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enforced, be considered, the view is calculated to afford pleasure to the benevolent mind.
The City Gaol at Stone Bowgate, has long furnished a melancholy contrast. Situated in a dank dark spot, confined in its dimensions, and so constructed as almost wholly to exclude both light and air, it is highly injurious to health; and facing a great thoroughfare passage, by which means the rabble from without can hold communication with the abandoned within, it is rendered extremely prejudicial to morals, and a common nuisance to the city. It is an act of justice, however, to the late and present magistrates, to observe, that a new prison is erecting, upon the plan of that for the county, which, when finished, will do away what has long been matter of just complaint and general reprehension; and it is devoutly to be wished that the like activity, as to internal regulation, and the same spirit of humanity, will prevail, which so eminently distinguish the regulations of the county prison, and thereby redound to the honour of its magistracy.
Over the butter-market an Assembly Room was built in 1757, for the subscription balls of the citizens. A larger one, north of the cathedral, is appropriated to the inhabitants of the Close.
A Theatre has been recently opened, in the King's Arms Yard, for the accommodation of the Children of Thespis, and to add to the amusements of the place. It is a neat but small brick building, and consists of a pit, two rows of boxes, and one gallery. Plays are performed here during the race time, and for about two months in the autumn.
Among the distinguished natives of Lincoln, may be named that eminent physician and clerk, the late Dr. WILLIs. He was educated at Brazen-nose College, Oxford, where he took a master's degree, in the year 1740. After entering into holy orders, he was preferred to the rectory of St. John's, Wapping. Having a partiality to the medical profession, he determined to practice: for which purpose, in the year 1759, he accumulated the degrees of bachelor and doctor of physic at his own university. In this profession he soon became eminent; and paying particular attenT t 4 tion tion to a malady, whose causes and cure were little understood, he became celebrated for the treatment of insanity. He went to reside in his native county, and opened a large house for this purpose at Greatford, where he was so successful, that on the late convalescence of our sovereign, his advice was sought for on that melancholy occasion. Having fortunately restored the king's health, the fame of his professional service to this country induced the court of Portugal to solicit his assistance for the queen, then labouring under a similar affliction; but though, after some months trial, he was unsuccessful, his reputation remained undiminished. It was a confirmed case, which completely baffled all medical skill, and resisted the force of medicine. At the time of his death, a number of afflicted persons of family and respectability were under his care at Greatford and Shillingthorpe, where the Doctor had establishments for such patients. He lived highly esteemed, and died greatly lamented, at an advanced age, December 5, 1807; and his remains were interred in Greatford church.
Having thus detailed a few particulars respecting the city, I shall proceed to give an account of the places most worthy of note in the division of Lindsey; first specifying the hundreds and parishes, and next recording some topographical notices of the towns, antiquities, seats, &c.
LAWRESS WAPENTAKE contains the following parishes:— Aisthorpe, Barlings, Brattleby, Broxholme, Burton, Buslingthorpe, Carlton North, Carlton South, Dunholme, Faldingworth, Fiskarton, Fristhorpe, Grutwell, Nettleham, Reepham, Riseholme, extraparochial hamlet, Sarilby with Ingilby, Scampton, Scothorn, Snarford, Sudbrooke, Thorpe West, Torksey, Wilton, Willingham. and Cherry.
At BARLINGs, to the east of Lincoln, was a Premonstratensian abbey, now in ruins, of regular canons, founded by Ralph • * de de Haye, in the time of Henry the Second, A. D. 1154. It was first situated, Tanner says, at Barling-Grange; but Ralph de Haye having bestowed on the religious a more eligible spot, called Oxeney, the abbey was removed thither; “Hence it was sometimes called the Abbey of Oreney, or de Oreniaco, but generally Barlings.” It was much enriched by the liberal donations of Alice Lucey, Countess of Lincoln, and subsequently by further grants from several illustrious families. In the twentysixth year of Henry the Eighth, the revenues were rated, according to Tanner, at 2421. 5s. 11d. The famous Dr. Makerel, who headed the Lincolnshire rebels, under the assumed name of Caplain Cobler, was abbot of this monastery. The cause of that insurrection was the suppression of some religious houses, or as it is stated by others, the imposing an unpopular tax. Makerel was taken, and hanged at Tyburn, for denying the king's supremacy, March 29th, 1537. The hexagonal tower at Barlings, engraved by Buck, is nearly down; nothing of the building remaining but part of a wall, and some pieces of mutilated columns. These were clustered; and the fragments shew, that they were richly ornamented with capitals, terminating in light and elegant soliage. Not far distant is
SUDBRooke Holme, the seat of Richard Ellison, Esq. M. P. for the city of Lincoln, and lieutenant-colonel of the royal North Lincoln militia. The mansion, a handsome brick edifice, was built by the late Richard Ellison, Esq. The parish is a rectory, in the patronage of the Bishop of Lincoln. The old church being dilapidated, a new one was erected by the liberality of the proprietor of Sudbrooke Holme. In the church-yard is a fragment of an old cross. South CARLtoN is a small village, famous for being formerly the seat of the Monsons. Sir William Monson, who was knighted at the siege of Cadiz by the Earl of Essex, was a naval captain in several expeditions against the Spaniards, in the time of Queen Elizabeth. He took a carrack of sixteen hundred tons, at Cazimbria, near Portugal ; and, for that gallant action, was made an admiral. admiral. He wrote an account of the Spanish wars from 1585. to 1602; stood high in fame at the commencement of James the First's reign, and died shortly after. Sir John Monson, Knight. of the Bath, and a Baronet, was also of the same family; studied at the Inns of Court, and became an eminent lawyer. During the troubles between King Charles and his parliament, he attended that monarch, and assisted in all his councils and treaties. After suffering much for his loyalty, his estates being sequestered, he purchased the privilege of retirement at the expence of 2642l. Here he wrote “An Essay upon Afflictions,” “An Antidote against the Errors of Opinions,” and “Supreme Power and Common Right.” The grandfather of the present Lord Monson was created a baron, by the title of Baron Monson, of Burton, in Lincolnshire, by King George the Second. The present family mansion is at BURtoN, a village about two miles south of North Carlton. The house is seated in a finely wooded park.
At ScAM PTon, a village about six miles north of Lincoln, was discovered, in the year 1795, the foundations, &c. of a Roman villa. It was situated on the brow of the hill, at a short distance north of the Roman road, which communicated between Lindum Colonia, and Agelocum, on the Trent. The character and dimensions of it have been carefully investigated by the Rev. C. Illingworth, the worthy rector of this parish, who has described it with plates, &c. in a topographical history of the place. From the plan, including an area of 200 feet square, the number of apartments, which were upwards of forty, and the dimensions of some, with their decorations of painted, stuccoed walls, and tessellated pavements, it appears to have been a villa of considerable elegance and distinction. Out of thirteen pavements, only one was perfect, which was engraved by Mr. Fowler, of Winterton. Some of the walls were of great thickness; and various Roman antiquities were found scattered over the foundations. In two of the rooms were discovered skeletons, which, from some of them lying upon the foundation walls, others being inclosed in a sort of stone coffins, rudely formed of one hollow stone covered
by by another, and all placed in a position due east and west, Mr. I. concluded, “that some Saxon, or other Christian chapel might have been erected on the site of the villa ";” which conclusion he considered was supported from the circumstance of its being upon record, that a chapel, dedicated to St. Pancras, did exist as early as the commencement of the twelfth century on that spot, near to a chalybeate spring, still called St. Pancras’ Well. In domesday book the manor which was granted to the Gaunt family, is stated to contain ten carucates of land. And it is a singular circumstance, that the lands in Lincolnshire, as set forth in that celebrated survey, were measured and taxed, not according to hides, but carucates; and whenever these are mentioned, without reference to hides, a carucate was equal in quantity to the hide, which was about six score acres, though the quantity varied in different counties. “In provincia Lincolnie non sunt hide, sicut in aliis provinciis, sed pro hidis sunt carucata terrarum et non minus valent quam hide t.” An ancient custom prevailed in this manor, as it did in many parts of the north, called Inham, but more properly Intok, or Intak, which signifies, any corner or part of a field fenced out from the fallow, and sown with beans, peas, oats, or tares. In the church are several monuments of the Bolles family, anciently lords of the manor. At a short distance from the church formerly stood the family residence, Scampton-Hall, erected on the site of the West Grange, belonging to Kirksted Abbey. But upon the death of the last Sir John Bolles, Bart. in 1714, his sister and heiress, Mrs. Sarah Bolles, residing at Shrewsbury,
* At the early dawn of Christianity in this kingdom, it was usual to erect buildings for Christian worship on the site of others which had been dedicated to Pagan superstition. The first cathedral of St. Paul's was built on the site of a temple dedicated to Diana. The parish church of Richborough stands on the site of a sacellum belonging to the Praetorium. And the same is observable at Porchester, Verulam, and other Roman stations.
f Walter de Witteley, Monk of Peterboro'. Fol. 37.