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President of the Incorporated Society of Teachen, and Member'
The Subscribers having purchased the Copy Right of Picket’s School Class Books, for a part of the United States, intend keeping a constant supply on hand, which they ofl'er to their friends and the public, wholesale and retail, on reasonable terms.
J , CALEB BARTLETT,
TO THE CONDUCTORS OF SCHOOLS.
The present edition of this work is a fair specimen of its future appearance. The “Mentor” is now brought to a standard, which will prevent the discordancy in schools, occasioned by frequent alterations and emendatiuns.‘ This, as well as the Author’s other Class-Books, viz. the Juvenile Primer, Parent's Manual, Juvenile Spelling Bonk,,lnstructer, Expositor, and Walker’s Dictionary, are all stereotyped, and will be kept on paper of a superior quality, and bound in the best manner for school use.
District of New-York, 03. ~ BE IT nannnasazn, That on the twenty-fitt‘h day of August, in the fortyfifth year of the Independence of the United States of America, ALBERT PICKET, ofthe said district, hath deposited in this oflice the title ofa Book, the right whereof he claims as author and proprietor, in the words following, to wit :
“ The JUVENILE MENTOR, or Select Reading: ; being American School Class Book, N0. 3. Containing Progressive Lessons in Orthoepy, Reading and Speaking; adapted to the comprehension of Youth. By A. PICKET, President of the Incorporated Society ofTeachers, and Member of the Historical Society, in New-York. Senior Principal of Manhattan School, Author ofthe American School Class-Books, he."
In conformity to the Act of the Congress of'the United States, entitled, "-An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the time therein mentioned." And also to an Act, entitled an “ Act supplementary to an Act, entitled an act for the encouragement of Learning,by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints.”
t GILBERT LIVINGSTON THOMPSON, Clerk of the Southern District of .N' 020- York.
THAT so much labour 'slmuld be bestowed upon the initials and terminations inserted in this volume, when most of them are to be found in the Author's other progressive books, ma be a matter of Wonder to many persons, who will very natural! inquire into t re utility of them. To theseit may be answered, that the words our language seem more nearly related to each other by their initials and terminations than at first sight may appear, and that the classing of them according to their beginnin s and endin s seems to exhibit a. new view of them which is both curious and use ul: for as their accent and quantity depend so much on their terminationsfiuch, an arrangement appears to give a more definite and comprehensive idea~of their pronunciation than it ispossible to giveby the common classilication.‘ T _' end was so desirable as to induce the Author toopare no ains to promote it; an to endeavour to show, atone-view, nearly all thehwor s of the some class difl'erently accented, by which moanslhe rule and exception may be found, and by seein them contrasted, are -imprintetl more, strongly on the memory, .an “are t e more easily recollectedt When words are sounded nearl alike, we can recollect them better than when they are promiscuoust mingled with the rest of the words in the language. By frequently repeating them as they stand together, the ear will gain a habit of placingthe accent pro- ~ perly without knowin'ir why it is so, Children learn the pronunciation ofywords ‘ much easier, and with greater facility by the ear, and by correct oral instruction, than by any formal rules. Let instructors pronounce and read correctly, and their pu ils will readily imitate them. > t v
tis unnecessary to observe, that the first preparatory step to correct reading is a just and elegant pronunciation; but this cannot be obtained without care and attention The practice of re uiring children to read, before they can renounce " Words correctly, is an errour'viihich ought to be avoided. To this end, e Author has collected, arranged, and accented all the words which are liable to be misprouounced, and so sim lified them by analogical classifications that their true pronunciation cannot well lie mistaken.*
The variety of sounds, however, which the vowels and dipthongs make in diffcreut words, render it extremely difl'icult to acquire a correct pronunciation. It is indispensably requisite, thcre ore, for all persons who would become comple masters of orthocpy to make themselves acquainted with the sounds of the letters, especially the vowels and dipthongs ; to exemplify them in a variety of ways, co .ous illustrations are inserted. '
t is deemed unnecessary to make any further remarks on this sub'ect, the tren(lcr on a perusal, will readily perceive the full scope and bearing oft e work.
in teaching the art of reading, it- should be the first object of every Preceptor to make his pupils talk correctly and naturally on book ; and to sweeten their tone of voice by an elegant pronunciation and just inflection. A good reader (says a correct wrrter,) is one who can perfectly comprehend, and readily enter into the fueliu s of his author ; consequently, he is one who has learned to Tmux, a s tics of knowledge seldom thought of, in our schoolsythough it ought to he the rst
‘1' In this,» in the Author’s other progressive books, he has followed the judicious W'allter. .
inculcated. Children, as soon as they can speak, are remarkable for expressing their own wishes and sentiments in the enuine language of nature. Not an emplan": is misplaced—not an inflection ofgthe voice is misapplied. But as soon as the begin to read, and express the thou hts and sentiments of others, how diiTerent is on execution. The most unnatura habits are speedily acquired, which too often attend them through life ! The only way to remed this ev1l, is to give children such lessons in reading as are suitable to their ten or capacities, and teach them to make the sentiments as it were their own, and to ress them as they would to their play-males in telling a story. The selection 0 pieces in this volume is to this end; and to imbue the minds of the rising generation with the pure principles and sentiments of virtue, patriotism, and religion,
RULES FOR READfNG.
1. Give the letters their proper sound. _ ' _ 2. Pronounce the vowels u, e, i, o, u, clearly, givmg to each its proper quan
tity. r 3. The liquids l, m, n, 1-, should be pronounced with a considerable degree of orce.
_4. Distinguish every accented letter or syllable by a particular stress of the voice. , .
5. Read audiny and distinctly, with a degree of deliberation suited to the su 'ect.
. Pause at the points a sufficient length of time, but not so long as to break that connexion which one part of a sentence has with another. _ Give every sentence, and member of a sentence, that inflection of voice which tends to improve either the sound or the sense.
8. Before attempting to read the examples on irgflections, a thorough knowledge of the two slides or inflections of the voice (see p. vi.) ought to be obtained. _Without a very accurate knowledge of these two slides, no very great progress in reading can possiblybe made.
9. The inflections of the voice which accompany the pauses, are the stamina of all good reading or speaking; for whether we read or speak high or low, loud or soft, quickly or slowly, with or without the tonesot' a particular passion, the voice must rise or fall, or proceed in a continued monotony: so that the rising and [alb inflection must he considered as the axis on which the whole force and variety 0 reading or speakingl turns. And a just mixture of these inflections is so important, that whenever ey are neglected the pronunciation becomes feeble, monotonous and tin efiil. If a speaker elevates his voice too frequently, he con~ tracts a squea ing tone; if he depresses it too often, he hurts the sense by breaking its connexion; and though a monoton may sometimes be used for the sake of variety, too frequent recourse to it won] produce languor, listlessuoss, and mattention. .
10. In reading, the principles should be gradually reduced to practice. Words that require the rising inflection may, by the pupil, be marked with a enctl With the acute (') accent; and such as require the falling inflection, wit the grave (‘) accent. Emphatical words may be marked by drawing a straight line over them ; and when a rhetorical pause is admissible, a mark such as a comma may be inserted after the word. _ '
11. The tones of the voice must, in every instance, be regulated entirely by the nature of the sub'ect. _ _ '
12. At the beginning of a subject or discourse the pitch of the voice should, in general, be low: to this rule, however, there are some exceptions, especially in poetry, and even in prose. ' _ _ _
13. Though an ele ant and harmonious pronunciation ’of verse will sometimes oblige us to adopt di erent inflectiOns from those we use in prose, it may still be laid dovvn as a good general rule, that verse requires the same inflection as prose, thoughless strongly marked, and approaching to monoton '.-Whenever_a sew tence or member of'a sentence, would necessarily require t e rising or falling in» flection in prose, it ought always to have the same in poetry. i
There are two kinds of pauses, viz. Grammatical and Rhetorical pauses. Grammatical pauses are denoted by certain points or marks; at which it is necessary to pause'or stop a little, for the purpose of breathing and elucidating the meaning 0 a sentence.
I Rhetorical pauses are those stops made by a reader or speaker, which, though frequently not marked, serve to beautify delivery, by giving it all that variety and ease of which it is susceptible. ‘
The frammatical pauses are distinguished into he Comma , The Semicolon The Colon The Period . And those which are accompanied with an alteration in the tone of the voice.
The Interrogation I ?
Besides these, there is another pause called the hyphen or dash marked with a. short line, thus —- I
Some writers suppose that the
Others are of opinion that the
Semicolon double /
Period quadruple Perhaps the Pupil might be told to pause Comma one. the Semicolon while he could deliberately oneytwo. a‘ Colon pronounce one, two, three. Period one, two, three, four.
The number of pauses may be reduced to three ; namely
The Smaller Pause Comma. ‘
The interrogation and exclamation points are said to be indefinite as to their quantity of time, and are used to mark an elevation of voice 3 and the parenthesis, to mark a moderate depression of the voice, with a pause greater than a 60mma.-¢ The time of the hyphen or dash is also indefinite“
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