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Preston obtained the privilege of a Borough in the twenty-sixthof Henry the Second. The inhabitants gave 100 marks to enjoy. the same privileges as those of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. King John, in his second year, had sixty marks, and four chaseurs, or dogs, for ratifying their liberties; but they were fined ten marks and a palfrey in the next year, for their peace, on a plaint made against them by Theobald Walter, concerning the gaol and gallows. Henry the Third, and Edward the Third, both confirmed these grants”. Though this borough sent members to parliament four times in the reign of Edward the First, and in the first year of Edward the Second, it had afterwards no summons to that purpose, until the reign of Edward the Sixth: but it has frequently been the seat of violent contests, though, on all occasions of parliamentary investigation, the decisive right of voting has been always determined for the inhabitants at large. The Earl of Derby, who has an handsome house here, returns one member; but the opposite interest commonly carries the other. The returns are made by the mayor and two bailiffs; and the corporation, besides the mayor, has a recorder, aldermen, common-council men, and a townclerk. In the sixteenth of Edward the Second, in the octaves of the nativity of St. John Baptist, Robert Bruce made an irruption into England by way of Carlisle, passing through Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Lancashire, as far as Preston, part of which he burnt, as he had demolished other towns in the several counties he had traversed. In about three weeks and three days, says Holinshed, he returned into Scotland, without coming to any engagement with the English. * . . . . Preston has the advantage of being the seat of various lawcourts; amongst these, the durchy of Lancaster has a court of chancery, in which all causes are heard and determined according to certain peculiar customs of their own. Under the chancellor of - the * See Madox's History of the Exchequer, second edition, 1769, Vol. I. p. 498; and Brady cn English Boroughs, 8vo, 1777, p. 93.
the duchy, who is the chief judge, is a vice-chancellor, with the attorney-general, chief-clerk, registrar, and examiner, attormies and clerks, prothonotary, and clerks of the crown, &e. From the county court also, which sits every Tuesday, writs for debts above 40s. are issued, and executions follow on failure of appearance, But writs holding to bail are issued from the prothonotary's office, and directed to the sheriff, who grants a warrant for apprehension. Other courts are also held here; and a court of quarter sessions of the peace, by adjournment from Lancaster, on Thursday in the week after Epiphany. The Parish Church is a large building, and was impropriated to the college of Leicester, but is now in the patronage of the Hoghton family. The parish is large, and has three chapels of ease; Broughton, St. Lawrence, and the New Chapel. But the last had no certain endowment until the Rev. Samuel Peploe, then vicar of Preston, procured the queen's bounty for it in 1717; and on his promotion to the see of Chester, in 1725, his son succeeded him as vicar here, who was presented, in 1727, by the dean and chapter of Chester, to the rectory of Northenden, in that diocess, worth about 150l. per annum. - - In the time of the civil contest between king Charles the First, and the parliament of England, the duke of Hamilton, who had brought an army from Scotland for his service, was routed on Ribbleton moor, to the eastward of the town, and at the pass of the bridge. This was in 1648 ; the army under Cromwell and Lambert being very inferior in numbers, but much superior in discipline. In the year 1715 also, the friends of the pretender were defeated here by the forces of George the First, under the eommand of Generals Willes and Carpenter. Having been joined by many disaffected people, especially papists, great numbers of them were made prisoners, brought to trial, and found guilty of high treason. Amongst those who suffered may be noticed the names of Richard Chorley, of Chorley, Esq. Mr. Shuttleworth of Preston, Mr. Roger Muncaster, an attorney of Garstang, Mr. John Ord of Lancaster, and other neighbouring gentlemen, with seven or eight others of Preston, five of Wigan, and five of Man
chester, four of Garstang, four of Lancaster, and four of Liver-
“Long-Preston Peggy to proud Preston went,
were seldom carolled from her lipstill she had been treated with half a dozen, or more, glasses of spirits.
in the forty-second year of his present Majesty; the only monarch, except Queen Elizabeth, who has reigned during the time of three guilds”. It begins about the latter end of August; and by the charter, which obliges the corporation to celebrate it at the end of every twenty years, on pain of forfeiting their elective franchises, and their rights as burgesses, twenty-eight days of grace are allowed to all who are disposed to renew their freedom. By public proclamation, it is declared, that on failure of doing so, they are ever after to be debarred of the same on any future occasion. The last guild commenced on the 30th of August, 1802, when an immense concourse of people of all ranks was assembled; and processions of the gentlemen at the head of the different classes of manufacturers, with symbolical representations of their respective branches of trade and commerce; and bands of music passed through the principal streets of the town. The mayor and corporation, with the wardens of the different companies at the head of their respective incorporated bodies, each in their officia! dresses, and with their usual insignia, fell into the ranks in due order; and the whole was preceded by an excellent band of music belonging to the 17th regiment of light dragoons, in full dress, and their officers newly cloathed. Besides the wool-combers, spinners, weavers, cordwainers, carpenters, vintners, taylors, smiths, plumbers, painters, glaziers, watchmakers, mercers, and drapers companies, the whole was closed by the butchers, skinners, tanners, and glovers, habited in characteristic dresses; each company being attended by a band of music, and a very elegant ensign. In this order they proceeded to church, and after service returned and paraded through the different streets in the same order. The mayor afterwards entertained the gentlemen at his house; and ou' the next day the mayoress repeated the treat to the ladies of the town, and its vicinity, who formed a procession on this day, in a similar manner, (preceded by the girls of the cotton manufactory.) superbly dressed, and profusely decorated with jewels. Nearly 400 of them, each wearing an elegant fashionable plume of feathers, formed such a brilliant display of beauty and elegance, as irresistibly to attract universal attention and admiration. The procession was conducted to and from the church, in like manner as on the preceding day; in the course of which, a miniature model of a complete steam-engine was introduced at work, and performing every operation of the cotton manufactory. The whole was extremely showy and brilliant. Balls, races, and plays, were not forgotten during this interesting festival. o
* By the following list, in which the mayors, and respective festivals, are enumerated, there appears to have been formerly some irregularity in the periods; but since the restoration of Charles the Second, they have been
Aubert, son of Robert, Second of Edward the Third, 1328. William Ergham, - Twentieth of Richard the Second, 1396. Henry Johnson, e Fifth of Henry the Fifth, 1417. Robert Haughton, . Thirty-seventh of Henry the Sixth, 1458. William Marshall, - Sixteenth of Henry the Seventh, 1500. Thomas Typping, e Thirty-fourth of Henry the Eighth, 1542. Thomas Wall, • Fourth of Elizabeth, - 1562. George Walton, s Twenty-fourth of Elizabeth, 1582. Henry Cotterall, o Fourty-fourth of Elizabeth, 1602. William Preston, - Twentieth of James the First, 1622. Edmund Werden, ... Eleventh of Charles the First, 1635. James Hodkinson, . Fourteenth of Charles the Second, 1662. Roger Sudall, e Thirty-fourth of Charles the Second, 1682. Josias Gregson, e First of Anue, 1702. Edmund Asheton, . Ninth of George the First, 1722. Henry Farrington, . Sixteenth of George the Second, 1742. Robert Parker, - Second of George the Third, 1762.
• *... " Twenty-second of George the Third, 1782. Nicholas Grimshaw, . Forty-second of George the Third, 1892.
The “guilda mercatoria,” or merchants guild, is a privilege to merchants, enabling then to hold certain pleas of land, &c. within their own precinct, and is confirmed by acts of parliament, in the thirty-seventh of Edward the Third, and fifteenth of Richard the Second. It is of Saxon origin, by whish certain communities: stipulate with each other, to punish crimes, make good losses, and acts of restitution in proportion to offences. Fraternities and guilds, therefore, are of ancient use, long before formal license;
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