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! For duty.
sent and absent.
GRAND AGGREGATE, PRESENT AXD ABSXNT.
of bringing order out of confusion, re- ! The following table exhibits similar assiguing troops and commands, projecting data for the periods stated, including and throwing up defensive works, receive the troops in Maryland and Delaware: ing and organizing, equipping and provid-' ing for the new levies arriving in the city.
• Present. The valuable services of these officers in their various departments, during this and DATE. throughout the subsequent periods of the history of the army of the Potomac, can hardly be sufficiently appreciated. Their
Dec. 1, 1861... 169,4.52 15,102 names and duties will be given in another
2,189 11,470 198,213 Jan. 1, 1862... 191,450
191,480 14.790 2,260' 11,707 219,707 part of this report, and they are com Feb. 1, 1862... 190,806 14,363 2,917) 14,110 222, 196 mended to the favorable notice of the War Mar. 1, 1862... 193,142 13,167 2,108 13,570 221,987 Department,
For convenience of reference the strength The restoration of order in the city of
of the army of the Potomac at subsequent Washington was effected through the ap
periods is given. pointment of a provost marshal, whose authority was supported by the few regular troops within my command. These troops
Absent. were thus in position to act as a reserve, to be sent to any point of attack where
For Duty. Sick. arrest or their services might be most wanted. The Date.
confineenergy and ability displayed by Col. A.
ment. Porter, the provost marshal, and his assistants, and the strict discharge of their duty by the troops, produced the best results, and Washington soon became one of the
April 3014.725 104,610 233l 3,385 41 | 856 115,850/11.037 most quiet cities in the Union.
June 204.665 101,160 496 10,441 44 820 117.226/27 700 887 The new levies of infantry, upon arriving July 10;3,834 85,715 695 15,959, 60 213 106,46634,638 5,762 in Washington, were formed into pro- i --visional brigades and placed in camp in the
April 30. 126,387. Including Franklin suburbs of the city for equipment, instruc June 20. 145,813. Including McCall and Dix.
July 10. 144.886. Including two brigades of Shiel's di. tion, and discipline. As soon as regiments
vision absent, 3,334 men. were in a fit condition for transfer to the forces across the Potomac, they were
In organizing the army of the Potomac, assigned to the brigades serving there.
and preparing it for the field, the first step Brig. Gen. F. J. Porter was at first as
| taken was to organize the infantry into signed to the charge of the provisional
brigades of four regiments each ; retaining brigades. Brig. Gen. A. E. Burnside was
the newly arrived regiments on the Marythe next officer assigned this duty, from
land side until their armament and equip. which, however, he was soon relieved by
ment were issued and they had obtained Brig. Gen. S. Casey, who continued in
some little elementary instruction, before charge of the newly arriving regiments
assigning them permanently to brigades. until the army of the Potomac departed
When the organization of the brigades for the Peninsula, in March, 1862. The was
The was well established, and the troops some newly arriving artillery troops reported to
what disciplined and instructed, divisions, Brig. Gen. William F. Barry, the chief of OF
chief of of three brigades each were gradually artillery, and the cavalry to Brig. Gen.
| formed, as is elsewhere stated in this George Stoneman, the chief of cavalry.
report, although I was always in favor of By the 15th of October, the number of the organization into army corps as an troops in and about Washington, inclusive abstract principle. I did not desire to of the garrison of the city and Alexandria,
form them until the army had been for the city guard and the forces on the Mary
some little time in the field, in order to land shore of the Potomac below Wash
enable the general officers first to acquire ington, and as far as Cumberland above,
the requisite experience as division comthe troops under the command of Gen.
manders on active service, and that I might Dix at Baltimore and its dependencies,
be able to decide from actual trial who were as follows:
were best fitted to exercise these impor
tant commands. Total present for duty.
133,201 For a similar reason I carefully abstained * sick
9,290 - in confinement....
from making any recommendations for the
promotion of officers to the grade of major. Aggregate present.....
When new batteries of artillery arrived Orind aggregate... ..............
132,051 | they also were retali ed in Washington
until their armament and equipment were | 4, and the tenth New York volunteers, completed, and their instruction sufficiently which joined subsequently. They remained advanced to justify their being assigned to from the commencement under the comdivisions The same course was pursued mand of Brig. Gen. George Sykes, major, in regard to cavalry. I regret that circum- third infantry, United States army. stances have delayed the chief of cavalry, Gen. George Stoneman, in furnishing his
ARTILLERY. report upon the organization of that arm The creation of an adequate artillery of service. It will, however, be forwarded establishment for an army of so large as soon as completed, and will, doubtless, proportions was a formidable undertaking; show that the difficult and important duties and had it not been that the country intrusted to him were efficiently performed. possessed in the regular service a body He encountered and overcame, as far as of accomplished and energetic artillery it was possible, continual and vexatious officers, the task would have been almost obstacles arising from the great deficiency hopeless. of cavalry arms and equipments, and the The charge of organizing this most imentire inefficiency of many of the regimental portant arm was confided to Major (afterofficers first appointed; this last difficulty wards Brig.-Gen.) William F. Barry, chief was, to a considerable extent, overcome in of artillery, whose industry and zeal the cavalry, as well as in the infantry and achieved the best results. The report of artillery, by the continual and prompt Gen. Barry is appended among the acaction of courts-martial and boards of companying documents. By referring to examination.
it, it will be observed that the following As rapidly as circumstances permitted, principles were adopted as the basis of every cavalry soldier was armed with a organization : sabre and revolver, and at least two ~ 1. That the proportion of artillery squadrons in every regiment with carbines should be in proportion of at least two and
It was intended to assign at least one one-half pieces to 1,000 men, to be exy regiment of cavalry to each division of the panded, if possible, to three pieces to 1,000
active army, besides forming a cavalry men. reserve of the regular regiments and some “2. That the proportion of rifled guns picked regiments of volunter cavalry. Cir- should be restricted to the system of the cumstances beyond my control rendered it | United States ordnance department; and of impossible to carry out this intention fully, Parrot and the 'smooth bores' (with the and the cavalry force serving with the exception of a few howitzers for special army in the field was never as large as it service) to be exclusively the twelveought to have been.
pounder gun, of the model of 1857, It was determined to collect the regular variously called the 'gun-howitzer,' the infantry to form the nucleus of a reserve.light twelve-pounder,' or the · Napoleon.' ✓ The advantage of such a body of troops at " 3. That each field battery should, if
a critical moment, especially in an army practicable, be composed of six guns, and constituted mainly of new levies, imper- none to be less than four guns, and in all fectly disciplined, has been frequently cases the guns of each battery should be illustrated in military history, and was of uniform calibre. brought to the attention of the country at “4. That the field batteries were to be the first battle of Manassas. I have not assigned to divisions, and not to brigades, been disappointed in the estimate formed and in proportion of four to cach division, of the value of these troops. I have of which one was to be a battery of regulars, always found them to be relied on. When the remainder of volunteers, the captain of ever they have been brought under fire the regular battery to be the commandant they have shown the utmost gallantry and of artillery of the division. In the event tenacity. The regular infantry, which had of several divisions constituting an army been collected from distant posts and corps, at least one-half of the divisional which had been recruiterl as rapidly as the artillery was to constitute the reserve slow progress of recruiting for the regular artillery of the corps. service would allow, added to the small “5. That the artillery reserve of the battalion with McDowell's army, which I whole army should consist of one hundred found at Washington on my arrival, guns, and should comprise, besides a suffiamounted, on the 30th of August, to 1,040 cient number of light : mounted batteries, men ; on the 28th of February, 1862, to all the guns of position, and until the 2,682, and on the 30th of April, to 4,603. cavalry were massed, all the borse artilOn the 17th of May, 1862, they were lery. assigned to Gen. Porter's corps for organi- “6. That the amount of ammunition to zation as a division, with the fifth regiment accompany field batteries was not to be New York volunteers, which joined May I less than four hundred rounds per gan.
"7. A siege train of fifty pieces. This ber obviously insufficient, and which imwas subsequently expanded for special paired to a great degree, in consequence service at the siege of Yorktown, to very of the want of rank and official influence nearly one hundred pieces, and comprised of the commanders of corps and division the unusual calibres and enormously heavy artillery, the efficiency of the arm. As weight of metal of two 200-pounders, five this faulty organization can be suitably 100-pounders, and ten 13-inch sea-coast corrected only by legislative action, it is mortars."
earnestly boped that the attention of the As has been before stated, the chief of proper authorities may at an early day be artillery reports the whole of the field invited to it. artillery of the army of the Potomac, When there were so many newly orJuly 28, 1861, was comprised of nine im- ganized volunteer field batteries, many of perfectly equipped batteries, of thirty guns, whom received their first and only instruc650 men, and 400 horses. In March, 1862, tion in the intrenched camps covering when the whole ariny took the field, it con- Washington during the three or four insisted of ninety-two batteries, of 520 guns, clement months of the winter of 1861-62, 12,500 men, and 11,000 horses, fully there was, of course, much to be improved. equipped and in readiness for active field Many of the volunteer batteries, however, service; of the whole force thirty batteries evinced such zeal and intelligence, and were regulars, and sixty-two batteries availed themselves so industriously of the volunteers. During the short period of instructions of the regular officers, their seven months, all of this immense amount commanders, and the example of the reguof material was issued by the ordnance lar batteries, their associates, that they department and placed in the hands of the made rapid progress, and attained a de artillery troops after their arrival in greee of proficiency highly creditable. Washington. About one-fourth of all the The designations of the different bat. volunteer batteries brought with them from teries of artillery, both regular and voluntheir respective States a few guns and teer, follow within a few pages. carriages, but they were nearly all of such The following distribution of regiments peculiar calibre as to lack uniformity with and batteries was made, as a preliminary the more modern and more serviceable organization of the forces at hand, shortly ordpance with which the other batteries after my arrival in Washington. The in were armed, and they therefore had to be fantry, artillery, aud cavalry, as fast as withdrawn and replaced by more suitable collected and brought into primary organi. material. While about one-sixth came zation, were assigned to brigades and supplied with horses and harness, less than divisions, as indicated in the subjoined one-tenth were apparently fully equipped statements. for service when they reported; and every Organization of division of the Potomac, ; one of these required the supply of many deficiencies of material, and very extensive
August 4, 1861. instruction in the theory and practice of Brig. Gen. Hunter's Brigade.—230, their special arm.
25th, 35th, and 37th regiments New York The operations on the Peninsula by the volunteers. army of the Potomac commenced with a Brig. Gen. Heintzelman's Brigade.full field artillery force of fifty-two batte- 5th regiment Maine volunteers, 16th, 26th, ries of two hundred and ninety-nine guns, and 27th regiments New York volunteers, To this must be added the field artillery of and Tidball's battery,(A,) 2d United States Franklin's division of McDowell's corps, artillery. which joined a few days before the capture Brig. Gen. W. T. Sherman's Brigade. Vof Yorktown, but was not disembarked 9th and 14th regiments Massachusetts vol.
from its transports for service until after unteers, DeKalb regiment New York volthe battle of Williamsburg, and the field unteers, 4th regiment Michigan volunteers, artillery of McCall's division of McDow- Hamilton's battery, (E) 3d United States ell's corps, (four batteries, twenty-two artillery, and company 1, 2d United States guns,) which joined in June, a few days cavalry. before the battle of Mechanicsville, (June Brig Gen. Kearney's Brigade.-1st 26, 1862.) making a grand total of field 2d, and 3d regiments New Jersey volun. artillery, at any time with the army of the teers, Green's battery, (G) 2d United Peninsula, of sixty batteries of three hun- ! States artillery, and company G, 2d United dred and forty-three guns. With this States cavalry. large force, saving in six corps d'armee of Brig. Gen. Hooker's Brigade.-1st and eleven divisions, and the artillery reserve, | 11th regiments Massachusetts volunteers, the only general and field officers were one | 2d regiment New Hampshire volunteers, brigadier general, four colonels, three lieu- and 26th regiment Pennsylvania volunteers. tenant colonels, and three majors, a num-/ Col. Key's Brigade.-220, 24th, and
30th regiment New York volunteers, and States infantry, 8th and 1st companies 14th regiment New York State militia. United States infantry, and Sturgis' rifles · Brig. Gen. Franklin's Brigade.- 15th, (Illinois volunteers.) 18th, 31st, and 32d regiments New York volunteers, Platt's battery, (M,) 2d United
4. BANK'S DIVISION. States artillery, and company C, New
Cavalry.- Four companies 3d regiment York (Lincoln) cavalry.
New York cavalry, (Van Allen's.) Col. Blenker's Brigade.--8th and 27th Artillery.- Best's battery E, 4th United regiments New York volunteers, 27th regi.
States artillery, detachment 9th New York ment Pennsylvania volunteers, and Gari- artillery, Matthew's battery E, 1st P'ennhaldi Guard, New York volunteers. sylvania artillery, Tompkin's battery A,
Col. Richardson's Brigade.-12th regi- 1st Rhode Island artillery. ment New York volunteers, and 2d and 3d Infantry.--Abercrombie's brigade: 12th regiments Michigan volunteers.
| Massachusetts, 12th and 16th Indiana, and Brig. Gen. Stone's Brigade.-34th and 30th Pennsylvania volunteers. Stiles's Tammany regiments New York volunteers, brigade: 3d Wisconsin, 29th Pennsylva1st regiment Minnesota volunteers, and 2dnia, and 13th Massachusetts volunteers, .regiment New York State Militia.
and 9th New York State militia. GorCol. Wm. F. Smith's Brigade.-2d and don's brigade : 2d Massachusetts, 28th and 3d regiments Vermont volunteers, 6th 19th New York, 5th Connecticut, 46th and regiment Maine volunteers, 33d regiment 28th Pennsylvania, and Ist Maryland vol. New York volunteers, company H, 2d unteers. United States cavalry, and Captain Mott's
M'DOWELL'S DIVISION. New York battery.
Cavalry.—20 New York cavalry, (Har. Col. Couch's Brigade.—2d regiment ris's Light,) Col. Davis. Rhode Island volunteers, 7th and 10th Artillery.--Battery M, 2d, and battery regiments Massachusetts volunteers, and G. 1st United States artillery. 36th regiment New York volunteers.
Infantry.-Keys's brigade: 14th New The 2d regiment Maine, the 2d regiment | York State Militia. and 22d. 24th, and Wisconsin, and the 13th regiment New 30th New York volunteers. Wadsworth's York volunteers, stationed at Fort Corco-brigade: 12th, 21st, 23d, and 35th New ran.
York volunteers. King's brigade : 2d, 6th, The 21st regiment New York volunteers,
and 7th Wisconsin, and 19th Indiana volstationed at Fort Runyon.
unteers. The 17th regiment New York volunteers, stationed at Fort Ellsworth.
HEINTZELMAN'S DIVISION. By October the new levies bad arrived | Cavalry.-1st New Jersey cavalry, Coi. in sufficient numbers, and the process of Halsted. organization so far carried on that the cou- Artillery.-Thompson's battery C, United struction of divisions had been effected. I States artillery.
The following statement exhibits the Infantry.-- Richardson's brigade: 2d, 3d, composition of the army, October 15, 1861. and 5th Michigan, and 37th New York
volunteers. Sedgwick's brigade: 3d and 4th Organization of army of the Potomac, | Maine, and 38th and 40th New York V October 15, 1861.
volunteers. Jameson's brigade ; 320, 63d, 1. Brig. Gen. George Stoneman's cav 61st, and 45th Pennsylvania volunteers, alry command.- 5th United States cay- and Wild Cat reserves, (Pennsylvania alry, 4th Pennsylvania cavalry, Oneida | Volunteers.) cavalry, (one company,) 11th Pennsylva
F. J. PORTER'S DIVISION. nia cavalry, (Harlan's,) and Barker's Illi
Cavalry.—3d Pennsylvania cavalry, Col. nois cavalry, (one company.) 2. Col. H. J. Hunt's artillery reserve.
Averill, and 8th Pennsylvania cavalry, Col. Batteries L, A, and B, 2d United States Gregg: artillery, batteries K and F, 3d United
Artillery.—Battery E, 2d, and battery States artillery, battery K, 4th United
*E, 3d United States artillery.
Infantry.-Morell's brigade: 33d PennStates artillery, battery H, 1st United States artillery, and battery A, 5th United
sylvania, 4th Michigan, 9th Massachusetts, States artillery.
and 4th New York volunteers. Martin.
dale's brigade: 13th New York, 2d Maine, 3. CITY GUARD, BRIG. GEN. ANDREW PORTER. and 18th Massachusetts volunteers, and
Cavalry. Companies A and E, 4th DeKalb regiment New York volunteers, United States cavalry.
Butterfield's brigade : 50th New York, Artillery.-Battery K, 5th United States 83d Pennsylvania, (Col. McLean,) 17th artillery.
Infantry.-2d and 3d battalions United , *This battery was transferred :o Sherman's expedition
and 25th New York volunteers, and Stock-! Infantry. - brigade : 1st and 11th ton's independent Michigan regiment. Massachusetts, 2d New Hampshire, 26th FRANKLIN'S DIVISION.
| Pennsylvania, and 1st Michigan volunCavalry.-1st New York cavalry, Col. and 5th regiments Excelsior brigade, New
(teers. Sickles's brigade: 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, MeReynoids.
BLENKER'S BRIGADE. (New Jersey volunteers.)
| Cavalry.- 4th New York cavalry, Infantry.-Kearney's brigade : 1st, 2d, I (mounted rifles,) Col. Dickel. 3d, and 4th New Jersey volunteers. Slo- Artillery.-One battery. cum's brigade: 16th, 26th, and 27th New ! . Infantry.-8th and 29th New York, 27th, York, and 6th Maine volunteers. Newton's and 35th Pennsylvania, Garibaldi Guard brigade: 15th, 18th, 31st, and 32d New and Cameron rifles, (New York volunYork volunteers.
teers.) STONE'S DIVISION.
Smitu's DivisION. Cavalry.—Six companies 3d New York | Cavalry.-5th Pennsylvania Cavalry, (Van Allen) cavalry.
(Cameron dragoons.) Col Friedman. Artillery.--Kirby's battery I, 1st United Artillery.--Ayres' battery F, 5th United States, Vaughn's battery B, 1st Rhode States artillery, Mott's 2d New York inIsland artillery, and Bunting's 6th New dependent baitery, and Barr's battery E, York independent battery,
1st Pennsylvania artillery. Infantry.--Gorman's brigade : 2d New Infaniry.
brigade: 2d, 3d, 4th, York State Militia, 1st Minnesota, 15th and 5th Vermont volunteers. Steven's Massachusetts, and 34th New York volun- brigade: 35th and 49th New York and teers and Tammany regiment, (New York 6th Maine volunteers, and *79th New York volunteers.) Lander's brigade; 19th and State militia. Hancock's brigade : *47th 20th Massachusetts, and 7th Michigan and 49th Pennsylvania, 43d New York, volunteers, and a company of Massachu and 5th Wisconsin volupteers. Companies setts sharpshooters. “Baker's brigade: B and E, Berdan's sharpshooters. Pennsylvania volunteers, (1st, 2d, 3d, Casey's provisional brigades.-5th, 6th, California.)
and 7th New Jersey volunteers, *Round
Head regiment, (Pennsylvania volunteers,) BUELL'S Division.
battalion District of Columbia volunteers, Artillery.-- Batteries D and H, 1st Penn- 40th Pennsylvania, 8th New Jersey, and sylvania artillery.
4th New Hampshire volunteers. Infantry.-Couch's brigade: 2d Rhode 5. Garrison of Alexandria.-Brig. Gen. Island, 7th and 10th Massachusetts, and Montgomery, military governor. Cameron 36th New York volunteers. Graham's Guard, (Pennsylvania volunteers.) brigade: 23d and 31st Pennsylvania, and Garrison of Fort Albany.-14th Mas67th (1st Long Island) and 65th (1st Uni- sachusetts volunteers. ted States chasseurs) New York volun- ! Garrison of Fort Richardson.-4th teers. Peck's brigade: 13th and 21st Connecticut volunteers. Pennsylvania, and 62d (Anderson Zou- Garrison of Fort Washington.--Comaves) and 55th New York volunteers. pany D, 1st United States artillery, comM'CALL'S DIVISION.
panies H and I, 37th New York volunteers,
and United States recruits unassigned. Cavalry.-1st Pennsylvania reserve car
6. DIX'S DIVISION, BALTIMORE. alry, Col. Bayard.
Artillery.--Easton's battery A, Cooper's Cavalry.—Company of Pennsylvania battery B, and Kein's battery G, 1st Penn-cavalry. sylvania artillery.
1 Artillery.- Battery I, 2d United States Infantry.-Meade's brigade: 1st rifles artillery, 2d Massachusetts light battery, Pennsylvania reserves, 4th, 3d. 7th, 11th, and a battery of New York artillery. and 2d Pennsylvania reserve infantry.
1 Infantry.-3d, 4th, and 5th New York, brigade: 5th, 1st, and 8th Pennsyl- 17th and 25th Massachusetts, 21st Indiana, vania reserve infantry. brigade: 10th, 6th Michigan, 4th Wisconsin, 7th Maine, 6th, 9th, and 12th Pennsylvania reserve 2d Maryland battalion, and Reading city infantry.
On the 8th of March, 1862, the PresiHOOKER'S DIVISION.
dent directed, by the following order, the Cavalry.—Eight companies 3d Indiana organization of the active portion of the cavalry, Lieut. Col. Carter. Artillery.-Elder's battery E. lst Uni-!* The 79th New York State militia, the 47th Pena.
sylvania volunteers, and the Round-Head regiment ted States artillery.
were transferred to Gen. Sherman's expedition.