pointed for his dealing days; and every Good-friday, these thirty-five years, one with another, two thousand seven hundred, with meat, drink, money, and moneys-worth. His yearly portion, for the expenses of his house, 4000l.” As he lived thus magnificently, he died greatly regretted; and, as has been already stated, page 219, was interred with distinguished pomp at Ormskirk. Portrait of HENRY, Fou RTH EARL of DERBY, who had the honor of the embassy, to invest Henry the Third, of France, with the order of the garter; and the mortification of being appointed one of the judges of Mary Stuart. Portrait of FERDIN AND, FIFTH EARL of DERBY, who was cut off, early in life, by poison. A particular account of the symptoms preceding his death, &c. is printed in the tour just referred to, extracted from Camden's annals of Elizabeth's reign; by which it appears, that the murderer, taking advantage of the superstitious folly of the age, endeavoured to screen himself by exciting a belief, that the Earl died by the influence of witchcraft. In an instrument called, “a true report of such reasons and conjectures as caused many learned men to suppose him to be bewitched,” it is related, that “Sir Edward Filton, who, with other justices, examined certain witches, reporteth, that one of them being bidden to say the Lord's prayer, said it well; but being conjured in the name of Jesus, that if she had bewitched his honour, she should be able to say the same, she never could repeat that petition, forgive us our trespasses, no, not although it was repeated unto her.—A homely woman, about the age of fifty, was found mumbling in a corner of his honour's chamber; but what, God knoweth.” Several other equally frivolous and stupid circumstances are detailed to prove, as then intended, the power of witchery; but all of which rather exemplify the wicked craftiness of some persons, and weak credulity of others. Portrait of WILLIAM, the SixTH EARL of DERBY, who is painted in full length, with a high crowned hat, and in the fashionable dress of James the First's reign. Portrait of JAMES, the SEVENTH EARL of DERBY, distinguished for his loyalty, courage, and tragical end. The truly magnanimous conduct of his lady, the Countess of Derby, has already been described, page 221; and his bravery was equally eminent, and often put to the test during the unhappy civil wars. As a proof of his extraordinary influence in Lancashire, when he was directed, in 1642, to assemble his friends and forces in behalf of the unfortunate King, it is stated, that no less than 20,000 men came to his standards on each of the heaths of Bury, Orms



kirk, and Preston. At this period, it was first proposed to erect the royal standard at Warrington, where such a force would have proved peculiarly important; but in consequence of raising it at Nottingham, this advantage was lost. The Earl, however, subsequently mustered three regiments of foot, and three troops of horse, at his own expense, and turned them over to the use and command of the king. The most memorable instance of this Earl's courage, occurred at a place called Wigan-Lane, in this county, where, in 1651, he vigorously opposed his little army, of only 600 horse, against the enemy, consisting of 3000 troops, commanded by the determined Lilburne. This superiority of force compelled the Earl to retreat; but not till he had been wounded, and had one horse killed under him *. He afterwards sought refuge in the Isle of Man, which place he was summoned to surrender, by Colonel Ireton, but resisted the demand, in a letter which displays peculiar eloquence of style, and magnanimity of sentimentt. He was at length trepanned

* See Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, Book XIII.

# “I received your letter with indignation,” he writes, “and with scorn Ireturn you this answer—That I cannot but wonderwhence you should gather any hopes from me, that Ishould(like yon) prove treacheroustomy sovereign; since you cannot be insensible of my former actings in his late Majesty's service, from which principle of loyalty I am no way departed. I scorn your prof. fers; I disdain your favours; I abhor your treasons; and am so far from delivering this island to your advantage, that I will keep it to the utmost of my power, to your destruction. Take this final answer, and forbear any further solicitations; for, if you trouble me with any more messages upon panned by the Parliamentary party, carried before a court-martial, at Chester, sentenced to death, and unrelentingly and barbarously executed at Bolton, in this county, where he fell with the firmness of a soldier and piety of a Christian, April 1, 1651. Collins, in the Peerage, has detailed an affecting account of the heroic conduct and speech of this nobleman, when on the scaffold *. He was not only a warrior but an antiquary, and wrote a small topographical work, which has been printed in Peck's Desiderata Curiosa +. Portrait of CHARLoTTE DE LA TREMoUILLE, Count Ess of DERby, wife of the preceding nobleman, and daughter to William, Prince of Orange. Portrait of CHARLEs, EIGHTH EARL of DERBY, who joined Sir George Booth, and other insurgents, in 1659; but being taken prisoner, he was confined ’till the following year gave freedom, but not content, to the long depressed royalists. During the civil wars, this family lost most of its landed property; and after the restoration, some of the Lords, in parliament, formed a private bill, for the purpose of restoring, to this loyal Peer, the estates which had been sequestrated. This bill was strongly opposed, and rejected, without coming to a second reading, or be




this occasion, I will burn the paper, and hang the bearer. This is the immutable resolution, and shall be the undoubted practice of him who accounts it the chiefest glory to be

His Majesty's most loyal and obedient subject,

DERBY.” Castle-Town, July 12, 1649.

* See also Lord Somers' Tracts, Coll. II. Vol. II. p. 507.

# It is entitled, “The History and Antiquities of the Isle of Man, by James, Earl of Derby, and of Man; with an account of his many troubles and losses in the civil war, and of his own proceedings in the Isle of Man during his residence there in 1643. Interspersed with large and excellent advices to his son Charles, Lord Strange, upon many curious points. From the original (all in his Lordship's own hand writing), in the hands of the Hon. Roger Gale, Esq.”


ing submitted to the King; though the inscription already quoted states otherwise, and reproaches the monarch for refusing his assent to the bill". Exclusive of the above, here are several other portraits; and also a large collection of pictures, by the old masters, some of which are works of acknowledged merit. The chief of these were collected by James, Earl of Derby, who patronized a Mr. Winstanley, a native of Warrington, and sent him abroad purposely to purchase themf. I shall briefly specify the titles and subjects of a few of these. A holy family—TITIAN. The feast of Belshazzar—Rembrandt. The Roman Augur—S. Rosa: Banditti in a rocky Landscape; also Hagar and Ishmael with the angel, by the same sublime master. The Angel driving Adam and Eve from Paradise—Denis Calvert. A Wild Boar Hunt—Snyders and Rubens. The feast in a gallery, and The Wife of Pilate interceding in behalf of our Saviour—Paul Veronese. Our Saviour delivering the Keys to Peter—Vandyck: and The Descent from the Cross, by the same master. The Love of the Arts, represented by a beautiful figure of Cupid leaning over rich armour, musical instruments, pictures, and pieces of sculpture; a fine picture, said, by Winstanley, to be the joint production of Snyders and Vandyck. St. Bartholemew, by Spagnolet, which Mr. Pennant calls, “a horribly fine picture.” Nicodemus communing with our Saviour by night—Tintoret.


A borough and market town of considerable importance, in a commercial point of view, is situated near the rise of the river Douglas, whose banks are celebrated as the scene of the memorable defeat of the Saxons by King Arthur. So far back as the time of Leland, Wigan is called, a “paved town, as big as War

- ringtou,

* See Drake's Parliamentary History, XXIII. 50, 53.

# He etched twenty of these pictures, which are published.


rington, but better builded, and inhabited by some merchants, artificers, and farmers.” In its present state, it has a neat, though irregular appearance; and has been lately much improved, by the opening of two new streets, and the erection of several handsome buildings. An extensive trade is carried on in the manufacture of coarse home made linens, checks, calicoes, fustians, and other cotton goods. Here are also large brass and pewter works. Wigan is a borough, by prescription, and has had its privileges confirmed by the several charters of Henry the Third, Edward the Second, Edward the Third, Richard the Second, and Charles the Second. Its corporate body consists of a Mayor, Recorder, twelve Aldermen, and two Bailiffs. Two Members are returned to Parliament; and the right of election is vested in the free bur

gesses, in number about 200. The representation of this borough

has occasioned some very expensive contests; and it is said to have cost George Byng, Esq. 10,000l. in his opposition to the interest of Sir Fletcher Norton, and Simon Luttrell, Esq. Returns appear so early as 23d and 35th Edward the First, after which the privilege was suffered to be dormant for 240 years, no other return being made till 1 Edward the Sixth. The Parish Church, which is ancient beyond any traditionary account, is commonly called an handsome structure, composed of a nave, a spacious chancel, and two side aisles. The original chancel was taken down and rebuilt on a larger scale, about the middle of the seventh century, in a style corresponding with the rest of the fabric, by an ancestor of the present Lord Bradford, who is the patron of the living. The only monuments worthy notice are, one to the memory of Sir Roger Bradshaigh, who eminently distinguished himself by his zealous loyalty in the civil war of Charles the First—and an altar and tomb, now much ob

scured by successive coats of white-wash, of Sir William, and Lady

Mabel, Bradshaigh, who died in the reign of Edward the Third. Within the Communion-rails, are deposited the remains of Dr. GEORGE HALE, rector of this church, and bishop of Chester, who died August 23, 1668. The rectory is one of the best


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