tombs over John Duckworths, who died minister here, in 1695; John Holmes, who died in 1767, and his successor Joh. Wadsworth; and on a stone before the steps of the altar, is a brass plate which commemorates Dr. Holmes, a native of this place, and rector of Whitechapel, in London, who died in August, 1795. By an inquisition of the parliament commissioners, in June, 1650, this parochial chapelry consisted of the township of Haslingden, with part of Rossendale, then containing about 300 families; in 1801, there were 773 families in this township only, and 4040 inhabitants. The town is governed by a constable, and six churchwardens, who have under their care six divisions, or posts; two of these have a chapel of ease of their own, subject to Haslingden, called Goodshaw chapel, about two miles on the Burnley road. A spirit of industry and enterprize pervades all ranks. Amongst other improvements, a handsome square is already completed, which contains some capital buildings. The canals, which afford the benefit of water-carriage for such heavy goods as used to pass many miles by land, are of the most essential advantage. A number of mills are established on the river for carding cotton and sheep's wool, and for spinning them into twist and woollen yarn, to make flannels. RIBCHESTER, though now reduced to a poor humble village, was once a military Roman Station, and from the antiquities that have been found here, it is presumed that it was a place of some dignity and importance. The original name of this station has occasioned much dispute with antiquaries. Camden supposed it to be the Coccium of Antoninus, and the Rigodunum of Ptolomy. Horsley agrees to the first, but wishes to fix the latter at Warrington: and Mr. Whitaker, the historian of Manchester, contends that Ribchester must be the Rerigonium of Richard of Cirencester. Dr. Whitaker, the last who has investigated and discussed this subject, has satisfactorily identified it as the Coccium of Antoninus. “This celebrated station,” writes the Dr. “ was placed with the peculiar judgment which marks Agricola's encampments, for to him unquestionably it must be referred, on the northern bank


bank of the river, and flanked by the deep channel of a brook on
the east, corresponding to which, on the west, is a large sluice, or
channel, to which tradition has assigned an use, confirmed by
many nautical relics; namely, that of a dock, or slip, for vessels.
That the tides once rose so high as to waft vessels of burden to the
quays of Coccium, there can be little doubt, nor is it necessary to
resort to the violent expedient of an earthquake in order to ac-
count for their recess. A gradual aggression of sands, aided by
strong westerly winds, and not sufficiently repelled by floods from
the land, will abundantly account for an appearance so frequent,

that we have almost ceased to enquire into its causes *.”
Several votive stones, and others with inscriptions, have been
found here; and Dr. Whitaker has printed nine of the latter: but
these do not furnish any thing curious, either relating to the place,
or to the people. Beside inscribed stones, innumerable smaller
antiquities have been found here: among these are many coins
of large brass, also some Denarii of the upper empire. An In-
taglio in a ruby is engraved in Leigh's Natural history: and Dr.
Whitaker possesses a gold ring, set with a cornelian of many
faces, having a representation of a dove in the centre, with the
following words round it: AWE. MEA. VITA. “But the
noblest discovery ever made here, or perhaps in Britain, was in
the year 1796, when the shelving bank of the Ribble exposed the
following remains, which seemed to have been deposited in an ex-
cavation of the earth, filled up with soil of a different quality.
These were, 1st. a large flat earthen vessel, extremely thick, with
the potter's stamp very distinct, Boriedof, Boriedi Officina. 2nd.
An entire Patera of copper, about six inches diameter, with an
handle. 3d. The imperfect remains of a similar vessel. 4th. A
Colum, or Colander, of the same size and metal. 5th. Several
concave and circular plates of copper, with loops behind, which
had evidently been intended to fasten them perpendicularly
against a shaft, in order to form a Roman verillum: such are fre-
K 4 quent

* History of Whalley, p. 16,

[ocr errors][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic]
[ocr errors]

quent upon ancient monuments; but for a particular illustration, the reader is referred to a monument of Lucius Duccius, Signifer of the 9th legion in Horseley, pl. 63. 6th. A very fine helmet, of which the crest was a sphinx, afterwards unfortunately lost, the head-piece enriched with basso relievos of armed men, skirmishing with swords, and a vizor consisting of an entire and beautiful female face, with orifices at the eyes, mouth, and nostrils. From the style of the head piece it is conjectured by the best judges, not to be prior to the age of Severus; but the vizor is a much more delicate and exquisite piece of workmanship, and is supposed not only to be Grecian, but, from the boldness of its lines, to belong to a period somewhat anterior to the last perfection of the arts in that wonderful country”.” These relics were all deposited in the museum of Charles TownThe helmet and mask of bronze, with some of the other Roman antiquities, were engraved for the Antiquarian Society, and published, with an account of them, in the fourth volume of the Wetusta Monumenta: and in the XIIIth vol. of the Archaeologia, the Rev. Stephen Weston wrote some observations on the helmet. The latter is a singular and elegant specimen of ancient art, and according to Mr. Weston, may be considered of “the best Roman work on the Greek model." It is ornamented with a great number of figures of warriors on horse and foot, in basso-relievo. Near the church are the remains of a rampart and foss, where Anchors have been found, from which the place is supposed to have obtained the name of Anchor-Hill. Rings of ships were also found; and in sinking a well some years ago, a ship, or vessel, was discovered at the same place. From Ribchester, a Roman road, called the Watling-street, takes “a northern course over Longridge-fell, and is distinguished as a long stripe of green, intersecting the brown heath of the mountain. Having reached the summit of the hill, it takes a turn towards the north, then descends again, is very conspicuous spicuous at intervals, has a broad and high ridge in the inclosures of the townships of Thornley and Chargeley, enters Bowland a little below Dowford-Bridge, passes abouthalfa mile west of Browsholme, traverses in a direct line, the high grounds to the north of that house, and then passes to the north of Newton and Sladebum, and traces the Hodder to its source at Cross of Greet, which is the northern boundary of the original parish of Whalley. A portion of this way, about 330 yards in length, was laid open by the cultivation of a morassy piece of ground, and is described by Rauthmell, the sensible and observing antiquary of Overborough, to have consisted of a substratum of large pebbly gravel, spread on the surface of the morass, and covered with large flat paving stones above *.” The parish of Ribchester, with that of Chipping, were taken out of the original parish of Whalley: and the church at this place had formerly two chantries; one belonging to the Lord of the manor, and the other to the Townleys of Dutton.

* History of Whalley, p. 23.


Contiguous to Ribchester is the parochial Chapel of STEDE, which seems to have belonged to a guild, or hospital, of very high antiquity; and the building is said, by Dr. Whitaker, to be the oldest within the parish of Whalley. The windows are narrow, and lancet shaped, and the doors, though rather pointed, enriched with Saxon ornaments, and the whole finished in that

mixture of styles which took place in the reign of King Stephen. The inside of this small neglected edifice is still more interesting, in which divine service has been only performed twice a year since the reformation, no reading desk having been erected in it, and the prayers being read out of a pulpit which is durably elewated on a stone basis. A coffin tomb, of high antiquity, appears opposite to it, but broken open, and the fragments lying in most picturesque disorder; and the floor is strewed with ancient gravestones, some of them inscribed with Longobardic, or Norman characters; and as a contrast to this scene of squalid antiquity, the body

• History of Whalley, p. 24.


body of the late catholic bishop Petre, who lived and died at Showley, in his 84th year, December 24th, 1775, lies interred under a slab of beautiful white marble, with an appropriate inscription. On account of his interment, the stone, though removed, was not taken away; the letters of which have been formed round its margin, by sinking the surface of the stone around them, and filling up the cavity by a fluid white mortar, representing a rude cameo of two colors, and exhibiting an appearance rarely to be met with. The glazing of the east window having been broken from time to time, and not repaired, allows room for the most luxuriant branches of ivy to force its way into the interior of the building, where it mantles in rich festoons over the altar *.” In the township of Aighton, about three miles to the northeast of Ribchester, is Stonyhu Rst, the princely mansion of the Sherburnes. “This venerable house stands on an eminence, which commands some extensive views both of Calder-bottom and Ribbles-dale; but is well screened from the north by the vast bulk and extent of Longridge-fells; and probably was begun by Sir Richard Sherburne, who died in 1594, and finished by his son in 1596. The heavy cupolas were added by Sir Nicholas Sherburne, who came to reside here in 1695; and the canals dug, and gardens laid out by himself in the Dutch taste. According to the custom of our old mansions, the domestic chapel was above the gateway; but a spacious and handsome oratory has been more recently fitted up, which, together with the size and general disposition of the apartments, render the whole easily convertible to the purpose of a large catholic seminary +,” to which it is now appropriated. The house and demesne belongs to Thomas Weld, Esq. of Corfe Castle, Dorsetshire. The former is a lofty, large pile, constructed at different periods, with a court in the middle. Its entrance gateway is ornamented with columns of the different orders, placed in pairs one above the other. The apartments are spacious, * History of Whalley, p. 443. t Ibid. p. 445,

« 上一頁繼續 »