powerful internal opposition, and urged that, wbile she is struggling to meet the enormous expense of this progress, she should not be crippled by demands for the payment of the balance of the indemnity. He argued that Japan should not only be released unconditionally from its payment, but that the United States should refund the principal and interest of the indemnity now received over and above the actual damage sustained. He stated that there were reasons to believe that if this should be done without conditions Japan will devote all of it to the cause of public education. He paid a high tribute to the government of Japan.
He was followed by President Northrop, who commended the Japanese students in this country in high terms; Rev. Dr. McCosb, of Princeton; Prof. Atherton, of New Brunswick; Charles Hammond, of Massachusetts; Mr. Frank Hall and Prof. W. B. Wedgwood, of Washington. Dr. McCosh suggested that, if our Government refunds the indemnity, care should be taken that it do not fall into the hands of the reactionary party. Mr. Hall and Prof. Atherton stated that the reactionary party is the one now in power there, though forced by the pressure of circumstances into a progressive policy.
At the evening-session, Rev. Dr. McCosh, of New Jersey, read a very able and suggestive paper on “Upper schools,” the grade of schools between the elementary schools and the colleges. He believed that the elementary schools of the United States rank as high as those of any country in the world, but that we are in danger of being surpassed by other nations, owing to our want of an organized and efficient system of schoolsupervision. He described the Irish system of school-inspection, the best known to him. He also expressed the opinion that American colleges impart as high and certainly as useful an education to the great body of students as European colleges, including the great European universities," in all of which there are fully as many idle boys and fully as many graduate with a miserably imperfect knowledge as in the American colleges." The superiority of the higher colleges of Europe is found in the fact that they produce a select few, at the most not more than one tenth of the whole, who have attained a riper scholarship or have reached a higher culture, or who leave college with a more fixed determination to do original work. “The grand question for American colleges to consider at present is, How may we keep the excellenees we have and add, to them this special culture of the highest European universities ?" He did not think that this end, the training of a few higher minds, could be reached by elevating the standard of admission now adopted in our best colleges. The great majority of students do not now enter college too young. Healthy youths should be prepared for college by 16 or 17. He suggested that, perhaps, 10 per cent. of the students who show themselves fitted to be superior scholars should be encouraged by fellowships, earned by competition, to go on to higher, special studies. With such a system, he believed
* This report of the meeting of the National Educational Association, beld at Elmira, New York August, 1873, is taken from the National Teacher, Columbus, Ohio, edited by Mr. E. E. White.
that American colleges would produce a select body of scholars fit to match the first wranglers of Cambridge, the double first of Oxford, or the doctors of pbilosophy and science of the scientific schools of Europe. The great defect of our American system of education is the want of a sufficient number of upper or secondary schools, bet ween the elementary schools and the colleges, to enable abler youths to pass from the former to the latter. He sketched the systems of secondary schools in Germany and Great Britain and showed how defective and inadequate is secondary instruction in the United States. The remedy proposed was, first, the establishing of preparatory schools by private endowments and, secondly, by State- and city-endowments. The man who eudows a first-class academy deserves more credit than he who founds "a weakling college.” He urged that the ninety millions' worth of unappropriated land belonging to the General Government should be devoted to the encouragement of secondary schools in the Eastern, Middle, and Western States, and in the Southern States one balf of it should be devoted to secondary schools and the other half to aid and encourage the establishment of common schools. He urged tbat no more of this land should be given to the so-called agricultural colleges or to schools of science and technology, at least until a special inquiry has been made into the actual work now done by these institutions. He stated that in no country in the world has agriculture been much benefited by mere agricultural schools. In all Germany there are but six agricultural schools, and some of these are “ very feeble institutions." Cornell University, with its $900,000 endowment from the agricultural-land-grant, graduated only two agricultural students in June last. He also maintained that no part of this ninety millions should be given to colleges. The address produced a deep impression on the large audience present.
Prof. Edward S. Joynes, of Washington and Lee University, Virginia, made a spirited reply to Dr. McCosh's reference to the condition of education in the Southern States. Ho said tbat Virginia was doing nobly for the elementary instruction of her children, both white and black, and added, “Let the North be patriotic and generous to their southern brethren ; let there be equal treatment." Dr. McCosh replied as spiritedly. that he meant that the South should be assisted in her heroic efforts to elevate all ber people. This little episode created quite an excitement and much enlivened the proceedings. Prof. Roche, of Baltimore, added a few remarks.
The session of Wednesday morning was devoted to a discussion of Dr. McCosh's paper on “Upper schools." Speeches were made by Dr. Eli T. Tappan, of Kenyen College, Ohio; Hon. J. P. Wickersbam, of Pennsylvania; Dr. Daniel Reid, of the University of Missouri ; Dr. Charles Hammond, of Massachusetts; Dr. J. H. Raymond, of Vassar College, New York; Dr. Joseph White, of Massachusetts; President Eliot, of Harvard ; Superintendent W. T. Harris, of St. Louis, Missouri; Mr. Ross, of Seneca; Dr. G. P. Hays, of Washington and Jefferson College, Pennsylvania; Prof. E. D. Blakesley, of the Potsdam Normal School, New York; Mr. Root, of Missouri ; Prof. Atherton, of New Brunswick, New Jersey, and Dr. McCosh.
President Tappan, of Ohio, stated that the high schools of that State do not prepare one-tenth of the students who enter Ohio colleges. They are doing different work. He urged the multiplication of preparatory schools.
Superintendent Wickersham, of Pennsylvania, urged that the number of public high schools should be increased and that the attention of boys should be directed to a higher education, and not so generally to business. There should be a heartier sympathy between the colleges and the common schools.
Dr. Reid, of Missouri, spoke in favor of every land-grant made by Congress for indastrial education ; great advantages had been derived from them in Missouri.
Dr. Hammond, of Massachusetts, urged the importance of preparatory schools in addition to the public high schools.
President Raymond, of New York, spoke strongly in favor of schools preparatory to college. There is nothing to take the place of the academies which are “ dying out.* The high schools should meet the emergency.
Dr. White, of Massachusetts, said we must carry on the high schools by force and the academies by love. The poor boy must have an opportunity of securing as good au education as his rich neighbor. The agricultural college gives a liberal education, and we want intelligent farmers and mechanics.
President Eliot, of Harvard, believed it to be a positive evil to have such incomplete statistics as those used by Dr. McCosh; they mislead. Massachusetts's high schools do not fill her colleges. Harvard does not receive over 10 or 15 per cent. of her sto dents from the high schools of Massachusetts or over 30 or 35 per cent. from that source in the country generally, but they come principally from private scbools. Massachusetts is endowing private academies, which are preparatory to college Denominational schools are a difficulty. The interference of the national Government in educational interests weakens them. He deprecated asking the Government for aid in any good work which we ought to attend to ourselves. It was pernicious and demoralizing
Superintendent Harris, of St. Louis, reviewed the supervision of schools in this country and spoke in favorable terms of the high schools." They now afford an edoc