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Bru. Then follow me, and give me audience, friends.Cassius go you into the other street, And part the numbers.

Those that will hear me speak, let them stay here;
Those that will follow Cassius, go with him;
And public reasons shall be rendered

Of Cesar's death.

1 Cit. I will hear Brutus speak.

2 Cit. I will hear Cassius; and compare their reasons, When severally we hear them rendered. Exit CASSIUS, with some of the CITIZENS. BRUTUs goes into the Rostrum.

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3 Cit. The noble Brutus is ascended: Silence!
Bru. Be patient till the last.

Romans, countrymen, and lovers! hear me for my cause; and be silent, that you may hear: believe me for mine honor; and have respect to mine honor, that you may believe; censure me in your wisdom; and awake your senses that you may the better judge. If there be any in this assembly, any dear friend of Cesar's, to him I say, that Brutus's love to Cesar was no less than his. If then that friend demand, why Brutus rose against Cesar, this is my answer. Not that I loved Cesar less, but that I loved Rome more. Had you rather Cesar were living and die all slaves; than that Cesar were dead to live all freemen? As Cesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honor him; but as he was ambitious, I slew him: There are tears for his love; joy for his fortune; honor for his valor; and death for his ambition. Who is here so base, that would be a bondman? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so rude, that would not be a Roman? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so vile, that will not love his country? If any, speak; for him have I offended. I pause for a reply.

Cit. None, Brutus, none.

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(Several speaking at once.) Bru. Then none have I offended. I have done no more to Cesar, than you should do to Brutus. The question of his death is enrolled in the Capitol: his glory not extenuated, wherein he was worthy; nor his offences enforced, for which he suffered death.

Enter ANTONY and others, with CESAR'S Body.

Here comes his body, mourned by Mark Antony: who, though he had no hand in his death, shall receive the benefit of his dying, a place in the Commonwealth; as which of you shall not? With this I depart; That as I slew my best lover for the good of Rome, I have the same dagger for myself, when it shall please my country to need my death. Cit. Live, Brutus, live! live!

Bru. Good countrymen, let me depart alone,
And, for my sake, stay here with Antony:
Do grace to Cesar's corpse, and grace his speech
Tending to Cesar's glories; which Mark Antony,
By our permission, is allowed to make.

I do entreat you, not a man depart,
Save I alone, till Antony have spoke.


1 Cit. Stay, ho! and let us hear Mark Antony. 3 Cit. Let him go up into the public chair; We'll hear him: Noble Antony, go up.

Ant. Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;

I come to bury Cesar, not to praise him.
The evil, that men do, lives after them;
The good is oft interred with their bones;
So let it be with Cesar! The noble Brutus
Hath told you, Cesar was ambitious:
If it were so, it was a grievous fault;
And grievously hath Cesar answered it.
Here, under leave of Brutus, and the rest,
(For Brutus is an honorable man;
So are they all, all honorable men,)
Come I to speak in Cesar's funeral.
He was my friend, faithful and just to me:
But Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honorable man.

He hath brought many captives home to Rome,
Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill:
Did this in Cesar seem ambitious?

When that the poor have cried, Cesar hath wept :
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff:

Yet Brutus says, he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honorable man.
You all did see that on the Lupercal,
I thrice presented him a kingly crown,
Which he did thrice refuse. Was this ambition?



Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And sure he is an honorable man.
I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke,
But here I am to speak what I do know.
You all did love him once, not without cause;
What cause witholds you then to mourn for him?
O judgment, thou art fled to brutish beasts,
And men have lost their reason! - Bear with me:
My heart is in the coffin there with Cesar,
And I must pause till it come back to me.

1. Cit. Methinks, there is much reason in his sayings.
4 Cit. Now mark him, he begins again to speak.
Ant. But yesterday the word of Cesar might
Have stood against the world: Now lies he there,
And none so poor to do him reverence.
O masters! if I were disposed to stir
You hearts and minds to mutiny and rage,
I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong,
Who, you all know, are honorable men:
I will not do them wrong; I rather choose
To wrong the dead, to wrong myself, and you,
Than I will wrong such honorable men.
But here's a parchment, with the seal of Cesar,
I found it in his closet, 't is his will:
Let but the commons hear this testament,
(Which pardon me, I do not mean to read,)
And they would go and kiss dear Cesar's wounds,
And dip their napkins in his sacred blood;
Yea, beg a hair of him for memory,
And dying, mention it within their wills,
Bequeathing it, as a rich legacy,
Unto their issue.


4 Cit. We'll hear the will: Read it, Mark Antony. Cit. The will, the will; we will hear Cesar's will. Ant. Have patience, gentle friends, I must not read it; It is not meet you know how Cesar loved you. You are not wood, you are not stones, but men ; And, being men, hearing the will of Cesar, It will inflame you, will make you mad; 'T is good you know not that you are his heirs; For if you should, O, what would come of it!

4 Cit. Read the will; we will hear it, Antony;

You shall read us the will; Cesar's will.
Cit. Stand back! room! bear back!

Ant. If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.
You all do know this mantle: I remember
The first time ever Cesar put it on ;

'T was on a summer's evening, in his tent;
That day he overcame the Nervii :-

Look! in this place, ran Cassius's dagger through:
See, what a rent the envious Casca made:
Through this, the well-beloved Brutus stabbed;
And, as he plucked his cursed steel away,
Mark how the blood of Cesar followed it!
As rushing out of doors, to be resolved
If Brutus so unkindly knocked, or no;
For Brutus, as you know, was Cesar's angel:
Judge, O you gods, how dearly Cesar loved him!
This was the most unkindest cut of all:

For when the noble Cesar saw him stab,
Ingratitude, more strong than traitor's arms,
Quite vanquished him; then burst his mighty heart;
And in his mantle muffling up his face,
Even at the base of Pompey's statue,
Which all the while ran blood, great Cesar fell.
O, what a fall was there, my countrymen;
Then I, and you, and all of us fell down,
Whilst bloody treason flourished over us.
O, now you weep; and, I perceive, you feel
The dint of pity: these are gracious drops.
Kind souls, what, weep you, when you but behold
Our Cesar's vesture wounded? Look you here,
Here is himself, marred, as you see, with traitors.
1 Cit. O piteous spectacle!
2 Cit. O noble Cesar!

LESSON CXLII. Courtesy in Military Men.

1. COURTESY is something more than a mere ornamenta accomplishment. It has the high sanction of an apostolic precept, binding upon all men, and is peculiarly needful in the military profession, who should exhibit it towards mem



bers of the same profession in the service of other countries and even towards enemies. It is especially due to the latter, when the fortune of war has placed them in the victor's hands.

2. The display of this quality during the middle ages, irradiated the darkness of the times, and gives, even now, to the institution of chivalry an enduring interest. We see in it as then exhibited, the relics of a high and sacred morality; the germs of a new and more perfect civilization. If, in these days of light and moral advancement, we have the aid of nobler and more efficacious principles, it is yet exceedingly useful in smoothing "the wrinkled front of grimvisaged war"; in mitigating its evils; and in conducting to its just termination.

3. During our last war with Great Britain, several instances occurred, of mutual courtesy between officers of the contending armies, the good effects of which have not been limited to the circumstances which gave them birth. In the arrangement recently concluded, by the intervention of Major General Scott between the Governors of Maine and New Brunswick, the ancient friendships which had grown out of relations of this nature, were successfully appealed to; and every part of the difficult negotiation was marked by a courtesy and judgment worthy of all praise.

4. Among associates in arms, it is only by a bland and gentlemanly deportment, that the tone of command can be divested of harshness, and the just and necessary authority of the superior be preserved without grating on the feelings of the subordinate. It is not less important among equals; it prevents collisions; secures harmony; and gives a graceful and imposing air to the intercourse of the garrison and the camp.

5. Toward persons in civil life, and especially in a republic, it is, for obvious reasons, a duty of great importance. It is pleasing to know, that this virtue is generally practised in the army of the United States; and particularly by those who have enjoyed the advantages of education in this place (West Point.) Let it be your aim my young friends, in every part of your deportment, to exhibit, in all sincerity, this crowning grace of the accomplished soldier.

6. Before quitting this division of my subject, permit me to remind you, that the true foundation of all pure morality,

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