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The good must merit God's peculiar care!

What differ more,' you cry, 'than crown and cowl" But who, but God, can tell us who they are ? I'll tell you, friend! a wise man and a fool. 200 One thinks on Calvin Heaven's own spirit fell; You'll find, if once the monarch acts the monk, Another deems him instrument of hell:

Or, cobbler-like, the parson will be drunk, If Calvin foel Heaven's blessing, or its rod, Worth makes the man, and want of it the fellow. This cries, there is, and that, there is no God. 140 The rest is all but leather or prunella. What shocks one part will edify the rest,

Stuck o'er with titles and hung round with strings, Nor with one system can they all be bless'd. That thou may'st be by kings, or whores of kings. The very best will variously incline,

Boast the pure blood of an illustrious race, And what rewards your virtue, punish mine. In quiet flow from Lucrece to Lucrece : WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT.-This world, 'tis true, But by your fathers'worth if yours you rate, · Was made for Cæsar-but for Titus too;

Count me those only who were good and great. 210 And which more bless'd ? who chain’d his country, Go! if your ancient, but ignoble blood say,

Has crept through scoundrels ever since the flood, Or he whose virtue sigh'd to lose a day?

Go! and pretend your family is young ; VI. “But sometimes virtue starves while vice is Nor own your fathers have been fools so long. fed.'

What can ennoble sots, or slaves, or cowards ? What then? Is the reward of virtue bread ? 150 Alas! not all the blood of all the Howards. That, vice may merit, 'tis the price of toil;

Look next on greatness : say where greatness lies : The knave deserves it, when he tills the soil; • Where, but among the heroes and the wise ?' The knave deserves it when he tempts the main, Heroes are much the same, the point's agreed, Where folly fights for kings, or dives for gain. From Macedonia's madman to the Swede; The good man may be weak, be indolent; The whole strange purpose of their lives, to find, Nor is his claim to plenty, but content.

Or make, an enemy of all mankind !
But grant him riches, your demand is o'er : Not one looks backward, onward still be goes,
No-shall the good want health, the good want Yet ne'er looks forward further than his nose.

No less alike the politic and wise ;
And health and power and every earthly thing- All sly slow things with circumspective eyes;
'Why bounded power? why private? why no king? 160 Men in their loose unguarded hours they take,
Nay, why external for internal given ?

Not that themselves are wise, but others weak.
Why is not man a god, and earth a heaven?" But grant that those can conquer, these can cheat;
Who ask and reason thus, will scarce conceive 'Tis phrase absurd to call a villain great: 230
God gives enough, while he has more to give ; Who wickedly is wise, or madly brave,
Immense the power, immense were the demand; Is but the more a fool, the more a knave.
Say, at what part of nature will they stand ? Who noble ends by noble means obtains,
What nothing earthly gives or can destroy,

Or failing, smiles in exile or in chains,
The soul's calm sun-shine, and the heart-felt joy, Like good Aurelius let him reign, or bleed
Is virtue's prize: a better would you fix ?

Like Socrates, that man is great indeed.
Then give humility a coach and six,

170 What's fame? a fancied life in others' breath, Justice a conqueror's sword, or truth a gown, A thing beyond us, e'en before our death. Or public spirit its great cure-a crown.

Just what you hear you have; and what's unknown,
Weak, foolish man! will Heaven reward us there, The same (my lord) if Tully's, or your own. 240
With the same trash mad mortals wish for here? All that we feel of it begins and ends
The boy and man an individual makes,

In the small circle of our foes or friends;
Yet sigh’st thou now for apples and for cakes? To all beside as much an empty shade
Go, like the Indian, in another life

As Eugene living, as a Cæsar dead;
Expect thy dog, thy bottle, and thy wife,

Alike or when or where they shone or shine,
As well as dream such trifles are assign'd,

Or on the Rubicon, or on the Rhine.
As toys and empires, for a god-like mind. 180 A wit's a feather, and a chief a rod;
Rewards, that either would to virtue bring An honest man's the noblest work of God.
No joy, or be destructive of the thing;

Fame but from death a villain's name can save, How oft by these at sixty are undone

As justice tears his body from the grave; 250 The virtues of a saint åt twenty-one !

When what to oblivion better were resign'd, To whom can riches give repute or trust,

Is hung on high, to poison half mankind. Content or pleasure, but the good and just ? All fame is foreign but of true desert, Judges and senates have been bought for gold; Plays round the head, but comes not to the heart: Esteem and love were never to be sold.

One self-approving hour whole years outweighs Oh fool! to think God hates the worthy mind, Of stupid starers, and of loud huzzas; The lover and the love of human-kind, 190 And more true joy Marcellus exiled feels, Whose life is healthful, and whose conscience Than Cæsar with a senate at his heels. clear,

In parts superior what advantage lies ? Because he wants a thousand pounds a year. Tell (for you can) what is it to be wise ? 260

Honour and shame from no condition rise; 'Tis but to know how little can be known, Act well your part, there all the honour lies. To see all others' faults, and feel our own; Fortune in men has some small difference made, Condemn'd in business or in arts to drudge, One flaunts in rags, one flutters in brocade; Without a second, or without a judge : The cobbler apron'd, and the parson gown'd, Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land! The friar booded, and the monarch crowu'd

All fear, none aid you, and few understand.

Painful pre-eminence! yourself to view

Pursues that chain which links th' immense design, Above life's weakness, and its comforts too. Joins Heav'n and earth, and mortal and divine;

Bring then these blessings to a strict account : Sees that no being any bliss can know, Make fair deductions; see to what they 'mount: 270 But touches some above, and some below: How much of other each is sure to cost;

Learns from the union of the rising whole How each for other oft is wholly lost;

The first, last purpose of the human soul;
How inconsistent greater goods with these : And knows where faith, law, morals, all began, 310
How sometimes life is risk'd, and always ease: All end in love of God and love of man.
Think, and if still the things thy envy call,

For hinn alone hope leads from goal to goal,
Say, wouldst thou be the man to whom they fall ? And opens still, and opens on his soul;
To righ for ribands if thou art so silly,

Till lengthen'd on to faith, and unconfined,
Mark how they grace Lord Umbra, or Sir Billy. It pours the bliss that fills up all the mind.
Is yellow dirt the passion of thy life?

He sees why nature plants in man alone, Look but on Gripus, or on Gripus' wife. 280 Hope of known bliss, and faith in bliss unknown: li parts allure thee, think how Bacon shined, (Nature, whose dictates to no other kind Tbe wisesi, brightest, meanest of mankind;

Are given in vain, but what they seek they find) Or ravish'd with the whistling of a name,

Wise is her present; she connects in this
See Cromwell damn'd to everlasting fame! His greatest virtue with his greatest bliss; 350
If all, united, thy ambition call,

At once his own bright prospect to be bless'd;
From ancient story, learn to scorn them all. And strongest motive to assist the rest.
There, in the rich, the honour'd, famed, and great, Self-love thus push'd to social, to divine,
See the false scale of happiness, complete !

Gives thee to make thy neighbour's blessing thine.
In hearts of kings, or arms of queens who lay, Is this too little for the boundless heart?
How happy! those to ruin, these betray. 290 Extend it, let thy enemies have part;
Mark by what wretched steps their glory grows, Grasp the whole world of reason, life, and sense,
From dirt and sea-weed as proud Venice rose; In one close system of benevolence;
In each how guilt and greatness equal ran, Happier as kinder, in whate'er degree,
And all that raised the hero sunk the man :

And height of bliss but height of charity. 360 Now Europe's laurels on their brows behold, God loves from whole to parts: but human soul Bat stain'd with blood, or ill exchanged for gold: Must rise from individual to the whole. Then see them broke with toils, or sunk in ease, Self-love but serves the virtuous mind to wake, Or infamous for plunder'd provinces.

As the small pebble stirs the peaceful lake; O wealth ill-fated! which no act of fame

The centre moved, a circle straight succeeds, E’er taught to shine, or sanctified from shame! 300 Another still, and still another spreads; What greater bliss attends their close of life? Friend, parent, neighbour, first it will embrace ; Some greedy. minion, or imperious wise,

His country next, and next all human race: The trophied arches, storied halls invade,

Wide and more wide, the o'erflowings of the mind And haunt their slumbers in the pompous shade. Take every creature in, of every kind;

370 Alas! not dazzled with their noon-tide ray, Earth smiles around, with boundless bounty bless'd, Compute the morn and evening to the day; And Heaven beholds its image in his breast. The whole amount of that enormous fame,

Come then, my friend! my genius! come along; A tale that blends their glory with their shame! O master of the poet, and the song!

Know then this truth, (enough for man to know,) And while the muse now stoops, or now ascends, Virtue alone is happiness below.'

310 To man's low passions, or their glorious ends, The only point where human bliss stands still, Teach


like thee, in various nature wise, And tastes the good without the fall to ill; To fall with dignity, with temper rise ; Where only merit constant pay receives,

Form'd by thy converse, happily to steer, Is bless'd in what it takes, and what it gives ; From grave to gay, from lively to severe; 380 The joy unequallid, if its end it gain,

Correct with spirit, eloquent with ease, And if it lose, attended with no pain :

Intent to reason, or polite to please. Without satiety, though e'er so bless'd,

0! while along the stream of time thy name And but more relish'd as the more distress'd: Expanded fies, and gathers all its fame, The broadest mirth unfeeling folly wears,

Say, shall my little bark attendant sail, Less pleasing far than virtue's very tears : 320 Pursue the triumph, and partake the gale ? Good, from each object, from each place acquired, When statesmen, heroes, kings, in dust repose, For ever exercised, yet never tired;

Whose sons shall blush their fathers were thy Never elated, while one man's oppress’d:

foes, Never dejected, while another 's bless'd :

Shall then this verse to future age pretend And where no wants, no wishes can remain, Thou wert my guide, philosopher, and friend? 390 Since but to wish more virtue, is to gain.

That, urged by thee, I turn'd the tuneful art See the sole bliss Heaven could on all bestow! From sounds tothings, from fancy to the heart; Which who but feels can taste, but thinks can For wit's false mirror held up nature's light, know;

Show'd erring pride, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT; Yet poor with fortune and with learning blind, That reason, passion, answer one great aim; The bad must miss, the good untaught will find; That true self-love and social are the same; Slave to no sect, who takes no privato road, 330) That virtue only makes our bliss below; But looks through nature up to nature's God; And all our knowledge, is ourselves to know.



Mean though I am, not wholly so,

Since quicken'd by thy breath ; O lead me, wheresoe'er I go,

Through this day's life or death. This day, be bread and peace my lot :

All else beneath the sun,
Thou know'st if best bestow'd or not,

And let thy will be done.
To thee, whose temple is all space,

Whose altar, earth, sea, skies !
One chorus let all beings raise!

All Nature's incense rise!

It may be proper to observe, that some passages in

the preceding Essay having been unjustly suspected of a tendency towards face and naturalism, the author composed this prayer as the sum of all, to show that his system was founded in free-will, and terminated in piety: that the First Cause was as well the Lord and Governor of the universe as the Creator of it; and that, by submission to his will (the great principle enforced throughout the Essay) was not meant the suffering ourselves to be carried along by a blind determination, but a resting in a religious acquiescence, and confidence full of hope and immortality. To give all this the greater weight, the poet chose for his model the Lord's Prayer, which, of all others, best deserves the title prefixed to this paraphrase.



Est brevitate opus, ut currat sententia, neu se
Impediat verbis lassas onerantibus aures:
Et sermone opus est modo tristi, srpe jocoso,
Defendente vicem modo rhetoris atque poitæ
Interdum urbani, parcentis viribus, atque
Extenuantis eas consultò.



Father of all! in every age,

In every clime adored,
By saint, by savage, and by sage,

Jehovah, Jove, or Lord!
Thou Great First Cause, least understood ;

Who all my sense confined
To know but this, That thou art good,

And that myself am blind;
Yet gave me, in this dark estate,

To see the good from ill;
And, binding Nature fast in Fate,

Left free the human will:
What conscience dictates to be done,

Or warns me not to do,
This, teach me more than hell to shun,

That, more than heaven pursue.
What blessings thy free bounty gives,

Let me not cast away ;
For God is paid when man receives :

To enjoy is to obey.
Yet not to earth's contracted span

Thy goodness let me bound,
Or think thee Lord alone of man,

When thousands worlds are round.
Let not this weak, unknowing hand

Presume thy bolts to throw,
And deal damnation round the land,

On each I judge thy foe.
If I am right, thy grace impart,

Still in the right to stay:
If I am wrong, O teach my heart

To find that better way.
Save me alike from foolish pride,

Or impious discontent,
At aught thy wisdom has denied,

Or aught thy goodness lent.
Teach me to feel another's wo,

To hide the fault I see: That mercy I to others show,

That mercy show to me.

ADVERTISEMENT. The Essay on Man was intended to have been comprised in four books :

The first of which the author has given us under that title, in four epistles.

The second was to have consisted of the same number: 1. Of the extent and limits of human reason.

2. Of those arts and sciences, and of the parts of them, which are useful, and therefore attainable, together with those which are unuseful, and therefore unattainable. 3. Of the nature, ends, use, and application of the different capacities of men. 4. Of the use of learning, of the science of the world, and of wit ; concluding with a satire against a misapplication of them, illustrated by pictures, characters, and examples.

The third book regarded civil regimen, or the science of politics, in which the several forms of a republic were to be examined and explained ; together with the several modes of religious worship, as far forth as they affect society: between which the author always supposed there was the most interesting relation and closest connexion ; so that this part would have treated of civil and religious society in their full extent.

The fourth and last book concerned private ethics, or practical morality, considered in all the circumstances, orders, professions, and stations of human life.

The scheme of all this had been maturely digested, and communicated to Lord Bolingbroke, Dr. Swift, and one or two more, and was intended for the only

work of his riper years ; but was, partly through illhealth, partly through discouragements from the depravity of the times, and partly on prudential and

other considerations, interrupted, postponed, and, lastly, in a manner laid aside.

But as this was the author's favourite work, which more exactly reflected the image of his strong capacious mind, and as we can have but a very imperfect

idea of it from the disjecta membra poetæ that now re- to ver. 168. III. It only remains to find (if we can) main, it may not be amiss to be a little more particu- his ruling passion: That will certainly influence all

the rest, and can reconcile the seeining or real incon. lar concerning each of these projected books. The first, as it treats of man in the abstract, and

sistency of all his actions, ver. 175. Instanced in the

extraordinary character of Clodio, ver. 179. A cau. considers him in general under every of his relations,

tion against mistaking second qualities for first, becomes the foundation, and furnishes out the sub

which will destroy all possibility of the knowledge of jects, of the three following ; so that

mankind, ver. 210. Examples of the strength of the The second book was to take up again the first ruling passion, and its continuation to the last breath, and second epistles of the first book, and treat of ver. 222, &c. man in his intellectual capacity at large, as has been explained above. Of this, only a small part of the conclusion (which, as we said, was to have contain

EPISTLE I. ed a satire against the misapplication of wit and I. Yes, you despise the man to books confined, learning) may be found in the fourth book of the Who from his study rails at human kind, Dunciad, and up and down, occasionally, in the other Though what he learns he speaks, and may advance three.

Some general maxims, or be right by chance. The third book, in like manner, was to re-assume The coxcomb bird, so talkative and grave, the subject of the third epistle of the first, which That from his cage cries cuckold, whore, and knave, treats of man in his social, political, and religious ca- Though many a passenger he rightly call, pacity. But this part the poet afterwards conceived You hold him no philosopher at all. might be best executed in an epic poem; as the ac- And yet the fate of all extremes is such, tion would make it more animated, and the fable less Men may be read, as well as books, too much. 10 invidious : in which all the great principles of true To observations which ourselves we make, and false governments and religions should be chiefly We grow more partial for the observer's sake: delivered in feigned examples.

To written wisdom, as another's, less; The fourth and last book was to pursue the sub- Maxims are drawn from notions, these from guess. ject of the fourth epistle of the first, and to treat of There's some peculiar in each leaf and grain, ethics, or practical morality; and would have con- Some unmark'd fibre, or some varying vein: sisted of many members; of which the four follow. Shall only man be taken in the gross ? ing epistles were detached portions; the first two, Grant but as many sorts of minds as moss. on the characters of men and women, being the in- That each from others ditfers, first confess; troductory part of this concluding book.

Next, that he varies from himself no less ;

20 Add nature's, custom's, reason's, passion's strife,

And all opinion's colours cast on life.

Our depths who fathoms, or our shallows finds,

Quick whirls, and shifting eddies of our minds?

On human actions reason though you can,

It may be reason, but it is not man:

His principle of action once explore,

That instant 'tis his principle no more.
Like following life through creatures you

dissect, Of the Knowledge and Characters of Men. You lose it in the moment you detect. 1. That it is not sufficient for this knowledge to con. Yet more; the difference is as great between

sider man in the abstract: books will not serve the The optics seeing, as the objects seen.
purpose, nor yet our own experience singly, ver. 1. All manners take a tincture from our own;
General maxims, unless they be formed upon both. Or some discolour'd through our passions shown;
will be but notional, ver. 10. Some peculiarity in Or fancy's beam enlarges, multiplies,
every man, characteristic to himself, yet varying from
himself, ver. 15. Difficulties arising from our own

Contracts, inverts, and gives ten thousand dyes. passions, fancies, faculties, &c. ver. 31. The short.

Nor will life's stream for observation stay; ness of life to observe in, and the uncertainty of the It hurries all too fast to mark their way: principles of action in men to observe by, ver. 37, &c. In vain sedate reflections we would make, Our own principle of action often hid from ourselves. When half our knowledge we must snatch, not tale ; ver. 41. Some few characters plain, but in general Oft, in the passions' wild rotation toss'd,

41 confounded, dissembled, or inconsistent, ver. 5). The Our spring of action to ourselves is lost : same man utterly different in different places and seasons ver. 62. Unimaginable weaknesses in the

Tired, not determined, to the last we yield, greatest, ver. 70, &c. Nothing constant and certain And what comes then is master of the field. but God and nature, ver. 95. No judging of the mo. As the last image of that troubled heap, tives from the actions: the same actions proceeding When gense subsides and fancy sports in sleep, from contrary motives, and the same motives in-|(Though past the recollection of the thought,) fluencing contrary actions, ver. 100. II. Yet, to form Becomes the stuff of which our dream is wrought : characters, we can only take the strongest actions of Something as dim to our internal view, a man's life, and try to make them agree. The utter Is thus, perhaps, the cause of most we do. uncertainty of this, from nature itself, and from policy, ver. 120. Character given according to the

True, some are open, and to all men known; rank of men of the world, ver. 135. And some reason Others, so very close, they 're hid from none; for it, ver. 140. Education alters the nature, or at (So darkness strikes the sense no less than light :) beast character, of many, ver. 149. Actions, passions, Thus gracious Chandos is beloved al sight; opinions, manners, humours, or principles, all sub-| And every child hates Shylock, though his soul, ject to change. No judging by nature, from ver. 158. Sull sits at squat, and peeps not from its hole.


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At half mankind when generous Manly raves, Must then at once (the character to save)
All know 'tis virtue, for he thinks them knaves : The plain rough hero turn a crafty knave?
When universal homage Umbra pays,

Alas! in truth the man but changed his mind,
All see 'tis vice, an itch of vulgar praise. 60 Perhaps was sick, in love, or had not dined.
When flattery glares, all hate it in a queen, Ask why from Britain Cæsar would retreat ?
While one there is who charms us with his spleen. Cæsar himself might whisper, he was beat. 130

But these plain characters we rarely find; Why risk the world's great empire for a punk ?
Though strong the bent, yet quick the turns of mind : Cæsar perhaps might answer, he was drunk.
Or puzzling contraries confound the whole; But, sage historians ! 'tis your task to prove
Or affectations quite reverse the soul.

One action, conduct ; one, heroic love.
The dull flat falsehood serves for policy;

"Tis from high life high characters are drawn, And in the cunning, truth itself 's a lie :

A saint in crape is twice a saint in lawn; Unthought-of frailties cheat us in the wise; A judge is just, a chancellor juster still; The fool lies hid in inconsistencies.

70 A gownman learn'd, a bishop what you will; See the same man, in vigour, in the gout; Wise, if a minister; but, if a king, Alone, in company; in place, or out;

More wise, more learn'd, more just, more every Early at business, and at hazard late ;


140 Mad at a fox-chase, wise at a debate;

Court virtues bear, like gems, the highest rate, Drunk at a borough, civil at a ball;

Born where Heaven's influence scarce can penetrate. Friendly at Hackney, faithless at Whitehall. In life's low vale, the soil the virtues like; Catius is ever moral, ever grave,

There please as beauties, here as wonders strike. Thinks who endures a knave, is next a knave, Though the same sun with all-diffusive rays Save just at dinner-then prefers, no doubt, Blush in the rose, and in the diamond blaze, A rogue with venison to a saint without. 80 We prize the stronger effort of his power,

Who would not praise Patricio's high desert, And justly set the gem above the flower. His hand unstain'd, his uncorrupted heart,

'Tis education forms the common mind : His comprehensive head, all interests weigh’d, Just as the twig is bent, the tree's inclined. 150 All Europe saved, yet Britain not betray'd? Boastful and rough, your first son is a 'squire ; He thanks you not, his pride is in piquet,

The next a tradesman, meek, and much a liar: Newmarket-fame, and judgment at a bet.

Tom struts a soldier, open, bold, and brave : What made (say, Montagne, or more sage Charron.) Will sneaks a scrivener, an exceeding knave. Otho a warrior, Cromwell a buffoon?

Is he a churchman ? then he's fond of power: A perjured prince a leaden saint revere,

A quaker ? sly: a presbyterian ? sour : A godless regent tremble at a star ?

90|A smart free-thinker? all things in an hour. The throne a bigot keep, a genius quit,

Ask men's opinions : Scoto now shall tell Faithless through piety, and duped through wit? How trade increases, and the world goes well: Europe a woman, child, or dotard rule,

Strike off his pension, by the setting sun, And just her wisest monarch made a fool ? And Britain, if not Europe, is undone. Know, God and nature only are the same;

That gay free-thinker, a fine talker once, In man, the judgment shoots at flying game: What turns him now a stupid silent dunce ? A bird of passage! gone as soon as found, Some good, or spirit, he has lately found; Now in the moon, perhaps now under ground. Or chanced to meet a minister that frown'd.

II. In vain the sage, with retrospective eye, Judge we by nature ? habit can efface, Would from the apparent what, conclude the wby; 100 Interest o'ercome, or policy take place : Infer the motive from the deed, and show,

By actions ? those uncertainty divides: That what we chanced, was what we meant to do. By passions ? these dissimulation hides : Behold, if fortune or a mistress frowns,

Opinions ? they still take a wider range : 170 Some plunge in business, others shave their crowns: Find, if you can, in what you cannot change. To ease the soul of one oppressive weight,.

Manners with fortunes, humours turn with climes, This quits an empire, that embroils a state : Tenets with books, and principles with times. The same adust complexion has impellid

III. Search then the ruling passion : There, alone, Charles to the convent, Philip to the field.

The wild are constant, and the cunning known; Not always actions show the man; we find The fool consistent, and the false sincere; Who does a kindness, is not therefore kind : 110 Priests, princes, women, no dissemblers here. Perhaps prosperity becalm'd his breast,

This clew once found unravels all the rest,
Perhaps the wind just shifted from the east : The prospect clears, and Wharton stands confess'd.
Not therefore humble he who seeks retreat, Wharton! the scorn and wonder of our days,
Pride guides his steps, and bids him shun the great: Whose ruling passion was the lust of praise;
Who combats bravely is not therefore brave, Born with whate'er could win it from the wise,
He dreads a death-bed like the meanest slave : Women and fools must like him, or he dies :
Who reasons wisely is not therefore wise, Though wondering senates hung on all he spoke,
His pride in reasoning, not in acting, lies.

The club must hail him master of the joke.
But grant that actions best discover man: Shall parts so various aim at nothing new ?
Take the most strong, and sort them as you can : 120 He'll shine a Tully and a Wilmot too;
The few that glare, each character must mark, Then turns repentant, and his God adores
You balance not the many in the dark.

With the same spirit that he drinks and whores; What will you do with such as disagree?

Enough if all around him but admire,

190 Suppress them, or miscall them policy?

And now the punk applaud, and now the friar,



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