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affords a strong proof of the accumulation of wealth in that class, and of the necessity under which the state labours. It is of the following tenor.
Pius, Bishop, Servant of the
Servants of God. "The Roman Pontiffs, incited by their paternal love for the whole Catholic flock, have never suffered the Apostolic benignity to be ac cused of having refused, in seasons of distress, to furnish assistance to the necessities of the State, even from the patrimony of the Church.
"Our dearly beloved Son in Jesus Christ, Ferdinand, Catholic King of Spain, intimately united by the bonds of love and veneration to us, and the Holy Apostolic See, in his present painful circumstances; being well persuaded that God has committed to the Clergy alone, the care of managing the property of the Church, as had been clearly and unanimously published in the declaration of the Fathers assembled in Roman Council, under the Pontiff Symmachus; this Prince has solicited the necessary power for the purpose of meeting the necessities of his treasury, occasioned by the general agitation of affairs. And as the means and fortunes of the laity are already oppressed with charges, by reason of which the said King Ferdinand has not ventured to make new demands, he has thought proper to require an annual sum of 30,000 000 reals, money of that country, on ecclesiastical property, for only six years, in which time the number of pensions will be diminished, and the value of the revenues augmented.
"In consequence, we, with the
good-will wherewith we are animated in favour of the said King Ferdinand, have admitted the supplications he had addressed to us, and which have been presented to us by our dear son the Chevalier Antonio de Vargas y Laguna, his Minister Plenipotentiary: yielding to these supplications, and considering the enormous expenses at the price of which we have had the satisfaction of seeing an extremely glorious victory obtained, as well for religion as the monarchy, and in regard to the calamity of the times, we have resolved, for the weighty causes now enumerated, to modify the dispositions of the Holy Canons.
"Thus, from our certain knowledge, and after mature consideration, making use of the plenitude of the Apostolic power with which we are invested, we grant by these presents to the said King Ferdinand an indulto, that validly, freely, and law fully, he may, during the space of six years, exact, but only for the purpose of succouring the royal treasure, the extraordinary subsidy of 30,000,000 reals from all the property, fruits, rents, and products, of the Clergy, as well regular as secular.
**Done at Rome at Saint Peter,
QUEEN OF ETRURIA.
It had been mentioned in our katorical report of the year before st, that certain reclamations had been made on the allied powers relative to the claims of the Queen of Etruria, and her son the infant Don Carlos Louis, in respect to the duches of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla. King Ferdinand was now enabled to settle this important affair, and at the same time to announce the incorporation Spain to the grand European alliace, by the following official article. "The King, on being restored to the throne of his ancestors, could not fail to take the deepest interest the glory of a crown which Prudence had preserved for him, reward of the generous efforts and berusc constancy of his subjects. Its cares were constantly directed
a the re-establishment of order, and for the purpose of repairing
evils of a devastating war. Nevertheless his Majesty could not the satisfied unless he fully co nerated with the other Powers of rose in fixing the basis of a seral peace, destined henceforth to secure their repose, and the sared immunity of their rights. Tas great work, which was in tended to be the result of the lawers of the congress united for at purpose, presented, however, 1's execution those obstacles
were the immediate effect of the general confusion into which Tyranny and power had thrown the
rests of the different nations: and the fate of the Infanta, the
Queen of Etruria, was connected with these interests. The King, her august brother, therefore, could not regard with indifference an object so essential and so worthy of his policy.
"Don Pedro Gomez de Labrador, his Majesty's Plenipotentiary to the Congress, conformably to his instructions, endeavoured to fix the lot of the Queen of Etruria, and to regulate other points connected with the rights of her Majesty, exerting for that object his talents and information in so far as circumstances permitted. Finally, the Duke of Casa Fernan Nunez, his Majesty's Ambassador at Paris, having been charged to continue this important negotiation, has succeeded in bringing it to a happy termination. His activity and zeal for the honour of the King have procured his Majesty the satisfaction of seeing this affair concluded by solemn treaties entered into with the said great Powers, and signed at Paris on the 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th of last June. By one of these treaties, his Majesty accedes to the acts of the celebrated congress at Vienna, and Spain is incorporated with the great European confederacy. Another treaty sanctions the reversion of the Duchies of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla, in favour of his Serene Highness the Infant Don Carlos Louis; and the surrender of the states of Lucca, with the stipulated assignments, until the said reversion takes place, in favour of her Majesty the Serene Infanta of Spain, Queen of Etruria, and mother of the Infant Don Carlos Louis.
Thus is terminated an affair equally complicated and essential to the high policy of his Majesty,
and whose paternal solicitude it has constantly occupied since the year 1814.
DECREE RELATIVE TO TOBACCO.
The Madrid Gazette of July the 3d, contains a long decree respecting the culture of tobacco at the Havannah. This article has been long subject to a monopoly exercised in the name of the government; which at length proceeded to such a degree of abuse, that the whole manufacture of tobacco in the island of Cuba, noted for producing it in the greatest abundance, and of the best quality, was likely to become a mere object for home consumption. The king, at the instance of M. Garay, minister of finance, has given almost full liberty to every branch of agriculture and industry connected with this product; and the exportation of the tobacco of the Havannah to all foreign countries will be permitted, provided it be in Spanish vessels.
ABOLITION OF SLAVE TRADE.
The king of Spain has at length published an edict for the abolition of the slave trade throughout his dominions, to commence north of the line immediately, and south of the line on the 30th of May, 1820. After an exculpatory report respecting all previous traffic of this kind, which is said to have increased prodigiously the number of indigenous as well as of free negroes, his Majesty proceeds to say, that "Having collected all these copious materials, and having examined the proposition which the proper supreme tribunal laid be fore me in its deliberation of the 15th of February, 1816, answering to the confidence which I re
pose in it, and coinciding with its opinion respecting the abolition of the traffic in slaves, and co-operating with the King of Great Britain by a solemn treaty, embracing all the points of reciprocal interest involved in this important transaction, and determining that the time for the abolition was arrived, the interests of my American States being duly reconciled with the sentiments of my royal mind, and the wishes of all the Sovereigns, my friends and allies, I have decreed as follows:--
Art. 1.—From this day forward I prohibit all my subjects, both in the Peninsula and in America, from going to buy negroes on the coasts of Africa, north of the line. The negroes who may be bought on the said coasts shall be declared free in the first port of my dominions, at which the ship in which they are transported shall arrive. The ship itself, together with the remainder of its cargo, shall be con fiscated to the Royal Treasury, and the purchaser, the captain, the master, and pilot shall be irrevocably condemned to 10 years' transportation to the Philippines.
Art. 2.-The above punishment does not attach to the trader, the captain, the master, and pilot of the vessels, which may sail from any port of my dominions, for the coasts of Africa, north of the line, before the 22d of November of the present year; to which I grant, besides, an extension of six months, counting from the above date, to complete their ex edition.
Article 3.-From the 30th of May, 1820, I equally prohibit all my subjects, as well in the Peninsula as in America, from going to purchase negroes along those parts of the coast of Africa which are to
the south of the line, under the same penalties imposed in the first article of this decree: allowing kaewise the space of five months fm the above date to complete the voyages that may be underwaken before the above-mentioned Juch of May, in which the traffic am slaves shall cease in all my dommons, as well in Spain as in
Art. 4.-Those who, using the passion which I grant till the gth of May, 1820, to purchase aves, on that part of the coast of Africa which lies south of the Line, shall not be allowed to carry more slaves than five to two tons of the tonnage of their vessel: and av persons contravening this entent shall be subjected to the penalty of losing all the slaves on bard, who shall be declared free at the first port of my dominions in which the ship arrives.
Art 5-This computation is made without a reference to those who may be born during the voyage, or to those who may be serving on board as sailors or servants. Art. 6.—Foreign vessels which may import negroes into any port of my dominions shall be subjected to the regulations prescribed in this decree; and in case of contravening them, shall be subjected to the penalties contained in it.
And my royal pleasure being, that the above decree should cireulate in my dominions of America and Asia, for its punctual observmace I communicated it to my supreme council of the Indies, signed with my own hand, under date of the 22d of September last past; I therefore command all my vicerove, presidents, audiences, com mandants, general governors, and
intendants of the Indies, the adjacent islands, the Philippines, that they keep, fulfil, execute, and cause to be kept, fulfilled, &c. this my decree," &c. Madrid, Dec. 1817.
The union, during the last year, of the kingdoms of Portugal and Brazil, with the decided preference shown by the sovereign of the two countries to his transatlantic possessions, has conferred upon the latter at least an equal title to dominion; for which reason we shall henceforth consider them as indivisibly united under a single crown.
The irruption of a Portuguese army from Brazil, into Montevideo, was mentioned among the events of the concluding month of the last year. In January two proclamations were issued to the Spanish inhabitants; one of them by Carlos Frederico Le Cor, lieutenant general of the army of his most Faithful Majesty, addressing the people of Montevideo, and promising to them the guarantee of their property, and a free trade with all nations, in the name of the king of Portugal; another from Sebastian Pintos de Aranjo Correa, governor of Montevideo, and superintendant of the provinces on the east side of the river Plate, decreeing severe punishment against all who shall insult another for his former political opinions, and assuring every individual, whatever public office he may have held under the different governments, of perfect security under the protection of the Portuguese army.
The conduct of the Brazilian government did not fail, however,
of drawing the attention of the great powers of Europe, who thought themselves bound to interpose in favour of Spain, who was little able to protect itself from hostile aggression. Accordingly, the several courts of Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia, presented a note to the Marquis d'Aguiar, secretary of state to his most Faithful Majesty, to the following effect.
Paris, March 16.
The occupation of a part of the Spanish possessions on the river Plate by the Portuguese troops of Brazil was no sooner known in Europe, than it was the object of official and simultaneous steps taken by the cabinet of Madrid, with the courts of Vienna, Paris, London, Berlin, and St. Petersburgh, in order to protest solemn ly against this occupation, and to claim their support against such an aggression.
Perhaps the Court of Madrid might have thought herself entitled to recur at once to the means of defence which Providence has placed in her hands, and to repel force by force: but, guided by a spirit of wisdom and moderation, she was desirous first of employing the means of negotiation and persuasion, and -he preferred, notwithstanding the disadvantage that might result to her possessions beyond sea, addressing herself to the five undermentioned powers, in order to an am-cable adjustment of her d tierences with the cours of Brazil, and to avoid a rupture, tie consequences of which might be equally disastros to te two countries, and might disturb the repose of both bemispheres.
So noble a resolution could not
but meet with the entire approbation of the cabinets to which the court of Spain has addressed herself: and animated with the desire of preventing the fat il consequences that might result from the present state of affairs, the courts of Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia, equally the friends of Portugal and Spain, after having taken into consideration the just claims of the latter power, have charged the undersigned to make known to the ca binet of his most faithful Majesty
That they have accepted the mediation demanded of them by Spain.
That they have seen with real pain, and not without surprise, that at the very moment when a double marriage seemed to bind more closely the family ties already existing between the houses of Braganza and Bourbon, and when such an alliance was to render the relations between the two countries more intimate and more friendly, Portugal has invaded the Spanish possessions on the river Plate, and invaded them without any explanation whatever, and without any previous declaration.
That the principles of equity and justice which direct the councils of the five courts, and the firm resolution they have adopted to preserve, as much as is in their power, the peace of the world, purchased by such great sacrifices, have determined them to take cog. nizance and part in this affur in the intention of terminating it in the most equitable manner, and most conformable to their desire of maintaining the general tranquillity.
That the said courts do not dis semble