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the Parliamentary Report, Middlesex, including London and westminster, contained 112,912 houses, which were inhabited by 199,854 families; and 5,171 uninhabited houses. Of these persons, 373,655 were males, and 444,474 were females: 18,417 of them were employed in agriculture, and 162,260 in trades and manufactures: and the total number of persons is set down in the printed report at 818,129.
From this comparative view it appears, that the number of houses in Middlesex is only 419 more than the total of Lancashire; and that the occupied houses of the latter county exceed the total of the former by 1,358. The difference of inhabitants is more disproportionate; and this is accounted for by the unhealthful and miserably crowded manner of filling the houses with lodgers, which is so universal among the lower classes of people in London. Dr. Aikin, in Stockdale's “Description of the Country round Manchester,” has entered into a long disquisition on this subject; but, for want of satisfactory documents, has, with conjectural data, drawn erroneous conclusions. “The idea of Lancashire containing as many inhabitants as Middlesex, and which are there estimated at a million, ought certainly to be qualified and corrected, as it can by no means be admitted by the political arithmetician, without the most authentic and unequivocal proof; for, supposing its two great towns of Liverpool and Manchester to contain 75,000 each; its four other principal towns 50,000 amongst them; 50,000 more in its manufacturing parts; and 50,000 more in its remaining parishes, this would only give 300,000; nor will any probable data give a number bearing any considerable proportion to a million.” Such conjectural calculations shew the fallacy of making any deductions, or forming any decided system, from the imperfect returns of the population that have hitherto been made. By the following Table, the totals of the county, of the different hundreds, and of some towns, will be seen at one view:
* W. Pitt: in a note to Holt's General View, &c. p. 216.
The county of Lancaster sends fourteen members to Parliament; two knights for the shire; and two representatives for each of the following boroughs—Lancaster, Liverpool, Preston, Newton, Wigan, and Clithero: an account of these will be given under their respective heads. One of the members for the county is returned through the interest and influence of the Earl of Derby : and the other is nominated by what is usually termed, the Independent interest. Respecting the common judicial administration, Lancashire is included in the Northern circuit, and the county assizes are held at the town of Lancaster, as are also the Quarter Sessions. Though this county does not abound in antiquities, yet it formerly contained a few castles and monastic buildings, as will be seen by the following list: CASTLEs—at Clithero; Gleaston; Holland; Hornby; Lancaster; Peele; and Thurland. RELIGIOUs Houses—at Burscough; Cartmel; and Coningshead. Augustine Priories: At Cockersand, an Abbey of the Premonstatentian order: Furness and Whalley, Cistertian Abbeys: - - Holland,
Holland, a Benedictine priory: Hornby, Premonstratentian priory : Lancaster, Lathom, and Penwortham, Benedictine priories: Manchester, a college. The history, &c. of these, with the principal seats of the county, will be related in the course of the ensuing pages.
The following Bridges belong to, and are repaired by the County of Lancaster:
Bridges. Rivers. | Roads repaired by the County.
Barton . . . . . Irwell . . . . . 740 Feet in all.
The following are become County Bridges by Indictment:
Colme (1784) . . . Colne Water . . 300 Feet each End. x
Lee, Rake Foot - - *****}| Rawtenstall waters : None. Road repaired Ra and Rushbed, - tione Tenure, (1799) . . Barley Green (1802) None.
There are also 481 public Bridges repaired by the different hundreds within the county, besides Township Bridges, &c.
RoADs.--From the number of carriages, and great quantity of heavy materials that are incessantly passing in the vicinity of the great manufacturing towns of this county, from a wet climate, soft soil, &c. the public roads are generally much damaged, and in many places are absolutely in such an uneven and bad state, as to become dangerous to the traveller. Near Manchester, Liverpool, and some other towns, most of the roads are paved, or pitched like the London streets; and as these are not so easily or cheaply repaired as the common roads, they are suffered to remain very uneven, and in some parts abound with deep holes. “Pave
Vol. IX. D ments,”
ments,” observes Mr. Holt, “are the most expensive and most disagreeable of all roads, but we have no other material that will stand heavy carriage.” The expense of this pavement is usually from 1s. 2d. to 2s. per square yard. Copper scoria, or flag, has been successfully employed, and makes excellent side-road to the pavement. This was particularly adopted in the neighbourhood of Warrington. Most of the paving-stones are imported from the Welsh coasts, and cost about six shillings per ton. Some of the turnpike-roads in the vicinity of Manchester, paved with these stones, cost from 1500l. to 2000l. per mile. - “In the northern, and north-eastern parts of the county, materials for making roads are found upon the spot; the lime-stone, when broken, binds together, and makes an excellent road; but in the midland, and southern parts, the materials, except what the rivers afford, are brought from the Welsh and Scotch coasts, and at considerable expense *.” It has been remarked, that this county abounds with roads, and that many of these are unnecessarily wide, and others could be entirely dispensed with. In proof of this opinion, Mr. Holt, from the documents of Mr. Yates, who surveyed the county, states that the “parish of Goosnargh contains 3703 acres, and the length of roads in that parish is nearly forty miles, besides three miles of bridle road, and three miles of road repaired by certain individuals. The township of Walton near Liverpool, which only contains 1980 statute acres, has a public road two miles and a half in length; parochial roads, eleven miles two furlongs, besides occupation roads. An ingenious roadmaker in the neighbourhood of Warrington, has of late exploded the common conver form, and adopted that of an inclined-plane; the inclination just sufficient to throw off occasional water. By this alteration he finds that a road becomes more durable; for when it is convex all heavy carriages use the centre of it, and keep in the same track.” In Mr. Holt's volume are several judicious and useful observations on this subject, with reference to some
other writers who have descanted on the same. - Lancashire
* Holt's General View, p. 186.