« 上一頁繼續 »
On the night of the 18th, the enemy, , tion of their dead had been previously arter passing troops in the latter part of buried by the enemy. This is conclusivo the day from the Virginia shore to their evidence that the enemy sustained much position behind Sharpsburg, 'as seen by greater loss than we. our officers, suddenly formed the design of
Thirteen guns, thirty-nine colors, ap. abandoning their position, and retreating across the river. As their line was but a "
wards of fifteen thousand stand of small short distance from the river, the evacuar
arms, and more than six thousand prisontion presented but little difficulty, and was
ers, werc the trophies which attest the effected before daylight.
success of our army in the battles of
| South Mountain, Crampton's Gap, and • About 2,700 of the enemy's dead were, under the direction of Maj. Davis, assis
Antietann. tant inspector general, counted and buried. Not a single gun or color was lost by apon the battle-field of Antietam. A por-I our ariny during these battles.
Tabular report of casualties in the Army of the Potomac in the battle of Antietam,
on the 16th and 17th of September, 1862.
A corps................ 9th corps ........
An estimate of the forces under the con- Pleasonton's cavalry with Franklin's federate Gen. Lee, made up by direction corps, within supporting distance, for the of Gen. Banks, from information obtained purpose of endeavoring to capture this by the examination of prisoners, deserters, force. Gen, Couch made a prompt and spies, &c., previous to the battle of An-rapid march to Williamsport, and attacked tietan, is as follows: , !
the cnemy vigorously, but they made their Gen. J. J. Jackson's corpo............. .....24,778 men. escape across the river. " Ger. James Longstreet's corpo...... ..... 23,342 1 I despatched the following telegraphie Gen. D. 11. Hill's 2d division..........
..13,525 $ Gen. J. E. B Stuart, cavalry.......
report to the general-ip-chief: Gen. Ransom's and Jenkins's brigade ..... 3,000 Forty-six regiments not included in abovo.18, 100 !
"HEADQUARTERS ARMY OP TUE POTOMAC, Artl.lery, estimated at 400 guns.... ... 6.009
"Sharpsburg, Sept. 19, 1862.
| “I have the honor to report that MaryTotal. .................................... 97,445 ".
land is entirely freed from presence of the These estimates give the actual number
enemy, who has been driven across the of men present and fit for duty.
Potomac. No fears need now be enterOur own forces at the battle of Antietam tained for the safety of Pennsylvania. I were as follows:
shall at once occupy Harper's Ferry. lot corps.......
......................14,866 men. “G, B. MCCLELLAN, Maj.-Gen. Com. 2d eorps.............
“Maj.-Gen. H. W, HALLECK, bth corps (one division not arrived)..... ....12,930
Com. U. S. Army."
...13,819 12th corps.
| On the following day I received this Cavalry division .... .........
4,320 “ telegram : Total in action........................ 87,144 " “WASHINGTON, Sept. 20, 1862-2 P. M. When our cavalry advance reached the
“We are still left entirely in the dark river on the morning of the 19th, it was in regard to your own movements and discovered that nearly all the enemy's those of the enemy. This should not be forces had crossed into Virginia during the so. You should keep me advised of both, night, their rear escaping under cover of so far as you know them. eight batteries, placed in strong positions
“H. W. HALLECK, Gen.-in-Chief. upon the elevated bluffs on the opposite “Maj. Gen. G. B. McCLELLAN." bank. Gen. Porter, commanding the 5th | To which I answered as follows: corps, ordered a detachment from Griffin's “HIKADQUARTER'S ARMY OF THE POTOXAC, and Barnes's brigades, under Gen. Griffin, "Near Sharpsburg, Sept, 20. 1862-8 P. v. to cross the river at dark, and carry the "Your telegram of to-day is received. enemy's batteries. This was gallantly I telegraphed you. yesterday all I knew done under the fire of the enemy; several and had nothing to inform you of until this guns, caissons, &c., were taken, and their evening. Williams's corps (Banks's). 00supports driven back half a mile.
opied Maryland heights at 1 P. M. to-day. The information obtained during the The rest of the army is near here, except progress of this affair indicated that the Couch's division, which is at this moment mass o' the enemy had retreated on the engaged with the enemy in front of WilCharlestown and Martinsburg roads, to- liamsport; the enemy is retiring, via Chapwards Winchester. To verify this, and to lestown and Martinsburg. on Winchester. ascertain how far the enemy had retired, He last night reoccupied Williamsport by Gen. Porter was authorized to detach a small force, but will be out of it by mornfrom his corps, on the morning of the 20th, ing. I think he has a force of infantry a reconnoitring party in greater force. near Shepherdstown. This detachment crossed the river, and “I regret that you find it necessary to advanced about a mile, when it was at- couch every despatch I have the honor to tacked by a large body of the enemy lying receive from you in a spirit of fault-finding, in ambush in the woods, and driven back | apd that you have not yet found leisure to across the river with considerable loss. say one word in commendation of the recent This reconnoissance showed that the enemy achievements of this army, or even to al. W3s still in force on the Virginia bank of lude to them. the Potomac, prepared to resist our fur- “I have abstained from giving the namther advance.
ber of guns, colors, small arms, prisoners, It was reported on the 19th, that &c., captured, until I could do so with Gen. Stuart had made his appearance at some accuracy. I hope by to-morrow Williamsport with some four thousand evening to be able to give at least an apcavalry and six pieces of artillery, and that proximate statemente ten thousand infantry were marching on
. “G. B. MCCLELLAN the same point from the direction of Win
Maj. Gen. Comdg. chester. I ordered Gen. Couch to march "Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLBOK, at once with his division, and a part of
On the same day I telegraphed as fol- | killed; four (4) general officers, eightylows:
.ris u n ine (89) other commissioned officers, and “HEADQUARTERS ARYY OP TIE POTOWAĆ,
three thousand seven hundred and eight . .:"Sept. 20, 1862.
09|(3,708) eniisted men had been wounded, As the rebel army, now on the Vir
viel besides five hundred and forty-eight (548) "ginia side of the Potomac, must'in a great!
missing; making the aggregate loss in this measure be dependent for supplies of am-13
splendid veteran corps, in this one battle, munition and provisions upon Richmond,
a five thousand two hundred and nine, (5209.) I would respectfully suggest that General
u In Gen. Hooker's corps the casualties Banks be directed to send out a cavalry
of the same, engagement amounted to two
thousand six hundred and nineteen, (2,619.) force to cut their supply communication opposite Washington. This would seriously
1 The entire, army had been greatly exembarrass their operations and will aid
hausted by unavoidable overwork, fatiguthis army materially.
ing marches, hunger, and want of sleep “G. B. MCCLELLAN.
N ? and rest, previous to the last battle. “Maj. Gen. Com'a'g.'
When the enemy recrossed thc Potomac . “ Maj. Gen. H. W. HÅLLECK,
into Virginia the means of transportation
at my disposal were inadequate to fornish " Comd'g U. S. Army."
a single day's supply of subsistence in Maryland heights were occupied by advance in advance. ? Gen. Williams's corps on this day, and on Many of the troops were new levies, the 22d Gen. Sumner took possession of some of whom had fought like veterans, Harper's Ferry.
but the morale of others had been a good It will be remembered that at the time deal impaired in those severely contested I was assigned to the command of the actions, and they required time to recover forces for the defence of the national capi- as well as to acquire the necessary drill tal, on the 20 day of September, 1862, the and discipline.se greater part of all the available troops Under these circumstances I did not were suffering under the disheartening in- feel authorized to cross the river with the fluences of the serious defeat they had main army over & very deep and difficult encountered during the brief and unfortu- ford in pursuit of the retreating enemy, nate campaign of Gen. Pope. Their num- known to be in strong force on the south bers were greatly reduced by casualties, bank, and thereby place that stream, their confidence was much shaken, and which was liable at any time to rise above they had lost something of that “ esprit du a fording stage, between my army and its corps," which is indispensable to the effi. base of supply. i ciency of an army. Moreover, they had I telegraphed on the 22d to the generalleft behind, lost, or worn out, the greatest in-chief as follows: part of their clothing and camp equipage, “As soon as the exigencies of the serwhich required renewal before they could vice will admit of it, this army should be be in proper condition to take the field reorganized. It is absolutely necessary again.
to secure its efficiency, that the old skeleThe intelligence that the enemy was ton regiments should be filled up at once, crossing the Potomac into Maryland was and officers appointed to supply the nureceived in Washington on the 4th of Sep-merous existing vacancies. There are intember, and the army of the Potomac was stances where captains are commanding again put in motion, under my direction, regiments, and companies are without a on the following day, so that but a very single commissioned officer.". brief interval of time was allowed to re- On the 23d the following was telegraph. organize or procure supplies,
po led to the general-in.chief: The sanguinary battles of South Mountain and Antietam fought by this army a “UBADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE Potovac, few days afterwards, with the reconnois
“Near Shepherdstown, sances immediately following, resulted in
“ Sept. 23, 1862–9.30 A. X. a loss to us of ten general officers, many "From several different sources I leam regimental and company officers, and a that Gen. R. E. Lee is still opposite to my large number of enlisted men, amounting position at Leestown, between Shepherdsin the aggregate to fifteen thousand two town and Martinsburg, and that General hundred and twenty, (15,220.). Two army Jackson is on the Opequan creek, about corps had been sadly cut up, scattered, three miles above its mouth, both with and somewhat demoralized in the action large forces. There are also indications on the 17th.
of heavy re-inforcements moving towards In Gen-Sumner's corps alone forty-one them from Winchester and Charlestown. (41) commissioned officers and eight hund. I have, therefore, ordered Gen. Franklin red and nineteen enlisted , men had been to take position with his corps at the cross-roads about one mile northeast of be lost in filling the 'old regimentsmoar Bakersviile, on the Bakersville and Wil-main dependence-and in supplying va. liamsport road, and Gen. Conch to estab- cancies among the officers by promotion. lish his division near Downsville, leaving “My present purpose is to hold the suficient force at Williamsport to watch army about as it is now, rendering Harand guard the ford at that place. The per's Ferry secure and watching the river fact of the enemy's remaining so long in closely, intending to attack the enemy our front, and the indications of an advance should he attempt to cross to this side. of re-inforcements, seem to indicate that “Qur possession of Harper's Ferry gives he will give us another battle with all his us the great advantage of a secure de available force.
bouche, but we cannot avail ourselves of "As I mentioned to you before, our it uptil the railroad bridge is finished, be army has been very much reduced by cause we cannot otherwise supply a greatcasualties in the recent battles, and in my er number of troops than we now have on judgment all the re-enforcements of old the Virginia side at that point. When troops that can possibly be dispensed with the river rises, so that the enemy cannot around Washington and other places cross in force, I purpose concentrating should be instantly pushed forward by the army somewhere near Ilarper's Ferry, rail to this army. A defeat at this junc- and then acting according to circumstanture would be ruinous to our cause. Ices, viz? moving on Winchester, if from cannot think it possible that the enemy the position and attitude of the enemy we will bring any forces to bear upon Wash- are likely to gain a great advantage by
ington till after the question is decided doing so, or else devoting a reasonable there; but if he shonld, troops can be soon time to the organization of the army and sent back from this army by rail to re-instruction of the new troops, preparatory enforce the garrison there.
to an advance on whatever line may be de “ The evidence I have that re-enforce termined. In any event, I regard it as ments are coming to the rebel army con- absolutely necessary to send new regisists in the fact that long columns' of dust ments at once to the old corps, for purextending from Winchester to Charles- poses of instruction, and that old regiments town and from Charlestown in this direc-be filled at once. I have no fears as to tion, and also troops moving this way, an attack on Washington by the line of were seeu last evening. This is corrobo. Manassas. Holding Harper's Ferry as I rated by citizens. Gen. Sumner with his do, they will not run the risk of an attack corps and Williams'g (Banks's) occupies on their flank and rear while they have Harper's Ferry and the surrounding the garrison of Washington in their front. heights. I think he will be able to hold "I rather apprehend a renewal of the his position till re-enforcements arrive. I attempt in Maryland should the river re
“G. B. MCCLELLAN, Maj. Gen. main low for a great length of time, and Maj. Gen. HALLECK,
should they receive considerable addition "Gen.-in-Chief, Washington."
to their force. I would be glad to have
'. Peck's division as soon as possible. On the 27th I made the following re
surprised that Sigel's "men should have port:
been sent to Western Virginia without my .“ HEADQUARTERS ARMY, OP THE POTOMAC, I knowledge. T'he last I heard from you on
“Sept. 27, 1862-10 A. M. the subject was that they were at my dis"All the information in my possession position. In the last battles the enemy goes to prove that the main body of the was undoubtedly greatly superior to us in enemy is concentrated not far from Mar- number, and it was only by very hard tinsturg, with some troops at Charles fighting that we gained the advantage wo town; not many in Winchester. Their did." As it was, the result was at one movements of late have been an extension period very doubtful, and we had all wo towards our right and beyond it. They could do to win the day. If the enemy are receiving re-enforcements in Winches. receives considerable re-enforcements aud Ter, mainly, I think, of couscripts perhaps we none, it is possible that I may have too entirely so, Liisi
much on my hands in the next battle.' My * This army is pot now in condition to own view of the proper policy to be pusi undertake another campaign, nor to bring sured is to retain in Washington merely on another battle, unlese great advantages the force necessary to garrison it, and to
are offered by some mistake of the enemy, send everything else available to re-enforce · or pressing military exigencies render it this arny. The railways give us the means necessary. We are greatly deficient in of promptly re-enforcing Washington officers. Many of the old regiments are should it become necessary. If I am re reduced to mere skeletons. The new'regio enforced, as I ask, and am allowed to take meats aged instruction. Not a day should I my own course, I will hold myself respon. sible for the safety of Washington. Seve the opportunity during this visit to de ral persons recently from Richmond say scribe to him the operations of the army that there are no troops there except con- since the time it left Washington, and scripts, and they few in number. I hope gave him my reasons for not following the to give you details as to late battles by enemy after he crossed the Potomac. this evening I ain about starting again Oo the 5th of October, the division of for Harper's Ferry.
Gen. Cox (about 5,000 men) was ordered “GEO. B. MCCLELLAN, from my command to Western Virginia. i “Maj. Gen. Com.
On the 7th of October I received the fol" Yaj. Gen. HALLECK,
lowing telegram: Gen.-in-Chief, Washington."
"Washington, D.C., Oct., 6, 1862.
J 1. The work of reorganizing, drilling, andle
“I am instructed to telegraph you as
'! follows: The President directs that you supplying the army, I begani at the earliest i
cross the Potomac and give battle to the moment. The different corps were sta
enemy, or drive him south. Your army tioned along the river in the best positions to cover and guard the fords. The great
must move now, while the roads are good.
If you cross the river between the enemy extent of the river front from near Wash | ington to Cumberland, (some one hundred
and Washington, and cover the latter by
your operation, you can be re-enforced with and fifty miles,) together with the line of
| 30,000 men. If you move up the valley of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, was to
the Shenandoah, not more ihan 12,000 or · be carefully watclied and guarded, to pre
15,000 can be sent to you. The President vent,'if possible, the enemy's raids. Rel
advises the interior line between Washconvoisances upon the Virginia side of
ington and the enemy, but does not order the river, for the purpose of learning the
it. He is very desirons that your army, enemy's position ard moveinents, were made frequently, so that our cavalry,
inove as soon as possible. You will im. which from the time we left Washington
mediately report what line you adopt, and had performed the most laborious service,
when you intend to cross the river ; also to
what point the re-enforcements are to be and had from the commencement been de
sent. It is necessary that the plan of your ficient in numbers, was found totally inadequate to the requirements of the ariny.
operations be positively determined on,
before orders are given for building bridges This overwork had broken down the greater part of the horses; disease' had
vi and repairing railroads. I am directed to
add, that the Secretary of War and the appeared among them, and but a very small |
- general-in-chief fully concur with the portion of our original cavalry was fit for 1 pacido
or President in these instructions. service.
“H. W. HALLECK, Gen.-in-Chief. To'such an extent had this arm become reduced, that when Gen. Stuart made his
“ Maj. Gen. McCLELLAN."
; * raid into Pennsylvania on the 11th of Oc- ! . At this time Gen. Averill, with the
tober with two thousand men, I could only greater part of our cfficient cavalry, was in mount eight hundred men to follow him. the vicinity of Cumberland, and Gen.
Harper's Ferry was occupied on the Kolly, the commanding officer, bad that • 22d, and in order to prevent a catastrophe day reported that a large force of the similar to the one which had happened to enemy was advancing on Col. Campbell, at Col. Miles, I immediately, ordered Mary- Saint John's river. This obliged me to land, Bolivar, and Loundon heights to be order Gen. Averill to proceed with his strongly fortified. This was done as far force to the support of Col. Campbell, as the time and means at our disposal per- which delayed his return to the army for mitted..
several days. The main army of the enemy, during On the 10th of October Stuart crossed this time, remained in the vicinity of Mar- the river at McCoy's Ferry, with 2,000 tiusburg and Bunker Hill, and occupied cavalry and a battery of horse artillery, on itself in drafting and cocrcing every able-his raid into Maryland and Pepnsylvania, bodied citizen into the ranks, forcibly making it necessary to use all our cavalry taking their property, where it was not against him. This exhausting service com. voluntarily offered. burning bridges, and pletely broke down nearly all of onr cavalry destroying railroads.
horses, and rendered a remount absolutely On the first day of October, his excel-l indispensable before we could advance op lency the President honored the army of the enemy. . the Potomac with a visit, and remained! The following were the dispositions of several days, during which he went through troops made by me to defeat the purposes the different encampments, reviewed the of this raid: troops, and went over tho battle fields of “Gen. Averill, then at Green Spring, on South Mountain and Antietam." I had the upper Potomac, was ordered to move