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MONTE GIOVE—CORIOU. 9S
is surrounded by dark walls of peperino, in many places apparently of great antiquity. At the western extremity is a building which Gell imagines may be the cella of the temple of Juno. Curious old mediaeval houses are everywhere built upon the walls, and are highly picturesque, and near the gateway is a very fine machicolated tower. In the little piazza is a magnificent sarcophagus, now used as a fountain. Some remains of the theatre were found in 1831, on the western slope below the town, and the ancient paved road may still be traced in its descent towards the cities of the plain.
(Standing out from the main line of hills, below Genzano are two projecting spurs. The higher is Monte Due Torre, once crowned by two towers, of which only one is now standing, the other lying in ruins beside it. The lower, covered with vineyards and fruit gardens, and only marked at the summit by a low tower and some farm buildings, is now called Monte Giove, but is almost universally allowed to have been the famous Corioli, the great Volscian city, which gave the title of Coriolanus to its captor, C. Marcius, and which was once at the head of a confederation almost too strong for Rome.
"There was a war between the Romans and the Volscians: and the Romans attacked the city of Corioli. The citizens of Corioli opened theii gates, and made a sally, and drove the Romans back to their camp. Then Caius ran forwards with a few brave men, and called back the runaways, and he stayed the enemy and turned the tide of battle, so that the Volscians fled back into the city. But Caius followed them, and when he saw the gates still open, for the Volscians were flying into the city, then he called to the Romans, and said, 'For us are yonder gates set wide rather than for the Volscians; why are we afraid to rush in?' He himself followed the fugitives into the town, and the enemy fled before him; but when they saw that he was but one man they turned against him; but Caius held his ground, for he was strong of hand, and light of foot, and stout of heart, and he drove the Volscians to the furthest side of the town, and all was clear behind him, so that the Romans came in after him without any trouble and took the city. Then all men said, 'Caius and none else has won Corioli,' and Cominius the general said, 'Let him be called after the name of the city.' So they called him Caius Marcius Coriolanus."— Arnold's Hist. of Rome.
The farm-house on Monte Giove now stands desolate amongst its vineyards, and there are no remains of the ancient city above-ground. It is supposed that the present name of the hill commemorates a temple of Jupiter which may have remained to later times, for the Romans usually spared the temples of the cities they destroyed. In imperial times the town had quite disappeared.
'' There was a time when Tibur and Praeneste, our summer retreats, were the objects of hostile vows in the Capitol, when we dreaded the shades of the Arician groves, when we could triumph without a blush over the nameless villages of the Sabines and Latins, and even Corioli could afford a title not unworthy of a victorious general."—Florus, temp. Hadrian.)
In returning to Albano (from Civita Lavinia) we pass through the triple avenue of elms called the Olmata, planted in 1643 by Giuliano Cesarini, as an approach to his palace of Genzano. Then, on the left, we pass the handsome Church of La Madonna del Galloro, beneath which the substructions which raised the Via Appia above the level of the plain, deserve observation.
(Trains leave Rome at Ileoanal 12.5, returning at 5.40 and 6.18. This gives time for a pleasant sight of Frascati, and for a ride or walk to Tusculum and the Villa Mondragone, or to Tusculum and Grotta Ferrata. There is an excellent small inn at Frascati—the Albergo di Londra—very clean and comfortable. Donkeys cost 5 francs for the whole day, or 25 francs for the half day; but a distinct agreement must be made.)
IT is only half-an-hour by rail to Frascati, and the change is so complete and reviving, that it is strange more sojourners at Rome do not take advantage of it. Only one excursion to Frascati is generally made during a Roman winter, which gives little time where there is so much to be seen.
Even the railway journey is most delightful and characteristic. The train runs close to the aqueducts, the Paolihe first, and then the ruined Claudian. As we pass outside the Porta Furba, the artificial sepulchral mound, called Monte de Grano, is seen on the left, and then the vast ruins called Sette Basse, belonging to a suburban villa of imperial date,* and, as the light streams through their ruined windows,
• The carriage-road to frascati passes close to both of these, and then by the beautiful stone-pines on the farm of Torre Nucva belonging to Prince Borghese, where archaeologists place Papinia, the villa of Attilius Regulus.
VOL. I. 7
forming a beautiful foreground to the delicate distances of mountain and plain.
As we approach nearer, Colonna is seen on the left upon its knoll, then Monte Porzio, and beneath it the site of the Lake Regillus. When the lights and shadows are favourable, the difference between the two craters of this volcanic chain of hills now becomes strikingly evident.
"The Alban hills form a totally distinct group, consisting of two principal extinct volcanic craters, somewhat resembling in their relation to each other the great Neapolitan craters of Vesuvius and Somma. One of them lies within the embrace of the other, just as Vesuvius lies half enclosed by Monte Somma. The walls of the outer Alban crater are of peperino, while those of the inner are basaltic. Both are broken away on the northern side towards Grotta Ferrata and Marino, but on the southern side they are tolerably perfect.
"The outer crescent-shaped crater beginning from Frascati extends to Monte Porzio and Rocca Priora, and then curves round by Monte Algido, Monte Ariano, and Monte Artemisio. The inner crescent includes the height of Monte Cavo, and surrounds the flat meadows known by the name of Campo d'Annibale. Besides these two principal craters, the ages of which are probably as distinct as those of Vesuvius and Somma, there are traces of at least four others to be found in the lakes of Castel Gandolfo, commonly called the Alban lake, and of Nemi, and in the two small cliff-encircled valleys of the Vallis Aricina and Larghetto."—Bum, The Roman Campagna.
The effect of the Campagna here, as everywhere, is quite different upon different minds. The French almost always find it as depressing as the English do captivating and exhilarating.
"Frascati est a six lieues de Rome, sur les monts Tusculans, petite chaine voleanique qui fait partie du systeme des montagnes du Latium. C'est encore la Campagne de Rome, maisc'est la fin de l'horrible désert qui environne la capitale du monde catholique. Ici la terre cesse d'etre inculte et la fievre s'arrete. II faut monter pendant une demi-heure, au. pas des chevaux, pour atteindre la ligne d'air pur qui circule au-dessus <le la region empestée de la plaine immense; mais cet air pur est moins du a l'élevation du sol qu'a la culture de la terre et a l'ecoulement des FRASC ATI. 99
eaux, car Tivoli, plus haut perché du double que Frascati, n'est pas à l'abri de l'influence maudite.
"Aux approches de ces petites montagnes, quand on a laissé derrière soi les longs aqueducs ruinés et trois ou quatre lieues de terrains ondulés, sans caractère et sans étendue pour le regard, on traverse de nouveau une partie de la plaine dont le nivellement absolu présente enfin un aspect particulier assez grandiose. C'est un lac de pâle verdure qui s'étend sur la gauche jusqu'au pied du massif du mont Gennaro. Au baisser du soleil, quand l'herbe fine et maigre de ce gigantesque pâturage est un peu échauffée par l'or du couchant et nuancée par les ombres portées des montagnes, le sentiment de la grandeur se révèle. Les petits accidents perdus dans ce cadre immense, les troupeaux et les chiens, seuls bergers qui, en de certaines parties de la steppe, osent braver la malaria toute la journée, se dessinent et s'enlèvent en couleur avec une netteté comparable à celle des objets lointains sur la mer. Au fond de cette nappe de verdure, si unie que l'on a peine à se rendre compte de son étendue, la base des montagnes semble nager dans une brame mouvante, tandis que leurs sommets se dressent immobiles et nets dans le ciel."—George Sand, La Daniella.
Beyond Ciampino, the railroad ascends out of the Campagna into the land of corn and olives. Masses of pink nectarine and almond-trees bloom in spring amid the green. On the right, we pass the great ruined castle of Borghetto, which belonged to the Savellis in the ioth century. At the station, an open omnibus with awnings (fare, 50 centesimi), and carriages, are waiting to save travellers the mile of steep ascent to the town. Here, passing near the Villa Sora, once the residence of Gregory XIII. (1752-85), and skirting the wall of the Villa Torlonia, we are set down in the noisy little piazza before the cathedral, and are at once surrounded by donkey boys vociferating upon the merits of their respective animals.
The cathedral (S. Pietro) only dates from 1700, but we must enter it to visit the monument (near the door), which Cardinal York put up to his brother Prince Charles Edward, who died Jan. 31, 1788. It is inscribed:—