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A ConCERT-Room was erected here in 1777, and its meetings are well supported by amateur musicians, and are generally frequented by a crowded audience. From places of information and amusement let us turn to such as have been raised for the purposes of restraining and punishing vice. THE NEw BAILEY PRIson, in Salford, was finished in 1790, and is a large appropriate pile of building. It is constructed on Howard's plan, and was raised at the expense of the hundred of Salford, to which district it is wholly appropriated. The whole building is inclosed within a square wall of 120 yards in diameter. At the entrance is a handsome rusticated building, containing the sessions-room, wherein weekly and quarterly courts are assembled; and adjoining it are with-drawing rooms for the magistrates, counsel, jurors, witnesses, &c. The Turnkey lives on the ground floor, and behind the lodge, in the midst of a large area, is the prison, of the form of a cross, three stories high. From the centre of each story all the four wards, with the door of every cell, may be seen. No prisoner here is fettered; but, if refractory, is removed to a solitary cell. All the prisoners wear blue and red before conviction, and blue and yellow afterwards; and no person is suffered to be idle, people of all trades being constantly employed. It is under the direction of the magistrates of the division, and affords a model of management for other prisons, which cannot be too strongly recommended. THE BARRAcks are situated in Hulme, a township in the suburbs of Manchester, and are constructed in an uniform plan, for the accommodation of dragoons. The civil government of Manchester is vested in a boroughreeve, who is annually chosen; two constables, and a deputy constable; and the township of Salford is under a similar government. Freed from a corporation and the degrading slavery and cramping powers of a chartered borough, the inhabitants are never annoyed with the tantalizing contests of political elections, and every tradesman is at liberty to commence and pursue his business unmolested by arbitrary laws. For the administration of
justice, several respectable magistrates assemble on Wednesday and Saturday mornings, weekly. Quarter sessions, also, are held four times a year; when, from press of business, the court has been sometimes kept sitting nearly a fortnight. The lord of the manor, too, holds a baronial court monthly, for the recovery of small debts; and in Salford, which is a royal demesne, is a hundred court, for the same purpose, holden under the king, by the right honourable the Earl of Sefton, once a fortnight. BRIDGEs of communication between the two towns, and more distant places, over the Irwell, are the Old Bridge, which was erected about the time of Edward the Third, of three arches, on which was a chapel in Leland's time, since used as a dungeon, but removed in 1778, when the bridge was made wider. Black Friars' Bridge is built of wood, though flagged with stone for foot passengers only. The New Bridge was erected in 1783, and its expenses defrayed by subscription shares of 40l. each. It is handsomely built of stone, with three arches, besides a small one left open as an acknowledgment of the Duke of Bridgewater's right to a towing path to his quay on the Salford side of the river. The subscribers, at the end of eighteen years, having reimbursed themselves by a toll on passengers of every description, with an interest of seven and a half per cent on the original capital, not only purchased buildings, to be pulled down, at the upper end of Bridge Street, to extend the shambles, and widen the access to the bridges, but generously relinquished all future toll to the public, though, in the year preceeding it had been let for 1150l. per annum”. The small stream of Irk, which passes through a part of the town, has six bridges upon it; and the Medlock, a larger current, has no fewer than nine bridges in various parts of the town. That of Oxford Street, in particular, merits much attention. Shooter's Brook has three bridges over it, and there is one of three arches over Shude-hill Pits. Not to notice inore than twenty over the different canals, the grand aqueduct of Ashton canal over Shuler's Brook, in a diagonal direction, is of singular construction, and is truly picturesque on the approach from Piccadilly. Neither must we omit the tunnel at Knot-mill, through which the Rochdale canal passes, to join the Duke of Bridgewater's below Castle-field; which tunnel passes under the Street leading to Castle Quay, at each end of which are bridge-like battlements in Gaythorn Street and Castle-Field. The conveniences for conveying goods both to the east and west, as well as to London, are almost incalculable. About forty years ago, only eight flats (vessels so called) were employed in the trade between this town and Liverpool; but now more than 120 are constantly in motion. The land-carriage also has increased, in the same period, more than in equal proportion. The canals, in like manner, are continually floating goods to Hull, &c. Waggons and carts are employed in abundance. Eighteen coaches leave Manchester daily, for London and different places, and eight others three times a week; whereas two only left this place twice a week, so late as in 1770, one of them to London, and the other to Liverpool. In 1754, the Flying Coach engaged to be ia London in four days and a half; now the nuail coaches constantly run it in thirty hours; and the Defiance and Telegraph coaches reached Manchester, from London, on the peace in Qctober, 1802, in less than twenty hours. * The MANUFACTUREs of Manchester may be said to constitute the very soul of the place, and the factories its body. Whilst the former give animation and spirit to the genius and energies of man, the latter are designed and executed by slim to suit the progressive improvements of science, and as best adapted to the vastness of the concerns. To furnish a full and satisfactory account of all the operations and complicated parts of them would require several volumes; and the nature of this work will not allow low many pages. A few historical memoranda, and miscellaneous notices, must therefore suffice. In the fifth and sixth years of the reign of Edward the Sixth, an act passed for the better manufacture of woollen cloth, wherein the Manchester-cottons, as then called, and Manchester-frizes, are directed to be made of a proper length and breadth, which cottons were certainly then made from wool. In the year 1557, another act passed, to amend the preceding; and recites, in the same terms, the Manchester and Lancashire manufactures. Another act, for the regulation of sealing the cloth by the Queen's Aulneger, passed in 1565. The trade of Manchester is described, in 1650, as “not inferior to that of many cities in the kingdom, chiefly consisting in woollen-frizes, fustians, sack-cloths, mingled stuffs, caps, inkles, tapes, points, &c. whereby not only the better sort of men are employed, but also the very children, by their own labour, can maintain themselves. There are, besides, all kinds of foreign merchandize brought and returned, by the merchants of the town, amounting to the sum of many thousand pounds.” In a small treatise, written by Lewis Roberts, a merchant, and entitled, “The Merchant's Map of Commerce,” 1641, the author states, that “the town of Manchester buys the linen yarn of the Irish, in great quantity, and, weaving it, returns the same again to Ireland to sell,” (which, says Mr. Macpherson *, might possibly and naturally give the first hint towards the Irish linen manufactures). “Neither doth her industry rest here, for they buy cotton-wool in London, that comes first from Cyprus and Smyrna t, and work the same into fustians, vermillions, dimities, &c. which they return to London, where they are sold; and from thence, not seldom, are sent into such foreign parts where the first materials may be more easily had for that manufacture.” Vol. IX. S Cotton
* Only one halfpenny was paid by foot passengers, and a proportionate toll for carriages. The recollection that there were two free bridges on this river, must strikingly point out the great population of the towns; and this surrender of the rent of the tolls, sufficiently demonstrates the liberality of the proprietors.
* Annals of Commerce, Vol. II. p. 415.
t It may be inferred from this, that no considerable quantity of cotton was as yet imported from the West-India-Islands.
Cotton goods, of English manufacture, appear to have been a novelty in the year 1774, when an act of parliament was passed, declaring, that stuffs made entirely of cotton spun in this kingdom, had lately been introduced, and the same were allowed to be used as a lawful and laudable manufacture. A duty of threepence per square yard was to be paid on every piece that was printed, painted, or stained *.
The author of a pamphlet, published in 1788 +, observes, that not above twenty years before that period, the whole annual value of the cotton manufactures of this kingdom was under
200,000l. and that not above 50,000 spindles were employed in
spinning cotton-yarn; but in 1787, that number was calculated
Cotton used in the Manufactures of Estimated value of the Cotton
A writer, who investigated the subject of the cotton manufactures in 1787, estimates the supply and expenditure of cotton in the following proportions:—
+ Entitled, “An important Crisis in the Calice and Muslin Manufactory in Great Britain Earplaimed.”