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three or four grades; also the territorial university, well graded from primary to academic studies. Port Madison has a small school; Port Gamble, one larger ; Port Townsend, a school somewhat graded, with two teachers. Unity of effort and vigor of plaz are needed to carry out and perfect the school-system of Washington Territory.”
TEACHERS' INSTITUTES. During the past two years teachers' institutes have been held at important points in the Territory. They were generally conducted with ability and success and have been of great profit to school-interests. It is recommended that institutes be held in every county where it is possible.
A teachers' association has been organized and will hold a session when the legislature meets in Olympia.
NORMAL AND GRADED SCHOOLS. The superintendent says: “ We shall feel, I hope, the importance of early establishing a normal school, to improve the qualifications of teachers, and also of establishing graded schools wherever practicable."
MORAL AND RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. That portion of the school-law relating to moral and religious culture in the schools has attracted much attention on account of its importance, and in sonie localities has awakened opposition. These sections exact good moral character on the part of all teachers, and, anticipating that they will endeavor to promote the same character in their pupils, simply prohibit their teaching “sectarian or denominational doctrines » and their using " sectarian or denominational books” in the schools. This, of course, does not exclude the reading of the Bible.
The school-law is framed in accordance with the view that moral culture should be a constant and prominent object in the public schools of the Territory, and the legislature, while excluding all sectarian books and teachings, leaves the way open for instruction in Christian morals and in all the fundamental religious principles which are the common ground of belief in a Christian pation. As this law is constitutional, so also it is founded on a wise and liberal policy, for all the religious elements which it is desired to cultivate in the schools are subscribed to by all denominations, and the objection that Protestants and Catholics cannot co-operate in the public-schoolsystem falls to the ground.
TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES. It is recommended that the territorial certificates given to teachers should continue valid for a period of three or four years, unless revoked for cause.
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON TERRITORY. - An impression has prevailed that this university has in part failed, in years past, from the want of primary and grammar-schools to furnish pupils prepared for the higher studies. To some extent this impression is correct. A university means an institution for advanced classic, scientific, and professional culture; not for mere elementary studies. But a new State or Territory must for the most part prepare its own pupils for these bigher studies, or the university will be a failure. At this moment the regents seem to be uniting with President Hill and his lady to meet this defect.
A published circular presents the following scheme, viz: two departments: a preparatory department, embracing all the studies of the primary, intermediate, and grammarschool-grades, (occupying eight years ;) and an academic department, with four courses, at the option of the student; either one occupying four years.
But it has been suggested by a correspondent of the Seattle Dispatch that, unless there be a co-operation with this scheme throughout the Territory, there must be continued difficulty in securing well-prepared college-students. He therefore suggests that there be adopted in the public schools a course adapted to prepare students for the university.
This union of plan and effort in grading and conducting all the schools of the Terri. tory would, be says, quickly give higher character and greater value to them all, and make the primary, grammar-, and university-schools in reality what each name imports. The school-system of the Territory would then be a'unit in plan and complete in all its parts.
An approach is made to tbis ideal in some of the older States. Towns elect a schoolcommittee and authorize it to hire teachers and to pay them from the public-schoolfund, for the different districts; also to establish new districts and erect school-houses. The town requires them also to establish a central high school, to which all pupils are admitted on examination. After a three-years course in the high school, the student receives his diploma and enters his chosen college or university, or goes into businesslife.
It would not seem difficult, he thinks, for the counties of Washington Territory to do in this respect wbat towns do in more thickly-settled States. For example: Thurston County owns a good building at Olympia, now doing good service as a female-seminary, but only partially graded, which, at the expiration of the present rental, might be made the county high school, supported from the county- and public-school-fund, and pupils from every district in the county be entitled to admission on certificates of examination and to enjoy its full course without charge for tuition. The local district-schools would adapt their grades with reference to the high school, and this would be adapted to the university-course. Those pupils who failed to complete the course would have all its benefits as far as they should go. The integrity of the system could be retained aud its details perfected, although districts might be slow to adopt it. King County could easily bave a high school at Seattle, and Clark County at Vancouver, and otber counties at their chief towns, to which the qualified scholars from all the districts could go free of charge and fit themselves for business or for the university. There would then be among the people a conscious power to control and improve the public schools and make them serve all the desirable purposes of educational institutions. The waste which annually occurs for lack of system could be thus easily avoided. A sense of real progress to something higber, even in the humblest rural district, would stinnlate teacher, parent, and pupil to improve every term with reference to the next step upwards, and so to the end. Children in the country would have their equal class-raok with those in town, and there would be less feverish desire to get into town to be edocated, while too young for its exposure, and at too great a cost for its benefits.
Such a system would conduce to the employment of the best teachers and the use of uniform books; to the efficiency of teachers' institutes; and to a steadily improving public sentiment upon this whole subject.
It would also attract a better class of popolation, that would enrich the communities in which it might settle.
It would awaken thought and care for the school-lands and funds, and secure tbe same for their true use.
For these reasons it is urged on the attention of the people.
Statisticul summary of a university and college.
* The endowment of the university, which has thus far been only existent as a preparatory school, consists of lards not now susceptibie of advantageous use or sale.
OBITUARY. Rev. Nelson Rounds, D. D., died at his residence near Vancouver, Clark Countr, Washington Territory, January 2, 1874. He was born in Winfield, Herkimer County, New York, May 4, 1807.
His parents being poor, he obtaived his education by his own exertions, paying his
way by teaching or manual employment. He prepared for college at the academies of Utica and Clinton ; studied for three years at Hamilton College; and, then passing to Union College, graduated there, in 1829, at the age of 22 years.
Dr. Rounds entered the traveling ministry of the Methodist-Episcopal Church in the year 1831. He served at two different times as professor of ancient languages in Cazenovia Seminary, New York. In 1844 he was elected by the general conference as editor of the Northern Christian Advocate, which position he occupied four years. The degree of 1). D., was conferred upon him by Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania. In 1868 he was elected president of Willamette University, Salem, Oregon, and presided over this institution for two years with marked ability and success, though much of the time in poor health. Resigning in 1870, he moved to Washington Territory, and was soon after elected by its legislature as territorial superintendent of public instruction. As the first incumbent of that office, he was able to exert an extensive influence in securing moral and religious instruction in the public schools of that Commonwealth.
Dr. Rounds was well known, both as a minister and an educator, throughout many States, both East and West. His miscellaneous writings, published in the current periodicals of the church, were numerous. He often indulged in biblical criticism, which department of study he had cultivated with assiduity. He devoted his life to the promotion of education and religion.
TEACHERS AND TEACHERS' SALARIES.
The above are approximate estimates for the Territory. The whole population in : amounts to only nine to ten thousand; these are scattered along the Union Pacar Railway for over 500 miles. The places where there is a population suficient te port a school are few; but wherever there are people and children in one place ese to form a school, a school is established and an effort made to have a good one. The laws make liberal provision for schools by taxation, but the school-lands have not come into market. The whole Territory is divided into five counties, each hatite county-superintendent. There are no township-organizations. Escept along the of the Union Pacific Railroad, the Territory is very sparsely settled, hence there are se about ten school-districts in the Territory. Two of these districts, No. 1, Laramie Cup and No. 2, Cheyenne, have commodious buildings, and schools of three departe each, well graded. High-school-departments will be added this year. The schools the other districts are smaller, but efficiently managed. In fact, in no State or le tory of equal opportunities can be found manifested a deeper interest in educatie a public-school-system better organized and more liberally sustained.
Dr. J. H. Hayford, of Laramie, has been appointed territorial superiotendant public instruction for 1874.
ADDENDUM TO NEW HAMPSHIRE. --OBITUARY. Notice of the decease of Prof. Dixi Crosby, M. D., LL. D., an eminent physician DB medical instructor in Dartmouth College, bad not been received when the matter the lating to New Hampshire was passing through the press. Rather than neglect when one well worthy of remembrance, a brief notice of him is appended here.
Dr. Crosby had been professor of anatomy, surgery, and obstetrics in the cal department of Dartmonth College for thirty-five years, when, in his seventy for year, death arrested his labors, September 26, 1873. Though occupring a retired quiet sphere, ho bore the reputation of being one of the most skillful surgeons of country, and some thought him one of the first in the world. “Fearless and original fertile in expedients and ingenious in their use," be often acted while others were liberating, and saved endangered lives by rapid and decisive operations. While student, he, by such action, preserved two patients whom old surgeons had de to be beyond all hope, securing thus fame as an operator which never afterwane forfeited. As a lecturer, he attained equal reputation, his instructions being ni by a perspicuity, an energy, a pointedness, and a felicity of illustration, which tivated interest from the outset and retained attention to the close, flashes of humor lighting up dark places and fixing impressions that might otherwise bave bles from the mind.
EDUCATION AMONG THE INDIANS.
In presenting the facts in relation to this subject for the year 1873, it is difficult to define, in direct terms, whether they do or do not present a satisfactory result. Some progress has evidently been made, but it is as yet only in isolated cases. No general proofs are as yet obtainable, beyond that one which is evident to all who watch the course now being pursued, viz, that the Government is yearly obtaining a firmer control over the wandering and more or less predatory tribes, concentrating and settling scattered portions and bringing the more formidable bands to feel its power. This is a condition precedent to all real progress. The general divisions which have heretofore been made of civilized and settled communities, of reservation- and nomadic tribes and bands, will be readily borne in mind. They will be found serviceable by thoso interested and can be easily traced in the facts hereinafter presented.
INDIANS IN THE STATES, AND NOT OX RESERVATIONS. There are small fragments of Indian tribes, who do not merge in the general body of citizens, residing in the States of North Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Florida, Texas, Indiana, and Iowa. They may be classified as follows: Cherokees, estimated, in the three first-named States ....
..... 1,700 Seminoles, iu Florida.......
300 Sacs and Foxes,* Iowa........
419 Liperons and Tonkaways,* in Texas...
2,000 Miamies," iu Indiana .....
345 Miamies,* in Michigan...
The badds marked with an asterisk (*) are to be removed, those from Iowa to the Indian Territory, while the Miamies are about to become citizens. The Cherokues will generally remove or lose their identity; the Florida Seminoles will doubtless be " ground out;" and the Indians in Texas are about to be removed to the Indian Territory. There is nothing of special interest as to educational matters in connection with these bands to be recorded here.
THE SIX NATIONS IN NEW YORK. The New York Indian tribes known as the Six Nations, located in that State on eight small reservations, show a steady advance in all the elements of civilized life. They numbered at the close of September, 1873, 5,141, of whom 2,531 were males and 2,610 females. This is an increase over the preceding year of 71, which is about the average per cent. of births. There are 28 district-schools on the reservation, with 28 teachers, (an addition of 2 for the year,) of whom 24 are feinales, with 1,259 pupils, an increase of 130 for the year. Of these, 676 were males and 583 females. During the year 208 Indians have learned to read. The Indians pay a regular school-tax and the schools are arranged under the State law. Individual Indians contributed $611 during the year; religious societies, $250. There are 13 organized churches, supplied by missionary effort. Two are Indian preacbers. Of the missionaries, three are Presbyterians, four Methodists, and two Baptists. The Quakers have a training and boardingschool on the Tonawanda reservation, which is doing well. The return of dwellings, 1,024, is a little more than one for every five persons. The number of acres under india vidual cultivation is 19,735; the Government has none.
INDIANS IN MICHIGAN, WISCONSIN, AND MINNESOTA. These three States are properly classified together, as the largest Indian nation with which the Government deals, the Chippewa or Ojibbeway, is indifferently resident or migratory in each of them. In these three States considerable bodies of Indians are taking their land in allotment and otherwise preparing to merge into citizenship. To some extent this change has been retrogressive-missionary-and, as a consequence, educational efforts have been retarded or stopped altogether. During the past year, however, there has been a beneficial change in this respect. The Indian population in these three States is divided as follows: Chippewas of Red and Leech Lakes......
6,500 Ottawas and Chippewas ............
6, 039 Chippewas of Lake Superior ..........
1,498 Chippewas of Swan Creek, &c ......
1, 630 Chippewas of Fond du Lac ........