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and whose paternal solicitude it has constantly occupied since the year
DECREE RELATIVE TO TOBACCO.
The Madrid Gazette of July the 3d, contains a long decree respecting the culture of tobacco at the Havannah. This article has been long subject to a monopoly exercised in the name of the government; which at length proceeded to such a degree of abuse, that the whole manufacture of tobacco in the island of Cuba, noted for producing it in the greatest abundance, and of the best quality, was likely to become a mere object for home consumption. The king, at the instance of M. Garay, minister of finance, has given almost full liberty to every branch of agriculture and industry connected with this product; and the exportation of the tobacco of the Havannah to all foreign countries will be permitted, provided it be in Spanish vessels.
ABOLITION OF SLAVE TRADE.
The king of Spain has at length published an edict for the abolition of the slave trade throughout his dominions, to commence north of the line immediately, and south of the line on the 30th of May, 1820. After an exculpatory report respecting all previous traffic of this kind, which is said to have increased prodigiously the number of indigenous as well as of free negroes, his Majesty proceeds to say, that "Having collected all these copious materials, and having examined the proposition which the proper supreme tribunal laid be fore me in its deliberation of the 15th of February, 1816, answering to the confidence which I re
pose in it, and coinciding with its opinion respecting the abolition of the traffic in slaves, and co-operating with the King of Great Britain by a solemn treaty, embracing all the points of reciprocal interest involved in this important transaction, and determining that the time for the abolition was arrived, the interests of my American States being duly reconciled with the sentiments of my royal mind, and the wishes of all the Sovereigns, my friends and allies, I have decreed as follows:
Art. 1. From this day forward I prohibit all my subjects, both in the Peninsula and in America, from going to buy negroes on the coasts of Africa, north of the line. The negroes who may be bought on the said coasts shall be declared free in the first port of my dominions, at which the ship in which they are transported shall arrive. The ship itself, together with the remainder of its cargo, shall be con fiscated to the Royal Treasury, and the purchaser, the captain, the master, and pilot shall be irrevocably condemned to 10 years' transportation to the Philippines.
Art. 2.-1 he above punishment does not attach to the trader, the captain, the master, and pilot of the vessels, which may sail from any port of my dominions, for the coasts of Africa, north of the line, before the 22d of November of the present year; to which I grant, besides, an extension of six months, counting from the above date, to complete their ex edition.
Article 3.-From the 30th of May, 1820, I equally prohibit all my subjects, as well in the Peninsula as in America, from going to purchase negroes along those parts of the coast of Africa which are to
Art. 4.-Those who, using the permission which I grant till the 50th of May, 1820, to purchase saves, on that part of the coast of Africa which lies south of the Lize, shall not be allowed to carry more slaves than five to two tons of the tonnage of their vessel: and any persons contravening this enactment shall be subjected to the penalty of losing all the slaves on bard, who shall be declared free at the first port of my dominions which the ship arrives.
Art 5 This computation is made without a reference to those who may be born during the voyage, or to those who may be serving on board as sailors or servants. Art. 6.—Foreign vessels which may import negroes into any port of my dominions shall be subject ed to the regulations prescribed in this decree; and in case of contraening them, shall be subjected to the penalties contained in it.
And my royal pleasure being, that the above decree should cireulate in my dominions of America and Asia, for its punctual observace 1 communicated it to my supreme council of the Indies, sign ed with my own hand, under date of the 2d of September last past; I therefore command all my vicezovs, presidents, audiences, com emandants, general governors, and
intendants of the Indies, the adjacent islands, the Philippines, that they keep, fulfil, execute, and cause to be kept, fulfilled, &c. this my decree," &c. Madrid, Dec. 1817.
The union, during the last year, of the kingdoms of Portugal and Brazil, with the decided preference shown by the sovereign of the two countries to his transatlantic possessions, has conferred upon the latter at least an equal title to dominion; for which reason we shall henceforth consider them as indivisibly united under a single crown.
The irruption of a Portuguese army from Brazil, into Montevideo, was mentioned among the events of the concluding month of the last year. In January two proclamations were issued to the Spanish inhabitants; one of them by Carlos Frederico Le Cor, lieutenant general of the army of his most Faithful Majesty, addressing the people of Montevideo, and promising to them the guarantee of their property, and a free trade with all nations, in the name of the king of Portugal; another from Sebastian Pintos de Aranjo Correa, governor of Montevideo, and superintendant of the provinces on the east side of the river Plate, decreeing severe punishment against all who shall insult another for his former political opinions, and assuring every individual, whatever public office he may have held under the different governments, of perfect security under the protection of the Portuguese army.
The conduct of the Brazilian government did not fail, however,
from this day; saving, however, the effects which it has produced, and the disposition in article 13 of that act, which remains in its full force and vigour. [That article refers to the inviolability of the sales of church property.]
Ill. Seven new Archbishopricks, and 25 new Bishopricks, are erected. Two of the Episcopal Sees at present existing are erecting into Archiepiscopal Sees. The boundaries of the 30 Sees already existing, and those of the 32 recently created, are determined according to the tables annexed to the present law.
IV. The endowment of the Archbishopricks and Bishopricks shall be taken from the funds placed at the disposal of the King, by article 143 of the law of the
25th March last.
V. The bulls, briefs, decrees, and other acts, emanating from the Court of Rome, or produced under its authority, except the indulgences of the Penitentiary Court, so far alone as concerns the internal Ecclesiastical Court cannot be received, printed, published, or carried into execution in the kingdom, without the authority of the King.
VI. Such of those acts as concern the Universal Church, or the general interest of the state, the church of France, their laws, their administration, or their doctrine, and which may necessitate or may induce some modifications in the legislation now existing, cannot be received, printed, published, or carried into execution in France, without having been duly verified by the two Chambers upon the proposal of the King.
VII. The said acts shall be inserved in the Bulletin of Laws, with the law or ordinance that has authorized the publication.
VIII. The cases of abuse specified in the Art. 6, and those of disturbance, provided for by Art. 7, of the law of 1802, shall be submitted directly to the Royal Courts, the first Civil Chamber, on the information of our attornies-general, or on the prosecution of the parties interested.
The Royal Courts shall decide in all cases not provided for by the codes, conformably with the regu lations anciently observed in the kingdom, saving appeal to the Court of Cassation.
IX. All persons in holy orders approved by their Bishops, who may be charged with crimes or offences, either out of their functions or in the exercise of their functions, shall be proceeded against according to the disposi tions of Art. 10 of the law of the 20th April, 1810, and the Articles 479 and 480 of the Criminal Code of Instruction.
X. The Bulls given at Rome the 19th (1st) and 27th (2d) of July, the former containing the ratification of the Convention passed the 11th June last, between the King and his Holiness; the second, concerning the boundaries of the dioceses of the kingdom, are received, and shall be published without the approbation of clauses, formulas, and expressions which they contain, and which are or may be contrary to the laws of the realm, the liberties, franchises, and maxims of the Gallican Church.
XI. In no case shall the said receptions
receptions and publications prejudice the dispositions of the present law the public rights of the French, guaranteed by the Constitutional Charter-the maxims, franchises, and liberties of the Gallican Church-the laws and regulations concerning ecclesiastical affairs, and the laws con
cerning the administration of religious persuasions, not Catholic. Given at the Castle of the Thuil
leries, the 22d November, in
Spain.-Disturbance in Valencia.-Edict prohibiting Books.-Conspiracy in Barcelona.-Castanos and his Accomplices condemned.-Papal Bull respecting the Property of the Church in Spain.-Queen of Etruria.Decree relative to the Culture of Tobacco in the Huvannah.—Abolition of the Slave Trade.-Portugal.-Irruption of its Army into Montevideo. Part taken by the allied Powers.-Defection of Pernambuco, and its Reduction.-Plot in Portugal.
HE following letter, dated from Murcia, on the 5th of February, contains an account of a disturbance which took place in Valencia on January 17th.
"The 17th ult. was a day of judgment in Valencia. The people daringly rose against General Elio; and if divine Providence had not taken pity on that afflicted district, we know not to what lengths the wild monster the mob (which a people are when given up to their own violence) would have proceeded. These turbulent habits have been contracted by past events, when the Liberalcs flattered the people that they were going to destroy all the authority of rank and power. The people are like children; they never forget the indulgence allowed them. The tumult took its origin in a foolish dispute about the tax on coals. General Elio, who allows no one to dispute his commands, found it necessary to exert his authority against certain persons who called themselves the deputies of the people; and thus was kindled that fire which had nearly involved in flame the whole capital of the province. The power of the insurgents rose to such a height, that the city was in their
possession during the whole of the 17th. Elio had the prudence to leave the rabble to itself. people had the insolence to raise the cry of the constitution; and offered a thousand insults to the general and the troops. I have the satisfaction, however, to tell you, that none but the rabble took any part in the disturbance : the gentlemen and men of property remained in their houses. At last the army triumphed; and General Elio is about to make terrible examples. The judges of the audience entered into disputes with his Excellency concerning the limits of jurisdiction between the civil and military authority; and Elio, who knows well his duty, immediately set out to Madrid to obtain from his Majesty full powers to hang, if it be found necessary, the members of the court itself. One soldier was killed on the side of the people many were wounded. General Elio was wounded, but not severely."
The following proclamation was subjoined to this letter.
The Captain-General of the provinces of Valencia and Murcia, to whom is intrusted the preservation of the public tranquillity, desirous to fulfil his duty, and to